Zhou JIU Chang: three key areas of Personal Knowledge Management

Source: Internet
Author: User

Zhengzhou Aviation IndustryManagementDepartment of Information Science, Zhengzhou, 450015, China

[Abstract] This article holds that personal inspirationKnowledgeManagement, personal knowledge project management, and personal learning management are three key points of personal knowledge management.FieldsPersonal inspiration knowledge management focuses on timely management, personal knowledge project management focuses on innovation management, and personal learning management focuses on targeted management, the management content and corresponding management methods of the three are discussed respectively.

[Keywords] Personal Knowledge Management personal inspiration Knowledge Management personal knowledge project management personal learning management

[] G350 [document identification code] [ArticleNo.] 100322797 (2006) 0120097205

Personal Knowledge Management is undoubtedly important. It canImprove Personal SocietySurvivalCapability, Adaptability, innovation andCompetitionCapability. The necessity of personal knowledge management lies in:
First, individuals in society have actual knowledge management problems, especially in the knowledge economy andNetworkIn this environment, it is necessary for everyone to pay attention to their knowledge management issues.
Second, people are focusing on organizational knowledge management, ignoring or avoiding the issue of personal knowledge management to a large extent, which is not perfect in theory;
Third, the relationship between organizational knowledge management and personal knowledge management needs to be correctly handled. If the problem of Personal Knowledge Management is solved, it will accumulate experience for the organizational knowledge management activities, make contributions to the development of organizational knowledge management. Similarly, the implementation of organizational knowledge management will also enable individuals to pay attention to knowledge management issues and improve their awareness of knowledge management, some suitable experiences, methods, and technologies in organizational knowledge management are transplanted or adapted to personal knowledge management, which will inevitably improve the ability of personal knowledge management, it is conducive to the development of personal knowledge management activities. ThereforeDevelopmentFrom the perspective of personal knowledge management and organizational knowledge management are mutually reinforcing and complementary. The result of such mutual promotion is to improve the knowledge management effect of both parties, ultimately, it will inevitably lead to personal learning, career success, organizational development, and social progress [1].
In fact, personal knowledge management is not only about individuals. To fully and effectively share, use, and innovate personal knowledge, in many cases, management activities must be exceeded the category of "individuals, associate personal knowledge management activities with others and organizations, that is to say, to a certain extent, it involves organizational knowledge management. Personal Knowledge Management is the smallest unit of knowledge management in society. It is organically integrated into organizational knowledge management and social knowledge management.

1. Brief Comment on relevant research

The purpose of reviewing relevant research results is to find gaps and weak points in this study and provide a suitable reason for writing this article. Using some database resources purchased by the author from Nankai University for retrieval, it is found that there are few studies on Personal Knowledge Management in foreign countries, excluding repeated articles, there are a total of seven articles on Personal Knowledge Management published in Chinese Journals (if the search results are inconsistent with the actual results, it may be caused by the variety limitations of the purchased database and the retrieval error of the author ). Here,
Gan Yongcheng studied personal knowledge management in the e-learning environment and proposed seven implementation methods of Personal Knowledge Management from the knowledge process perspective [2].
Lai Chunshun and Lu Zehui focused on the methods of Personal Knowledge Management from the perspective of Knowledge process [3].
For the scientific fund management personnel of grass-roots scientific research institutions, Liu Jie puts forward the content of Personal Knowledge Management from the perspective of Knowledge process [4].
ZHANG Hongbin and Shen Zhihong studied personal knowledge process management and considered it an important aspect of Personal Knowledge Management [5].
Wang maqing's personal knowledge Value View, personal knowledge structure, knowledge application methods, and Thoughts And innovation capability [6].
When studying the development of tacit knowledge, Wang Jiang proposed a Development Strategy (method) for personal tacit knowledge [7].
Zhao Mingjian believes that information education can improve the ability of Personal Knowledge Management [8].

