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Although this is a foreign translation article at the beginning of 99, many contents are also suitable for today's DBA.
In recent years, I have been dealing with database administrators and have directly interviewed many DBA jobs. This article will summarize the requirements of the IT industry for DBAs and the new status of domestic DBAs. Certainly, it is a good job to be a senior DBA. If you want to become a DBA, I hope this article will serve as an example.
What is DBA?
Database Administrator (DBA. This position has different meanings for different people. A small software development studio has broader responsibilities than a large company with a highly detailed division of labor. A company, whether it is developing its own application software or purchasing third-party application software, only needs to involve databases (how many applications that do not involve databases? Databases are the soul and brain of business. You need to determine whether to hire one or more DBAs. Knowing what requirements are required for a DBA position is crucial to the definition of the position within the enterprise or to those DBAs in the future. The following lists some DBA responsibilities:
In many cases, administrators ignore the individual characteristics of DBAs. They only focus on the technical capabilities of DBAs. In fact, all of the responsibilities mentioned above mean that DBAs need to deal with various people who may be sellers, users, developers, or administrators. This indicates that DBAs must have the following characteristics:
Why are these personality characteristics important?
I have a few undermen who lack self-confidence. They repeatedly ask me some questions that don't matter. They don't have the confidence to make even the smallest decisions. They also lack the initiative to work. This may not be a big problem for junior DBAs, but for those senior DBAs, if they lack self-confidence, who can they rely on to help them make decisions? In the DBA interview, you must show sufficient self-confidence even if you cannot answer a technical question. The most critical thing is not knowing the answer to the question, but not where to get the answer.
Almost all database systems are constantly updated. However, not all updates have technical documents. Curiosity is essential for good DBAs. DBAs without curiosity and curiosity always wait for someone to tell them the answer. A knowledgeable DBA will install the latest version of the database system, and immediately start searching for any slight functional and performance differences and enhancements to improve their work. A question that must be asked during the exam is: what references do you have? How do you use them? Without a doubt, if you only answer the database documentation or you have not even read them, your "stock market value" will be greatly reduced. Curiosity will drive DBAs to understand data dictionaries, tools, and other packages ).
DBAs often encounter difficult problems. The answer is a kind of personality that requires strong willpower and can withstand the fight. I often see the questions raised by DBAs in some discussion groups or forums. These questions are often solved by the questioner. If they have a tough personality, they will try to find answers to the questions.
Self-driving is important to everyone, especially DBAs. DBAs should be able to find a way to solve the problem, rather than waiting for the problem to occur. DBAs with high self-drive capacity often try to obtain or write some necessary scripts to monitor projects including table size and tablespace usage, if these projects are ignored, they will be in trouble. DBAs are often asked about their experience in PL/SQL, SQL, or SQL * Plus, these problems will separate the DBAs who have never compiled their own scripts.
Not to mention dealing with users, that is, dealing with programmers and managers, also requires you to be sophisticated. A dba who does not do anything for you will not do anything good for you, but will only ignite the fire of hostility in your department. Sophisticated is such a kind of ability. You advise someone to go to the local government. Haha, this person finally went with a desire. In many cases, developers, managers, and users make unreasonable demands. DBAs need to guide and correct their requirements and persuade them. Your response shows you are sophisticated.
DBA levels are not very strict. Based on my understanding of the database, I simply divided it into three levels: Elementary primary, intermediate, and advanced senior.
Dbbs, also known as dbbs, is the abbreviation of database baby sitter. Junior DBAs often work part-time, and they are programmers or other jobs at the same time. Junior DBAs often write their resumes well and participate in many database-related projects or jobs. However, these projects or jobs are often: third-party software vendors have installed and configured databases, and they only do some monitoring work. They can handle some simple problems, but most of the time they ask for help from application software vendors. Primary DBAs prefer Graphical Database Management or monitoring tools. They prefer desktop databases such as access, which are easy-to-use and apply the experience of these small databases to work related to large databases.
