For the computer network which is put into normal operation and service, network administrator's job is network operation, network maintenance and network management.
In the modern information society, people can not leave the support of computer network for a moment. The responsibility of the network administrator is to ensure that the network is maintained and managed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year normal operation. When the network is working normally, people often don't pay attention to your labor and your important role, when the network fails, you often become the focus of attention, the target.
Therefore, as a qualified network administrator, you need to have a wide range of technical background knowledge, the need to master a variety of systems and equipment configuration and operation, the need to read and memorize the network system and the use of various systems and equipment instructions, so that in the event of a system or network failure, can quickly determine the problem. Give a solution to enable the network to quickly restore normal service.
Although the responsibilities of network administrator are very complicated, we think that the main tasks of the network administrator's daily work are seven, that is, network infrastructure management, network operating system management, network application system management, network user management, network security management, information storage backup management and network room management. These management involves a number of areas, and each area of management has its own specific tasks.
Under the network normal operation condition, the network administrator's management to network infrastructure mainly includes:
Ensure the smooth transmission of network communication, master the configuration of LAN backbone equipment and configuration parameters change, back up the configuration files of each device;
The backbone equipment running the key business network is equipped with the corresponding backup equipment, and is configured as the hot standby equipment to be responsible for the management of network wiring frame, to ensure the reasonable and orderly wiring;
Grasp the situation of the client device access network, so that the problem can be quickly positioned;
To take technical measures to control the connection between the network and the external network, and to monitor the network communication status, and to contact the relevant agencies in time after discovering the problems.
Real-time monitoring of the entire LAN operation and network traffic;
Develop, disseminate and monitor implementation of the network infrastructure use management approach.
One of the core tasks of network administrator in maintaining network running environment is network operating system management. After the network operating system configuration is completed and put into normal operation, in order to ensure that the network operating system is working properly, the network administrator should first be able to skillfully use the system to provide a variety of management tools software, real-time monitoring system operation, timely detection of fault symptoms and processing.
In the process of network operation, the network administrator should keep abreast of the configuration and configuration parameters of network system, and backup the configuration parameters.
Network administrator should also do with the system environment changes, business development needs and user needs, dynamic adjustment system configuration parameters, optimize system performance. Finally, the network administrator should also set up a hot backup system for the key network operating system server to prepare for disaster prevention. Because the network operating system is the network application software and the network user's work platform, once has the fatal failure, this network service will fall into the paralysis shape.
For ordinary users, the value of computer network is mainly through a variety of network application system services embodied, network administrator job responsibility an important responsibility of day-to-day system maintenance, is to ensure that these services operate uninterrupted and good performance. No system can never fail, and the key is how to minimize the loss and impact of failure in the event of a failure.
For the critical Network application system, the network administrator needs to establish and configure the system's hot backup In addition to the software means to master, back up the system configuration parameters and regularly back up the system business data. For the Network Application system service with high frequency and heavy system load, the network administrator should also take the technical measures of load sharing if necessary.
In addition to system management through software maintenance, network administrators also need to directly serve the network users. User Service and management occupy a large share of the job responsibilities of network administrator, including: User's account opening and revocation management, user group setting and management, user's using system service and resource management and quota management, user billing management, As well as client support services for technical support services and user technology training services including user desktop networking computers. The purpose of building computer network is to provide services for users, network administrators must adhere to the principle of people-oriented and service-oriented.
undefended network is like in Kaimen, network administrator must pay special attention to network security and secrecy management while providing network service. Security and confidentiality is one of the two aspects of a problem, security is mainly to prevent external attacks on the network and intrusion, confidentiality mainly means to prevent the leakage of information inside the network.
The tasks of the network administrator vary according to the level of security secrecy requirements for the computer network being maintained.
For the common level network, the network administrator's job responsibility is to configure and manage the system firewall. In order to detect and prevent network Hacker's attack in time, the intrusion detection software system can be configured to provide security protection for key service.
