This article describes the establishment of the Windows.NET Server Diskless terminal Network, the diskless portion of PXE (Preboot executionenvironment, remote boot technology) or RPL (remotely Initial program Load, Remote Boot service) technology to implement, the terminal part is implemented in Windows.NET Server Standard server build 3607 Simplified Chinese version (hereinafter referred to as Windows.NET server) with the Terminal Services, Take you step-by-step to achieve the dream of running Windows.NET server smoothly at the lowest level of diskless workstations (486 or less CPUs). (for installation and basic usage of Windows.NET server, see the Windows.NET Server Management Concise tutorial in the appendix of the Computer Journal 2002 volumes.) )
First, Windows.NET Server diskless Terminal Network Foundation
The Windows.NET server is upgraded on a Windows Server basis. Supports the latest RDP 5.1 (remote Desktop Protocol) client in Windows.NET Server Terminal Services, which enables it to support colors from 256-color (8-bit) to True Color (24-bit) (Windows Only 256 colors are supported in 2000, the resolution is supported from 640x480 to 1600x1200 pixel, in addition, the improvement of the processing capability of the dimension and multimedia makes Terminal Services more mature and practical.
1. What is Terminal Services
Terminal Services (Terminal service) is also called WBT (windows-based Terminal, windows-based terminal), which is integrated in Windows.NET server as a System Server service component.
Terminal Services works by connecting the client and server through the TCP/IP protocol and the standard LAN architecture. Through the client terminal, the client's mouse and keyboard input is passed to the Terminal server, then the display on the server is passed back to the client. The client does not need to have computational power, at most, to provide only a certain amount of caching capability. Many clients can log on to the server at the same time, as if they were working on the server at the same time, they are independent of each other as a separate session connection.
2. Terminal Services Component
Windows.NET Server Terminal Services consists of five components: Windows.NET server servers multiuser kernel, Remote Desktop Protocol, Terminal Services client software, Terminal Services Licensing service, and Terminal Services system management tools.
(1) Multi-user kernel. The multiuser kernel extension, originally developed for Windows NT Server 4.0 Terminal Server, has been greatly enhanced in Windows.NET server and is a standard part of the Windows.NET server family kernel. This kernel is embedded within the server's operating system, regardless of Terminal Services installation or not.
(2) Remote Desktop Protocol. One of the core components of Windows.NET Server Terminal Services is the protocol that allows clients to communicate with terminal servers on the network. The agreement is a multi-channel protocol based on international Standard T.120 established by ITU. It is a Double-byte compatible protocol used in various network environments to achieve network positioning, automatic disconnection, and remote configuration.
(3) Terminal Services Client. The client software is used to display a familiar 32-bit Windows user interface on the client computer. It is a very small application that establishes and maintains a connection between the client and the server running Terminal Services. It transmits all user input, such as keyboard input or mouse movement to the server, and returns the output of the server side, such as application display information and print stream to the client.
(4) Terminal Services Licensing services. This service is required when Terminal Services is installed as Application server mode. This service enables Terminal Services to obtain and manage Terminal Services Client access licenses (CALs) for connected devices. The Terminal Access License service is not required when Terminal Services is installed as Remote administration mode. The Terminal Services Licensing service is a component of the Windows.NET server.
(5) Terminal Services management tools. Management tools consist of software that manages Terminal Services. Includes Terminal Services License Manager, Terminal Services Client builder, Terminal Services Client Configuration tool, and Terminal Services Manager.
3. The advantages and disadvantages of the diskless terminal network
It is precisely because of the characteristics of the Terminal Services, so that the client's own hardware level becomes insignificant, as long as the corresponding terminal client connection software, even the ultra low-grade computer also has the possibility of running Windows system (Windows 2000, Windows.NET Server, etc.)! This is the biggest surprise to people with Terminal Services.