It is best to distinguish between primary DBAs. However, intermediate dBA and senior DBA are not very well differentiated. They differ in experience, personality, and ability. There are many intermediate DBAs who are competent for most of the work of senior DBAs, including:
An intermediate DBA often works for about a year and is familiar with databases in an operating system environment. For intermediate DBAs, Windows NT and Unix are very different. Intermediate DBAs are familiar with SQL. They bought several database books and studied them in depth. Intermediate DBAs often serve as database programmers at the same time. Their Pursuit of performance, stability, and security is basically not very high. They often work with senior DBAs to do some routine work.
There are very few senior DBAs in China. They have bought too much English information about the database, maybe from Amazon. Compared with their compensation, the amount of money to buy books is very small. Senior DBAs are generally familiar with several large databases on many operating platforms. They know the advantages and disadvantages of different databases in different environments and can make decisions on the selection of database platforms and database environments. They are generally familiar with the system architecture and database design, and can optimize the database at various levels. Senior DBAs are generally equipped with assistants who prefer to make decisions and plans. Senior DBAs are often used in key business processing fields that require high stability, security, and performance in the banking, insurance, and online transactions industries.
In many cases, it is not important to obtain the Database Expert certificate. I know that many database vendors will receive certificates if you go to training. There are many companies offering commercial training, and their service quality is also good and inferior. Therefore, the certificate is not particularly meaningful.
Several popular database systems
The easiest Database System-Microsoft SQL Server
If you want to create a DBA, we recommend that you select the database systems that are currently popular. This means that you will have more job opportunities, communication and training opportunities, and you can worry a lot about the reasons for popularity. Of course, there is a lot of pressure on job competition. Generally, Microsoft SQL Server is used as a database system for small and medium-sized enterprises. Users familiar with access can easily use Microsoft SQL server to become a dbbs database. J
The most "difficult" database-Oracle
If you have the opportunity to access Oracle, it is a good opportunity. Oracle is currently the most promising database vendor. Due to its powerful functions and configurable and manageable capabilities, the salary of Oracle DBA is generally higher than that of other database administrators. Moreover, Oracle's key applications in large and medium-sized enterprises are also more common. Oracle can run on Windows NT, Sun Solaris, Linux, and other platforms. In many cases, you are required not only to be familiar with NT, but also to be familiar with Unix. Moreover, Oracle's unfriendly interface and boxed Oracle product information may also be an obstacle.
Database System nobility-ibm udb/DB2
As a result of 30 years of database research, IBM DB2 is indeed called "Database System Nobility ". Whether it's a small business system or a large banking system, you can rest assured with DB2. The latest version of DB2 6.1 provides superior and easy-to-use management and adjustment tools. DB2 can run on Intel architecture or ibm s/390 computers. If your industry is particularly commendable for IBM machines, we recommend that you study IBM DB2.
DB2 has two editions: Work Group Edition and Enterprise Edition. The Work Group version is USD 999 per server, plus USD 249 per concurrent user. The Enterprise Edition is USD 12500 per CPU, with no limit on the number of concurrent users.
Java-centered database-Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) 12.0
The forthcoming Sybase ASE 12.0 is directly oriented to Java programmers. This Java-centered database system will be the best choice for enterprises preparing to build enterprise applications on the Java platform. However, ASE is not a leader in the database field, although it has improved a lot compared with its previous versions, and supports multiple CPUs and more concurrency, there are many new features. However, Sybase does not seem to have any advantages.
Expected Informix Centaur
Sometimes "first" means that your opponent needs to wait for a longer time to catch up with you. This is exactly what Informix was created in 1997. Informix is one of the first large database vendors to add multimedia features to relational database systems. However, today, IBM, Oracle, and Sybase have all crossed this concept. Therefore, Informix had to seek new support to distinguish itself from other database vendors. This is the goal of Informix centaur. Informix Centaur combines the object-relational database and Informix Universal Data Option 7.3 of Informix Dynamic Server 9.1 to achieve better adaptability and multimedia support. We will wait and see how it works!
There are many factors that affect your salary as a DBA:
The following table describes the basic salary of DBA personnel in China, and shows how the DAB level and the database system you are familiar with affect the DBA salary. Of course, this is only my personal understanding. It can only represent the average level of the industry to a certain extent.
Note: Each year is calculated based on 13 months. The number in the table is the average annual salary.
