What are x86, Linux, GNU, gnome?

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags exception handling arch linux

One, instruction set architecture:

Instruction Set Schema ( English:instruction Set Architecture, abbreviated as ISA), also known as instruction set or instruction collective , is the part of the computer architecture related to program design , including basic data types, instruction sets, registers, addressing modes, storage systems, interrupts, exception handling, and external I/O. The instruction set schema consists of a series of opcode, the opcode (machine language), and the basic commands executed by a particular processor.

The instruction set system differs from the micro-architecture (a set of microprocessor design methods for executing instruction sets). Computers with different microarchitecture can share a set of instructions. For example, Intel's Pentium and AMD's AMD Athlon both use the same version of the x86 instruction set system, but the two are inherently different in their internal design.

Some virtual machines support the bytecode generated by the Microsoft Common Language runtime virtual machine based on the Smalltalk,java virtual machine, and their instruction set system translates bytecode (bytecode) from the code path as a generic method into the local machine language and performs the infrequently used code path by interpreting it , All-American developed the VLIW processor based on the x86 instruction system in the same way.



Ii. x86 and x64, respectively:

    • See "IA-32" for the 32-bit architecture of x86 (often referred to as i386, x86-32, or x86).
    • See "x86-64" for the 64-bit architecture of x86 (forward compatible with 16-bit and 32-bit x86 architectures, often referred to as AMD64 or Intel 64).

x86 is an instruction set architecture family that was first developed by Intel's "Intel 8086" CPU that came out in 1978.

x86-64( x64) is a 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set, backwards compatible with the 16-bit and 32-bit x86 architectures. x64 was designed by AMD in 1999, and AMD first exposes 64-bit sets to x86, called "AMD64". It was later adopted by Intel and is now known asIntel. Apple and RPM address this 64-bit architecture as "x86-64" or "x86_64". Oracle and Microsoft call it "x64." The BSD family and other Linux distributions use "AMD64", the 32-bit version is called "i386" (or i486/586/686), and Arch Linux uses x86_64 to address this 64-bit architecture.




Third, what is Linux

Linux is a free and open source Unix-like operating system. Linux is strictly a single-finger kernel of the operating system, as the operating system contains many user graphics interfaces and other utilities. Linux is now commonly used to refer to a complete Linux-based operating system, and the kernel is called by the Linux kernel. Linux systems that contain many user graphics interfaces and other utilities have become Linux distributions, such as Ubuntu, Debian, and so on.



Iv. what is GNU?

GNU is a free operating system and its content software is distributed entirely in GPL form. The operating system is the main target of the GNU program and is named for the recursive abbreviation of GNU's not unix!, because GNU is designed to resemble Unix, but it does not contain copyrighted UNIX code. As an operating system, the GNU development is still not complete, the biggest problem is the complete function of the kernel has not been developed successfully.

The most used should be the GPL, i.e. The GNU Universal Public License (GNUGeneral publicly License)is a widely used free software license that ensures that end users are free to run, learn, share and modify software.

Or popular point: GNU because the operating system has not developed, but first started from the software, such as the first on the UNIX system based on the GNU Protocol Software, the most famous gcc compiler these. Then the early Linux development needs at that time, the integration of the GNU software, so that the operating system can achieve the functions we need to work.




Five, Linux and GNU's name competing

Linux's full operating system, since these user-space-enabled system tools and libraries are primarily provided by the GNU program launched by Richard Stallman in 1983, the Free Software Foundation proposes to name its combined system Gnu/linux, but Linux is not part of the GNU program, The name has not been unanimously recognized by the community.

Vi. detailed development history of Linux and GNU

Refer to Uncle Bird's Linux private cuisine: http://cn.linux.vbird.org/linux_basic/0110whatislinux.php

VII. Linux Distribution Summary

Reference: https://linux.cn/article-4130-1.html

Eight, install the Linux kernel alone can it?

The answer is, of course, if the kernel is the only one, then it can only be booted to Init's first process, and then the system can do nothing. So to get the kernel running, there are a few things to do:

1, hardware boot to the BIOS, and then to the hard disk, at this time need a program to boot, and then start the kernel. Then this bootloader needs to be integrated into the kernel, which helps to successfully invoke the kernel after it comes from the BIOS.

2. After booting to the first integrated init of the kernel, you should start other processes to achieve your work needs, such as integrating some useful tools to ensure integrity.

Through the above points, refer to the following site to see how the Linux kernel is assembled into a complete operating system, a bit like the Linux distribution:













Ix. What is Gnome?

GNOME is a desktop environment that consists entirely of free software. Its target operating system is Linux, but most BSD systems also support GNOME.

In layman's words: for example, after the kernel has booted into the INIT process, and then after some column processes, and then the GNOME process is called, it will be able to display the desktop on the screen, with a graphical interface for the mouse to display. If you do not have this graphical interface, you can only operate on the command line. (It's a very complicated process.)

For the desktop environment there are many more, as the development may be more, commonly used as follows:

    • Gnome
    • Kde
    • Xfce
    • LXDE
    • Cde
    • Unity (Ubuntu based on the new desktop environment developed by GNOME2, and finally abandoned)
    • Enlightenment
    • Ambient
    • Étoilé
    • IRIX Interactive Desktop
    • Project looking Glass
    • Workbench
    • OpenWindows
    • Mezzo
    • ROX Desktop
    • Sugar
    • UDE
    • EDE




What are x86, Linux, GNU, gnome?

Contact Us

The content source of this page is from Internet, which doesn't represent Alibaba Cloud's opinion; products and services mentioned on that page don't have any relationship with Alibaba Cloud. If the content of the page makes you feel confusing, please write us an email, we will handle the problem within 5 days after receiving your email.

If you find any instances of plagiarism from the community, please send an email to: info-contact@alibabacloud.com and provide relevant evidence. A staff member will contact you within 5 working days.

A Free Trial That Lets You Build Big!

Start building with 50+ products and up to 12 months usage for Elastic Compute Service

  • Sales Support

    1 on 1 presale consultation

  • After-Sales Support

    24/7 Technical Support 6 Free Tickets per Quarter Faster Response

  • Alibaba Cloud offers highly flexible support services tailored to meet your exact needs.