Of course, the benefits of Terminal Services are far more than: the client side completely does not need the software maintenance, only can the server carry on the software and hardware upgrades may achieve the entire network system upgrades the goal and so on, any point is enough to let the person be exciting; it is again combined with diskless technology, so that when it was first launched, it was described by many excited people , but a long time, its drawbacks also show up: The server hardware configuration is too high to make a lot of planning new diskless network management hesitate repeatedly; 3D and multimedia processing capabilities It was also excluded from the game without disk network and multimedia diskless network (including internet cafes) builders. But in any case, for ordinary office and teaching network, diskless Terminal Network still has its obvious advantages, not to mention the strength of manufacturers (Microsoft, Citrix, etc.) continuous technological innovation, diskless terminal is expected to become a truly "perfect" diskless LAN formation program.
Note: In the current Windows.NET server, the Citrix server-side MetaFrame that could have been installed under Windows 2000 and the corresponding ICA clients are no longer available. Therefore, Microsoft's own 16 or 32-bit Terminal Services client and some Third-party software will be used to complete the connection to the Terminal server. Most of the software involved in this article can be downloaded in the download area of the author's personal homepage (http://www.enanshan.com).
Second, the establishment of PXE diskless terminal
PXE (pre-boot Execution environment, Remote boot technology) Diskless terminal is a new form of diskless networking technology. A typical example of this startup is the PXE diskless Windows 98 network that is currently the most popular in the form of Windows Server (or Windows NT Server 4.0), which is built for servers operating systems.
Here, we will introduce the DOS-and-Windows 3.2-based, two-way PXE diskless terminals, which can achieve a maximum of 256 colors, while the latter can achieve true color.
(i) Public operating parts
The so-called "public operation" means whether to build a DOS or Windows 3.2-based PXE diskless terminal, you need to add the Terminal Services and install the PXE server-side software on the server side first.
1. Add Terminal Services
The steps for adding Terminal Services to the Windows.NET server servers are essentially the same as those used in Windows 2000, and the process is as follows:
(1) Open the Add or Remove Programs option in Control Panel and click the Add/Remove Windows Components button.
(2) Select the Terminal Server option in the Components list and click the Next button. At this point the system will tell you some of the relevant considerations for installing Terminal Server, including if you do not select "Terminal Services Licensing" is only 120 days of use, and so on, do not ignore it, directly click the "Next" button.
(3) Select installation mode, and it is recommended that you choose Loose Install mode (this corresponds to the "compatible with terminal Server 4.0 user mode" in Windows 2000). Click the "Next" button.
(4) The system starts copying the related files, and finally restarts the computer according to the prompts.
2. Install Intel PXE-PDK
Intel PXE-PDK 2.0 is a PXE server software produced by Intel Corporation, which is used by most PXE diskless networks because of its simplicity and ease of operation, as well as free software, although it does not directly support multiple network segments.
(1) Installation PXE-PDK:
On the server side, extract the Intel PXE-PDK installation file (netsetup.zip) into any directory (such as D:), and the system automatically creates a directory named "Netsetup" (for example, "D:netsetup" directory).
Double-click the "Pxe-pdk20.exe" self-extracting package file, in the presence of the dialog box to select the decompression path, the system defaults to "c:temp" directory, can not be modified, directly click the "Finish" button can begin decompression, when the decompression is completed will automatically start the Intel PXE-PDK 2.0 of the installation work.
When the installation wizard requires "Install with Windows NT 4 Server CD" (installed via a Windows NT 4.0 Server CD) and "Install without Windows NT 4 Server CD" (Does not pass W indows NT 4.0 Server CD-ROM for installation) Make sure you choose the former, or you will not be able to establish or use a remote boot file properly.
When the installation Wizard asks you to provide the path to the Microsoft Network Client V3.0 for MS-DOS installation files, click the Browse button and then click the "OK" button to continue.
When the Setup wizard requires the select the configuration of PXE service (select the configuration item for the PXE services), make sure that the first three items are selected.
The parts that are not specifically described are selected with the default option to complete the installation, and then restart the computer as prompted.
(2) Configure PXE-PDK
Click the PXE PDK Configuration program entry under Start → programs →pxe PDK to enter the PXE Configuration Utility (PXE Configuration) dialog box.