Not all of the following lists, but include the typical responsibilities of DBA:
The first DBA job is now in a vicious circle. If I have no experience, how can I get DBA work? Me
How can I get DBA experience if I have no job? This is the most difficult obstacle to be overcome. The most difficult part is to obtain the first
DBA. The rest of this part will give you some suggestions for achieving your first DBA goal.
Tip #1: receive education. -- Learn as much database knowledge as possible. This is likely to take up part other than your normal work
And energy. Participate in database training courses held by local universities. Many training companies hold training courses for database administrators. False
If your boss does not fund your study, you may have to pay for it by yourself. Many DBAs require computers at least.
A Bachelor degree or above in science or related disciplines, so you must have at least that diploma.
Tip #2: exercise as a DBA. -- Many database vendors allow you to download the Beta or evaluation version of their database systems. Download
Install software on your PC. Exercise using the database. Deliberately destroys the database and tries to fix it. Try
Fulfill as many DBA duties as you can think. Test and hone your skills on your own test platform so that you can prove
Understand your database management capabilities.
Tip #3: Get certification. -- Many database providers provide certification for their own database products. Many companies now view Certification
As a standard. One thing to remember is that it is not enough to obtain authentication only. Passing the DBA authentication test does not mean you know how
Manage a database. It only tells you the potential boss, and now you have some technology. It also tells your boss you
Take DBA seriously. I have seen many people complain that they have been certified but have no experience, but still cannot.
To the first DBA job. Authentication itself does not allow you to get a job, but it is harmless. Even if there are no other ones, perform authentication before you
You have learned a lot. Do not rely on authentication to bring you the job you are looking. You need more than that.
Yes. But it will help you at the end.
Tip #4: Use your existing skills. -- Many DBAs have the background of system administrators. Others have application development background. If yes
Yes. Check whether you can use your existing skills to get a job. The goal is to create a win-win situation for you and your boss.
. For example, let's assume that you are already a system administrator and want to enter the DBA field. Maybe you will find a job.
You can use your system management skills for some time, and you will be involved in the database management field for the rest of the time.
If you are already a DBA on a product platform but want to transfer it to another product platform, check if you can find one at the same time.
Work with two product platforms. In this way, the company and you get what you want. After you have directed the DBA to work, you can try
Get a job that allows you to take it full-time, maybe in the same company.
Tip #5: Use the current opportunity. -- Sometimes, what a person needs to enter the DBA field is the right place and the right time.
Assume that your current boss has a chance for you to perform any database project and seize this opportunity! No database experience
Good database experience. Let your managers know that you are actively looking for any possible database opportunities. They may
Think of you when the next opportunity arrives. After performing these database projects and seeing your desire to become a DBA, they can
Will decide to train you and promote you. Many people obtain their first DBA job in this way, and perform some data
The database-related projects become a relatively low-level DBA without knowing it. Generally, when a DBA leaves the company, the company will look
A candidate, if they think the candidate is trainable.
Tip #6: Find a lower-level DBA position. -- If you only work for a relatively low-level dBA, see the Requirement Description for the DBA position
They are looking for senior DBAs or others. Therefore, let us be more rigorous. You do not have any advanced experience. I already
I have discussed why the company will not consider you for such a position. However, they will consider you in low-level positions. Low-level DBA
Complete the work under the guidance of senior DBA. They are exploring tricks. In general, Senior DBAs take responsibility for the database and obtain
All honors. But don't be anxious. As your career develops, you will have more and more responsibilities and more trust.
. Because you have no experience, you should start from here.
I just got my first job! What should I do now?
Congratulations! You are now a formal member of the DBA club! Are you ready for this dream exciting career?
Your job is just getting started and you are already behind in learning. You will find that you want to become an efficient database administrator.
You must know the amount of knowledge. Your first or first two years will spend more time learning than before. If you discover learning knowledge
Your brain is overloaded, so take a break, take a rest, and then go back to study. To help you continue,
You can perform the following operations:
Step #1: relational database theory-I assume that the database you manage is a "relational" database. Other data
The database model also exists, but the relational model is a dominant database model in the industry in the last two decades. Assume that your database
The system is another model, so learn its theory. Related database theories are very important. It is the foundation of everything else. Me
I also saw that many people who jumped to the database management position never wanted to learn purely relational database theory. Inevitably, in their
The lack of theoretical foundation is exposed as a weakness in the business. If you have a good understanding of the relational database theory, then you
It will be very easy to change in the relational database management system (RDBMS) on any platform. I use the Oracle database, or
IBM DB2 or Microsoft SQL Server is irrelevant. They are all relational database systems. They are at the bottom
Do the same thing. The difference is how they do the same thing. Purely relational database theory for lower-level DBAs
It is not necessary. However, if you want to surpass the level of a low-level dBA, it is very important. Many university textbooks are good.