In addition to the above measures, the network administrators with high requirements for security classification should also be equipped with a security vulnerability scanning system to take disaster-tolerant technical means for key network servers. More stringent computer-related network, but also requires physical and external public computer network absolute isolation;
Safety measures should be taken for the accommodation of dense network computer and network backbone equipment, and the management personnel should be controlled and managed.
What is the most valuable thing in the computer network?
Not a device, not a computer software, but data and information. Any equipment has the possibility of damage, any software is outdated, equipment damage can be purchased, software can be updated, information and data once lost, loss will not be compensated.
Therefore, the responsibility of the network administrator is also an important responsibility, is to take all possible technical means and management measures to protect the network information security. For systems and data that are not highly required for real-time work levels, the minimum network administrator should also perform regular manual operations backups;
For business-critical service systems and high-level data and information, network administrators should establish a storage backup system, centralized backup management, and finally, it is important to keep backup data in a secure location.
The network room is the key equipment of the network system, it is the site of the daily work of the network administrator. Depending on the size of the network, the function of the network room is also different. A normal network room is usually divided into network backbone equipment area, network server equipment area, system debugging maintenance area, software development zone and air-conditioning power equipment area.
For the daily management of the network room, the task of the network administrator is:
Master the computer room data communication cable wiring, in the increase or decrease the equipment to ensure reasonable wiring, easy management and maintenance;
To be in charge of power supply line arrangement of room equipment, and pay attention to the reasonable allocation of load when adding and subtracting equipment;
Manage the network room temperature, humidity and ventilation status, provide suitable working environment;
To ensure the normal operation of various equipment in the network room;
Ensure that the network room complies with the fire safety requirements, the fire monitoring system is working normally, and the fire extinguishing measures are effective;
Measures are taken to ensure the safe operation of network equipment in unattended situations when external power supply is interrupted and recovered unexpectedly.
In addition, keep the computer room tidy and orderly, record network computer room running log on time, set up network computer room management system and supervise the execution, also is a network administrator job responsibility part.
Network configuration in the process of computer network construction, the hardware installation of network infrastructure is completed, and the network is only connected with hardware. It still does not provide any service to ordinary users without the support of the software environment. As a result, network administrators need to first perform a series of configuration operations on the network. Network configuration can be divided into two main types: Network system configuration and network application configuration. The former is the system environment to build the network, the latter is to provide users with the application environment.
Network system configuration refers to network equipment hardware near-network parameter configuration and network software configuration. Network administrator in the network system configuration, the configuration involved mainly includes the network backbone equipment communication parameters configuration, WAN Communication routing configuration, LAN operating system configuration, Customer System configuration, network security Configuration and network management configuration.
Network backbone Equipment Communication parameter configuration is the first step to connect all the devices in the network to the software. After the hardware installation of the network backbone equipment, the network administrator needs to use the console port on the hardware device, access a computer, and use its built-in management software system to configure its communication parameters through the computer terminal software.
The complexity of network backbone device configuration is related to the size of the network and the type of device. Simple single purpose devices may already be equipped with a network communication parameters, can be directly connected to use. and a layered management of a network of multiple switches, if the support of a variety of network communication protocols and management control protocols, configuration can be very complex.
The network administrator not only needs to be familiar with the built-in management system of these devices, master the configuration operation, but also master how to save the configured system parameters, so that the system can recover quickly if the original configuration parameters are destroyed because of the man-made reason or the equipment reason.
When the computer network needs to be connected with the external computer network, the network administrator needs to make a WAN communication configuration whether the network connected is a special data communication network or a public data communication network. Configuration operates in a variety of ways, depending on how it is connected to the external network and the devices used.
If you are connecting externally through a dedicated hardware router, you typically need to use the router's built-in management system for parameter configuration, similar to the configuration of a network switch. If the external connection is established through the normal computer or the software routing on the server, the computer software system needs to be configured with parameters.
A large computer network in an organization usually uses LAN technology. Therefore, after the network backbone communication device configuration completes, the network administrator also needs to install the selected LAN operating system and configures the operation. The LAN operating system is typically installed on a single server.