Right-click the proxy DHCP server node in the left frame, select the Configure proxydhcp server (configure proxy DHCP server) command, and in the Open dialog box, click the Client Option tab, Remove the "Broadcast Discover" (Broadcast search) option (that is, not broadcast to reduce logon latency), and then enter "0" in the box after the remote boot Prompt Timeout Seconds (timeout for the long-boot setting) (seconds So that the workstation automatically selects the first Dosundi mode entry when making a diskless Windows 98 startup to reduce logon latency without prompting to press the "F8" key to select the Boot selection menu (wait 10 seconds by default).
In the above dialog box, click the "to Bootserver Discovery List" button, in the Open dialog box, select the "Bootserver" (Start server) list in the "3", then in this list box below " The box after the Bootserver item is automatically filled in with the selected "3" and the IP address of the server (for example, "192.168.0.1") is filled in the box after the IP entry below, and then click "Add to Discovery List" (Join search list) button, Add them to the "Bootserver Discovery" list box on the right, and then click the "OK" button to save the exit.
When you return to the Configure proxydhcp Server dialog box, click the OK button to save your exit and return to the PXE Configuration Utility dialog box.
Expand the Proxydhcp server→client Boot menu→x86pc (Undi) node in the left frame, and then right-click the "Dosundi" option in the right frame and select Move Entry up (moves to the top) command. Move the Dosundi to the most important part of the list, as shown in the figure.
Once configured, simply close the PXE Configuration Utility dialog box (no reboot required).
3. Configure the DHCP server
In a PXE diskless network, the TCP/IP protocol used by workstations and servers to communicate with each other, the IP address of the server is specified by the configuration server, and the IP address, subnet mask, gateway (routing) server address and DNS server address of each workstation should be allocated by the server-side DHCP service.
(1) New DHCP scope:
Assuming that the server-side IP address is "192.168.0.1" and the IP address range to be assigned to the diskless workstations is "192.168.0.100~192.168.0.150", the specific configuration process for the DHCP server is as follows:
Click the "start → program → admin tools" item in the server side, and in the Open Management dialog box, expand the "DHCP" item.
Right-click the computer name (server) in the left frame, such as "WY", select the new Scope command, and open the new wizard.
When the wizard requires you to enter a role domain name, you can enter any content in the box after name (cannot be empty) and description (nullable).
When the wizard sets the IP address range, fill in "192.168.0.100" after the Start IP address box, fill in "192.168.0.150" after the "End IP Address" box, and the remaining option systems such as length and subnet mask will be completed automatically.
The other options don't have to be set, and the last option is "Yes, I want to activate this scope now" to successfully set up a new scope.
(2) Add 60 options for DHCP:
The PXE client startup requires 60 option support from the DHCP server. By default, this entry in Windows.NET server is not activated and cannot be added, so it requires "netsh" assistance, a command-line scripting utility that allows administrators to display or modify the current network configuration of a server locally or remotely. The specific steps are as follows:
Click on the "Start → run" item on the server side to open the Run dialog box, then enter "cmd" in the "Open" box and press ENTER.
Enter netsh at the command prompt and press ENTER to open the Netsh command line "netsh>", and then follow the instructions below:
DHCP server>add optiondef ClassID STRING 0 pxeclient
Command completed successfully.
Note: The underlined part needs to be entered manually, the other parts are automatically displayed by the system, and the ENTER key is continued after each loss, and the command line is entered as is (with case).
Press ENTER to close the MS-DOS window after entering "exit" at the command prompt. Then go to the DHCP console, right-click Scope options, select the Configure Options command to open the Scope Options dialog box, click the General tab, and then you can find the "060 ClassID" Available Options ", select it, and then click" OK "button to save the exit.
When you return to the DHCP console, if you have the option name of 060 ClassID in the scope Options list in the right frame, and the vendor is standard, and the value is pxeclient, you have added success.
4. Test PXE Client
After Intel PXE-PDK 2.0 and DHCP installation is set up, it is best to open any diskless client to test for success. If the last few lines of the workstation used for testing appear with the following prompts:
Downloading DOS boot diskette image ...