Includes the relational database theory. One of the most widely used textbooks is the data written by elmasri and navathe.
Library System Basics, bejamin/Cummings press.
Step #2: thoroughly learn the query language-the database has a language that allows you to get data from the database and put the data into the database
And modify the data in the database. For relational databases, this language is Structured Query Language (SQL ). This
A language is a tool that you use to access databases. It is important that you cannot make this tool an obstacle for future learning. In your test
Practice different SQL statements in the database until they become your habit. A very good book in this regard is called Oracle 9i
Full reference (Oracle 9i the complete reference) is written by Loney and Koch, Oracle press. Each name
Oracle DBA should read this book early in his career. Oracle 9i Reference Manual
Manual) is another important source of knowledge. On their tech site technet (http://technet.oracle.com
You can access an account on... T.
Step #3: start learning basic database management-isn't that why you started here? Why is it in the list
Third? We are trying to build a knowledge pyramid. I strongly feel that a person needs to know the relational database theory and
SQL is used as a tool when you learn how to perform basic database management. These tasks include starting and
Shut down the database, back up and restore the database, and create/delete/modify database objects. For Oracle database management,
There are a lot of books on the market that can give you a good experience you expect. This book is the Oracle 9i DBA Manual (Oracle
9i DBA handbook by Loney on Oracle Press ). Most DBAs I know are more than once in the early days of their career
Has read this book. Here, you should read and understand the Oracle 9i concept guide, the Oracle 9i administrator guide, and
Oracle 9i backup and recovery Guide (Oracle 9i concepts guide, the Oracle 9i administrator's
Guide, and the Oracle 9i backup and recovery guide) are from Oracle documents.
Step #4: Read, read, and read again-since you have just started your DBA career, you are starting to lay your skills
. This takes a long time to form, absorb and understand all the knowledge you will learn. Undoubtedly, you are more senior
DBAs do a lot of work, so they may not always free up a lot of time to help you learn. You have to learn by yourself
Many things. This is the purpose of reading. There are many books on the market that can answer many database-related topics. Oracle press is
The official publishing house of Oracle has a large number of Oracle-related books. Other publishers, such as wrox press and O
'Reilly press. You can also find the Oracle document to read. There are also many websites and newsgroups. Read as many books as possible
So that you can continue. Also, reading them more than once can help you absorb what you missed during your first reading.
Step #5: Create test cases-I often see beginners ask some basic questions. In fact, if they take some time to consider
These questions are easily answered. There is no doubt that you will have many problems when you start learning oracle. Look
Can you answer these questions by yourself. For example, I was asked again if I could insert null values into columns with uniqueness constraints.
At the beginning, this may not seem easy to answer. But it is very easy to test! You only need to create a simple
. In one of these columns, we assume the uniqueness constraint. Try to insert a null value in this column. Valid? You should be able
It is easy to answer this question. So why should we create these cases? One reason is that this can improve your solution.
Capabilities. The skills required to create these cases are the skills used to solve the problem. The problem-solving skills will be useful to your DBA business.
Great help. Another reason is that as your career develops, you will often need to create more complex test cases to ensure the number
Database and application success. In the future, even simple test cases can form more complex databases and application decomposition.
Step #6: Find a mentor-a mentor can lead your DBA career (or other similar occupations. They can
Give you instructions, answer questions, and help you save some time as your DBA grows. I hope this article will be useful in your career.
A period of development has played a role as a mentor and mentor. If you work with a senior dBA, you should be responsible for that person.
Provide helpful guidance for your career. You can also select other people to guide you.
Step #7: participate in local user groups-many multinational cities have local user groups who regularly gather to discuss database-related topics
. If possible, participate in one of the local user groups. This will give you a good way to communicate with others.