LAN operating system configuration mainly includes the server itself network parameter configuration, network usage environment configuration, network Management environment configuration, network system administrator and operator configuration, common network user and user group establishment and network resource usage rights configuration, high Level network communication protocol configuration, Network system resources and system service configuration.
After completing the configuration of the LAN system platform, the next task in the network administrator's job is to configure the client system and network connections for the user. The choice principle of the client operating system, one is to according to the user work need and the user computer hardware disposition water, the second is according to the network operating system platform to the client system support ability. The primary content of the network connection configuration is the configuration of the client network adapter driver, the configuration of the network communication protocol, and the configuration of the network connection parameters.
When the entire network configuration is complete, after testing can work properly, can be based on network planning and design requirements for network security configuration. The network security configuration is to manage the communication connection between the LAN and the external network, at the same time, it takes account of the user behavior in the LAN. The network security configuration is primarily the configuration of the system firewall, which may be a specialized device, a router that may be configured with a firewall function, or a firewall software installed on a single computer.
In any form, the parameter configuration operation is required. In addition, a firewall is a device that spans two networks. Before making the software parameter configuration, first make sure that it's hardware system is normal.
The network system configuration also has a very important content, is the network management configuration. If the LAN is connected to the Internet, in order to make our network become an integral part of the Internet, we need to apply the Internet domain name and IP address for it through the interconnection indirect entry, and the DNS domain name server configured for Internet.
In addition, in order to facilitate the network administrator to monitor the operation of the whole network system and troubleshoot the network, even remotely manage, control and operate the communication equipment in the network, many networks with certain scale are equipped with special network management software. It needs to be installed on the specified computer and configured before it can be used.
After the network system configuration is completed, the user who establishes the network administrator can enter the network using his or her own user name and the user login password. What services can be available to users when they are in the net, the network share resources are available, and the network administrator is required to provide them further. This is the network resource sharing and application configuration.
Sharing resources through network is one of the main purposes of constructing network, and resource sharing can be divided into two kinds of hardware resources sharing, among which information resource sharing is mainly realized through Network application system. and the network sharing of hardware equipment can improve the total utilization rate, and save the investment cost of utility equipment greatly. When considering the device sharing scheme, the network administrator needs to consider the type and layout of the shared devices, and to configure the relevant users and the user groups ' use rights and scopes according to the use of different devices and the unit management rules.
Network application system can be divided into two categories. One kind is the General network application system, the other is the specialized network application system configuration.
Universal Network Application System refers to the network services that are used by all network users, such as email service, Network information Browsing service, website information Publishing Service, network File transfer service, remote computer system login service, etc.
If a network administrator wants to provide users with the e-mail services they manage, they must choose the appropriate mail server software to configure a particular computer or server as a mail server. Administrators must master the configuration, operation and management techniques of mail servers, and manage the users and services of mail servers.
If your network administrator wants to provide users with internet-based network Information browsing Services (web browsing services), you must configure the way users access the Internet. If the network's use management organization for security or management reasons, do not allow users in the network direct access to the Internet, you need to access the gateway. The Access gateway can control, manage and charge users ' access to the Internet, and can provide transparent Internet Information proxy access service to users without direct connection with the Internet.
Therefore, the provision of this kind of Internet Information Access Service requires the network administrator to purchase special software installed in the network dedicated computer, and after the parameters configured to achieve.
If you need to establish your own management of the Web site information publishing services, network administrators need to set up a Web server in the network, installed on the server, configure the operation of web-based Internet Information Publishing system software.
As for the common network information services such as network File transfer service and remote computer system login service, the default configuration of the network operating system can often meet the needs of the users if they do not need to establish their own service server.
The above list is just common network application system. Common network applications usually have commercial software, or as part of the network operating system, generally have to be configured to provide services.
Overall network administrator responsibility is to assist the application system administrator to complete a variety of network parameters configuration, so that these systems can smoothly through the network to provide services.