Pxe-e89:could not download boot image.
Pxe-m0f:exiting PXE ROM.
DISK BOOT failure, INSERT SYSTEM DISK and press ENTER
It is generally stated that the above operation has been successful.
(ii) Establishment of a DOS-based PXE diskless terminal
DOS-based PXE diskless terminal workstation is implemented using a common DOS 6.22 system, plus a terminal client named Terminal-plus. This scheme does not need to install the graphics driver, directly support the mainstream network card, but also use the network card with packet driver or Novell ODI driver driver, directly support the VESA 3.0 screen refresh rate settings, support up to 256 colors, 1024x 768 resolution and up to 85MHz screen refresh rate. However, Terminal-plus is the shareware, the unregistered version can run for up to 30 minutes at a time.
1. Pre-Installation preparatory work
(1) Hardware preparation:
The server should have a floppy drive; All workstation adapters should have a corresponding PXE diskless boot chip (bootrom), the workstation as "prototype" should be equipped with a floppy drive; at least one boot floppy for DOS 6.22.
(2) Software preparation:
Terminal-plus DOS client: DOS-based terminal client software (TSDOSCLIENT.ZIP,448KB).
2. DOS-based floppy terminal
Before making a diskless terminal, you need to select a "prototype" to make a disk terminal (here "disk" is a floppy disk). Before doing a disk terminal, you need to unplug this "prototype" of the PXE boot chip (bootrom), or enter the relevant configuration program to temporarily prohibit its boot chip.
(1) Make a DOS boot floppy:
You should make sure that the boot floppy (System disk) starts the computer correctly, and that the system in the floppy disk must be a DOS series, such as DOS 6.22, and not a Windows 98 system. In order to save space, it is recommended that in addition to DOS system files, the floppy disk only retains the "Himem.sys", "Emm386.exe", "Autoexec.bat" and "Config.sys" four files. The reference content of the "Config.sys" document is as follows:
Device=emm386.exe Ram Highscan i=b000-b7ff frame=e000 noems novcpi
(2) Make Terminal-plus boot floppy:
The so-called Terminal-plus boot floppy is actually the configuration of the Terminal-plus client software into the production of the above DOS boot floppy, the specific method is as follows:
On the server side, insert the DOS boot diskette into the floppy drive, and then create a directory of any name (such as the "A:dosc" directory) above.
Open the "Tsdosclient.zip" package and double-click "Setup.exe" to start the installation. First into the "Welcome" dialog box, which has a brief introduction to this software.
To enter the Network Settings dialog box, select the type of workstation adapter in the NIC entry and leave the "use DHCP" unchanged in the "TCP/IP Settings" entry.
Then go to the Use Settings dialog box, enter the IP address of the server in the Terminal Server IP Address box, and select the desired screen resolution, refresh rate, and mouse type (as shown in the picture).
Finally enter the "Installation" window, "Installation path" defaults to "A:" (a), click the "Browse" button, select "A:dosc" directory, and then click the "Finish" button after the system will automatically copy the relevant files to a disk "Dosc" directory.
Note: In doing the above steps, be sure to click the "Browse" button to select a new path, and can not directly manually input, otherwise the system will not accept the new path!
(3) Test Terminal-plus boot Floppy:
Start the workstation with the Terminal-plus boot floppy disk, then go to the "Dosc" directory of the floppy disk and run the "Run.bat" file to get into Windows normally. NET Terminal (
And then modify the Terminal-plus boot floppy inside the "Autoexec.bat" file, add the boot automatically run terminal-plus client command line, reference content as follows:
3. DOS-based PXE diskless terminal
When the Terminal-plus boot floppy is made, all required client operating systems (DOS 6.22) and application software (Terminal-plus client) are already included in this floppy disk, which makes the boot image file To complete the DOS based PXE diskless terminal startup.
(1) Make the boot image file:
On the server side, insert the Terminal-plus boot diskette into the floppy drive, then go to MS-DOS and go to the "E:program Filesintelpxepdksystem" directory (assuming Windows.NET server is installed on E disk).