How can I change from a DBA beginner to an intermediate DBA?
You have been a dBA for a while. Do you want to improve your technical level to the first level? What should I do next? First, look back
In the previous section, confirm that you have completed all the steps. It is very important to thoroughly understand the SQL language. Understanding Relational Database Management
It is also very important to discuss and master basic database management tasks. Up to now, you should have read the documents and other books.
. If not, you are not ready to continue your further studies to increase the technical level of your DBA. If you are ready to continue,
I have prepared some methods for your further study.
Step #1: Learn the operating system and your server hardware-as I mentioned earlier, the database exists in the operating system and server hardware
. It is necessary to understand how these components work. You should know how to work with a special operating system. How are you
Delete or edit an object? If your operating system is UNIX, you should master the command line and how Unix Commands help you.
The same is true for running Windows or other operating systems. You also need to have a certain understanding of the server hardware.
What is the difference between physical memory and virtual memory? What is raid and how different levels have an impact? Why is database happy?
Is there more physical hard disks than a large hard disk volume? You need to know these things so that you can easily communicate with the system administrator, such
How to configure your server so that it can fully support database conversations.
Step #2: Learn application design because it is related to the database-as described above, the database exists in the operating system and database
Between applications. You really need the two. How does the SQL language help create applications? What is the bound variable and
Why are they important? Tom Kyte wrote a very good book and gave good suggestions on Oracle application design.
His expert one-on-one Oracle book can be found in wrox press. I strongly recommend reading this book. He gave a detailed description of
Something that can generate and destroy Oracle Applications. You need to know this because your application developers want
Here you will receive guidance and database knowledge. Learn any knowledge related to application design. Maybe participate in a software project,
The course class of the operating system or data structure will be advantageous.
Step #4: Get the certification-maybe your job is not needed, but it will be helpful for you to get the certification. Every day as a DBA,
You have learned many new and exciting things. Maybe you haven't learned any new things for a few days during your career
Things. But you still have a lot to learn. To become an OCP (Oracle certified professional) dBA, you must
I have learned all the basics of database management. I found that during the course of the OCP examination, I learned that I have never
Something you have touched. Once I learned a special topic that I have never met, I will be able to use that knowledge
Identify and solve the problem. If I fail to take the OCP exam, I will never use that special method to solve the problem. This
It has happened to me again and again. Some may say that authentication is actually not worthwhile. I would like to say that it will only benefit you
Damage. So, get the certification!
Step #5: Get a resource library-in the previous section, I pointed out that every DBA should have an account on technet. This is
One of your major resources. However, there are many other resources at the same time. Many people share their knowledge about oracle. If you have not
In the beginning, you should use a web browser to search for and collect a lot of Oracle resources. If you like, you can access my website
(Http://www.peasland.net) Start. The following lists some websites that Oracle DBAs must know:
There are many other good websites.
Step #6: Start to communicate with different newsgroups and forums-you may have discovered them, but if you haven't
It's time to start. There are many news groups and forums that can answer any of your Oracle questions. There are many other Oracle communities
Experts are willing to share their knowledge with you. All you have to do is ask questions. The following is a list that contains the best information to start communication.
Ü Usenet newsgroups-Comp. Databases. Oracle. server and comp. Databases. Oracle. Misc are two
A world-renowned news group that can communicate with each other. They have a large number of exchange files for Oracle problems. Watch these
The best way for the group is to use broadcasters. However, if you want to use web-based access, you can also use Google to search
Search for it. (Http://groups.google.com/groups? Hl =... atabases. Oracle)
Pipelines. Now, quest has purchased revealnet and has pipelines. Because pipelines is medium
Some are my favorite ones. Here you can find pipelines (http://www.quest-pipelines.com/index.asp ).
It is a good thing to observe how others are tested and suffering. If you have any questions, you can freely raise them in the group. Assume that you
To raise questions, you should usually include some information, such as your Oracle version and the platform running on Oracle. These will get
A very different answer. If you forget it, someone will remind you! You can even learn from others' answers without asking questions.
A lot of knowledge. I can't remember how many times I was able to solve the problem because I remember someone else asked me in the newsgroup
The same problem.
How can I change from an intermediate DBA to an advanced DBA?
Well, as a DBA, you have made unremitting efforts for a long time. You feel that you are ready to take another step. Become a master
What does DBA need? The following sections help you proceed.
Step #1: Read all documents-Oracle documents are generally not easy to read. Countless times, you read the document just
Find out the whole thing. If documents are the best, then oracle books standing on your shelves will not be available.
However, the document does contain information that cannot be found anywhere else. For example, you cannot find
The init. ora parameter or the V $ view. Some may be involved in books, but Oracle documents include all of them.
I met a very powerful senior DBA who did not read the Oracle document from the beginning to the end. This is not accidental. Oracle
Files must be read. Maybe you have read the Oracle concept guidance 12 times so far. However, when Oracle 10i is released
You have to read it again. Any new concepts related to 10i will be documented in this document. If you really want to go further, read
Those documents. Do not escape it.
Step #2: become an expert-Oracle database is a very complicated thing. To be more advanced, you must be proficient in products
. Start with backup and recovery. Become a backup and recovery expert. Deliberately destroys the database and then looks at it as shown in
How to restore it. Try to destroy the database in any way possible and check whether the database can be recovered. You will thoroughly understand the backup and
The concept of restoration. After you become an expert in backup and recovery, you can become an expert in other fields. You have endless questions
To master. This remains the case throughout your career. But remember, no matter how professional you are, in some fields
Some people will know more in some ways than you. Do not bring personal emotions. Just learn as much knowledge as possible from that person.
Route #3: actively participate in newsgroups, forums and user groups-I mentioned earlier why different newsgroups and forums are learning
A good place for new knowledge. Now it's your turn to take the next step and answer any questions you can answer. You will be surprised
You can learn so much in this process!
Route #4: Write a White Paper and show them-this is similar to the method mentioned above. First, sharing your knowledge is very important.
Yes. If your career has reached this step, in a sense, it is inseparable from others' contributions. So,
It's time for you to contribute to others. Second, when you try to share your information, something amazing will happen. In
When you use a clear, concise language to express the problem so that others can use it, the information goes through an order in your mind.
A shocking process. This process reinforces your knowledge, which cannot be done in other ways. So share
Some information, seminars, news groups, and forums are very good methods for you to learn and make your abilities more advanced. Follow this
Road, you should do two things. First, realize that you will make mistakes. Others will be happy to point out the errors
That is not very good. Do not attempt to hide your mistakes. Recognize and learn from them. Second, learn to say no to you
Know the answer instead of attempting to pass through in a spoofing way. Sooner or later, people will know that you are attempting to blind them. Simply tell them now
You are not sure about the answer, but you will come back and tell them the answer. If you keep these two things in mind, you will not violate them.
You are honest and will grow into an IT professional.
Step #5: Become an Oracle expert-Senior DBAs are generally considered to be the people who solve complicated Oracle problems. You
All your technologies will be used to solve many problems. These technologies have been accumulated in your career. As I mentioned earlier
Everything will be used in the process of solving the problem. documents, books, news groups, test cases, and other DBAs will help you solve the problem.
Solve the problem.
Step #6: Become a performance tuning expert-Senior DBAs are generally considered to be the people who adjust the performance of databases and applications. Assume that
If you are a senior DBA but you cannot analyze performance bottlenecks, your company will look for these services elsewhere.
Step #7: become an expert in the bearer capacity plan-Senior DBA is generally considered to be planning based on data growth and transaction Growth
The person who carries the database capacity. Senior DBAs need to identify system bottlenecks before affecting application performance. For example, DBA should know that
The database uses up the available disk space before more disk space is preset. Not paying close attention to the bearer capacity plan will lead to the number of production
The database goes down.
Step #8: pay close attention to new technologies-Senior DBAs should have good suggestions on the future of IT-related database technologies. What is available?
Technology can help databases? For example, learn the advantages and disadvantages of the storage domain network and how to apply them to the database system. What
What technologies can be used in the near future and help us? For example, when writing this article, the Linux operating system is changing
More and more popular. What does Lunix bring to your database operating system platform? Can it work for your company?
There are many factors that affect your salary as a DBA:
DBA level determined by your experience and capabilities your familiar Database System your personality characteristics and potential
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