Execute the "mkimage dosundi.1" command at the DOS prompt, and the system will start making "DOSUNDI.1" image files based on the contents of the floppy disk.
When the image file is made, copy the "Copy dosundi.1 Imagesx86pcundidosundi" command at the DOS prompt to dosundi.1 the file to E:program Filesintelpxepdksystemimagesx86pcundidosundi directory, and then exit the MS-DOS window.
(2) DOS-based PXE diskless terminal:
Remove the workstation's floppy drive, ensure that the workstation card boot chip has been installed or set to valid, and then start the workstation, you can achieve the PXE diskless terminal login.
(iii) Establishment of a Windows 3.2-based PXE diskless terminal
The Windows 3.2-based PXE diskless terminal workstation is implemented using a common DOS 6.22 system plus Windows 3.2 plus Microsoft's 16-bit terminal client, which can be achieved with a maximum of 24-bit color and 1024x768 resolution in a diskless terminal.
1. Pre-Installation preparatory work
(1) Hardware preparation:
The server should have a floppy drive; all workstations have a corresponding PXE diskless boot chip (bootrom), the workstation as a "prototype" should be equipped with a floppy drive and hard drive; at least one boot floppy for DOS 6.22.
(2) Software preparation:
Lan Manager 2.2a: Windows shared resources (LANMAN.ZIP,2.79MB) are used under DOS.
The RTL 8139 network adapter is based on the driver (8139_S.ZIP,22.1KB) under LAN Manager.
Simplified Chinese version of Windows 3.2 (Pwin32.zip).
Microsoft's 16-bit terminal client (WIN16.ZIP,1.39MB).
2. Windows 3.2-based hard disk terminals
Before making a diskless terminal, you need to select a "prototype" to make a disk terminal (here "have the disk" is the first hard disk after the floppy disk). Before doing a disk terminal, you need to unplug this "prototype" of the PXE boot chip (bootrom), or enter the relevant configuration program to temporarily prohibit its boot chip.
(1) Make DOS boot hard drive:
First of all, you should ensure that the "prototype" has been able to boot normally to DOS 6.22, and has "Himem.sys", "Emm386.exe", "Autoexec.bat" and "Config.sys" four files, and the memory is optimized (see the relevant content earlier in this article), and prepare the following files on your hard disk:
Extract all content from the LAN Manager 2.2a installation file "Lanman.zip" into any directory on your hard disk (such as the "C:lanman" directory).
Assuming the workstation network card is RTL 8139, you will need to extract the Lanman.dos installer "8139_s.zip" to any directory on your hard disk (such as the "c:8139" directory).
(2) Install LAN Manager:
LAN Manager is Microsoft's LAN Manager, a network management and file system that uses its DOS-enabled clients to enable resource sharing between DOS and DOS and Windows systems. Lan Manager 2.2a Installation steps under DOS are as follows:
Enter the "C:lanman" directory on "mockup" and Execute "dsk3-1.exe", "Dsk3-2.exe", "Dsk3-3.exe", "Dsk3-4.exe" four self-extracting files in a similar format of "dsk3-1.exe-d-O", The system automatically stores the extracted files in the current directory.
Perform the unpacked "setup.exe" file to start the installation. In the Microsoft Lan Manager Setup dialog box that appears, there are some pre installation considerations, and click the "OK" button.
In the "using the ' Keyboard in Setup" dialog box, a description of the basic key used when using the keyboard installation appears, and click the "OK" button.
In the Install LAN Manager dialog box that appears, customize the path of the LAN Manager source installation files (Install from this drive) and LAN Manager installed files directory), generally use its default value, click the "OK" button to continue.
In the Install LAN Manager dialog box that appears, select the mode of installation, which is divided into enhanced mode (LAN Manager enhanced) and basic mode (LAN Manager Basic), which is recommended, and click on the "OK" button to continue.
In the Network Adapter Drivers dialog box that appears, select the workstation adapter type and, because there is no RTL 8139 network card in the list, click the "Other Driver" button to add.
In the "Copy Driver or Protocol Files" dialog box that appears, enter the "c:8139" directory where the RTL 8139 NIC driver resides, and click the OK button to continue.
The "Other Network Adapter Drivers" dialog box appears with the "RTL8139 Fast Ethernet Adapter" option, and clicking the "OK" button continues.
The Network Protocols for dialog box appears, where you need to select a connection agreement to use for your workstation, select the MS TCP/IP protocol with the mouse, and then click OK to continue.
The "Workstation Configuration" dialog box appears, showing the current configuration with the installed network card name and network card protocol, keeping the default settings and clicking the "OK" button to continue.
In the TCP/IP Settings dialog box that appears, set the TCP/IP properties for the workstation, because the DHCP server has been previously set (see the Public Operations section), so none of these content needs to be set manually, and clicking the "Advanced" button goes to the Advanced options setting. The DNR and Sockets Settings dialog box appears, in the Username box, fill in any user names that have been established on the server (for example, "User02"), and enter any host name (for example, "Hostname") in the "User02" box, With the mouse to select the "Enable Windows Sockets" Item, click the "OK" button back to the "TCP/IP Settings" dialog box, click the "OK" button to continue.
The Workstation Settings dialog box appears, enter the computer name (such as "User02") in the "Computername" box, enter a user name (such as "User02") in the "Username" box, and "Domain" To the server's workgroup name (generally "Workgroup"), the "messaging Services" re-election to "No", click the "OK" button to continue.
The "Support for the" Windows Environment dialog box appears asking you if you want to run in a Windows environment, answer "No" and click "OK" to continue.
The "Memory Management" dialog box appears, where you will be asked if you need to help you optimize the memory, answer "No", click "OK" button to continue.
The Configuration Complete dialog box appears, where you will be asked if you want to save the configuration and select the "Save" button to continue.
The "Installation Complete" dialog box appears, and the system tells you that the installation is complete and the "OK" button continues.
When you return to DOS, modify the "Autoexec.bat" file in the "C:" Directory and change the "Net Logon User02 *" Row to "Net Logon User02 mypswd" ("User02" is the username, "mypswd" User02 "User's password" to enable the system to automatically log on.
Restart this workstation and test with "net View\wy" at a DOS prompt after the startup completes, indicating that LAN Manager has been successfully installed if the shared resources already on the WY server are displayed.
(3) Install Windows 3.2:
On the server side of the "Pwin32.zip" extract to any partition, such as the D-packing directory, the system will automatically put all the extracted files in the "D:pwin32".
Go to D, right-click the "PWIN32" directory, select "Share and Security" and share it, such as "Share name" as "PWIN32", and on the Security tab, give the "user02" user "read" permissions.
Note: If the Security tab is not available in this Directory Properties window, this partition is not NTFS formatted, and you can omit the task of assigning permissions.
Create a new directory in any partition on the server, such as "D:win32", and share it, such as "Share name" as "WIN32" and Give "User02" users appropriate read and write permissions.
On the workstation side, the shared name "PWIN32" and "WIN32" are mapped to local drives for workstations, such as "PWIN32" for h disk (net use h:\wypwin32), and "WIN32" for K disk (net use k:\wywin32).
Go to H Disk and copy Windows 3.2 Installer to the "K:win" directory in "setup/a" format in "admin mode."
Then go to the "K:win" directory and install WINDOWS 3.2 to the "k:windows" directory in "setup/a" format with "shared".
After successful installation, modify the "Autoexec.bat" file in the workstation C packing directory, add the search path "K:win;k:windows" after the "SET path" line, and add a new line of "net use K:\wywin32" to the end of the entire file. Restart the workstation later.
Once the reboot is complete, enter "win" directly at the DOS prompt (no need to go to K disk) and press ENTER to log on to Windows 3.2.
Finally, install the driver for the Workstation video card in Windows 3.2, and make the appropriate settings (generally choose the 16M color, 800x600 resolution).