(1)Achievements of the Institute.
First, the basic "research norms" of personal knowledge management have been established, forming a relatively stable research Mode That is, "the concept of personal knowledge management-the content of personal knowledge management-the methods (Strategies) of Personal Knowledge Management". This "research norms" also reflect the research ideas of these achievements.
Second, the goal of personal knowledge management has basically reached a consensus that personal knowledge management aims to Consciously manage and supplement personal knowledge, gradually establish and improve the personal professional knowledge system, improve the efficiency and competitiveness of individuals, and then promote the development of personal business and the realization of the value of life.
Third, I have a consistent view on the main content of knowledge management: "We plan to establish a personal professional knowledge system to specifically absorb the required professional knowledge resources, continuously learn, update, and improve personal professional knowledge and work skills to improve personal value and competitiveness, effectively extract the required professional knowledge resources for practical work, and obtain good job performance, better display of personal learning and work abilities, become an important element of knowledge exchange in the institution where they are located, and gain better career development opportunities." [9] 4. Proposed Methods (Strategies) for personal knowledge management. The methods (Strategies) that everyone agrees with are: "analyzing the knowledge resource requirements in learning, select personal knowledge management software, establish knowledge classification and cataloguing standards, establish a personal knowledge management system, maintain and update, and use knowledge resources." [10]

(2)Research problems.
To sum up, there are mainly the following aspects:
First, they are different.IndustryBased on their own business areas and knowledge background, the focus and focus of the researchers are different, resulting in a certain degree of ambiguity in the understanding of the meaning of the concept of personal knowledge management.
Second, the research perspectives of these articles are basically the same, that is, from the perspective of Knowledge process management, to study the content, methods, and strategies of personal knowledge management. The singularity of research perspectives leads to narrow research horizons, so that some important personal knowledge management fields are not involved or are not focused enough.
Third, personal knowledge management software (tools) has been concerned, but their roles and effects are not consistent. Therefore, the proposed personal knowledge management method focuses on personal knowledge management software (tools) there is a significant difference in the degree of emphasis.
Fourth, from the perspective of Knowledge process research, the research on the specific links of personal knowledge management process is comprehensive, but the focus is not prominent.
Fifth, due to the "same" research norms "being followed by others, the content system of these research results is consistent and thunderous to a certain extent.

2. Intention and goal of this Article

In personal knowledge management, if only process management is emphasized, it is often too abstract to allow others to do everything. If we still follow the research ideas and "research specifications" of the above research results ", it is difficult to make breakthroughs and innovations. To avoid this situation, this article will focus on the following three aspects of personal knowledge management:Personal inspiration knowledge management, personal knowledge project management, and personal learning management. They serve as the theoretical basis for the three key areas of personal knowledge management:
First, the importance of learning for individuals is self-evident. Learning means progress. learning lays the knowledge foundation for personal development. Therefore, you must pay close attention to personal learning management.
Secondly, personal knowledge projects are closely related to the development of personal undertakings. Projects are much more undertaken, well completed, and highly innovative, and personal social contributions are even greater, therefore, personal knowledge project management should be paid attention.
Again, personal inspiration is one of the most active, novel, and valuable types of tacit personal knowledge, which is often ignored in personal knowledge management, therefore, personal inspiration knowledge management needs to be focused. In this article, the Knowledge Flow Direction of the above-mentioned personal knowledge management research goes beyond its existing research models and "research specifications", and takes care of them horizontally based on "importance, the goal is to point out three key areas of personal knowledge management, and propose corresponding management strategies to provide new attention points and operational methods for Personal Knowledge Management.

3. timely management of personal inspiration knowledge

Inspiration knowledge is a unique tacit knowledge. It has the characteristics of instability, immaturity, easy to disappear, and great potential value. In order to play its role and realize its value, management is urgently needed. In view of the above characteristics of personal inspiration knowledge, the author focuses on the management of personal inspiration knowledge in a timely manner. Personal inspiration knowledge management is an important part of personal tacit knowledge management. It is the key and difficult point of personal tacit knowledge management, but unfortunately, so far, I have not clearly discovered people's research on it. In daily life, everyone needsDevelop a good habit of timely management of inspiration knowledge.

Step 1: When a creative idea is emerging in your mind, a spark of wisdom is emerging, and Inspiration suddenly strikes, a novel idea (sometimes even a strange idea) appears, be sure to cherish it, never miss it, and never let it disappear. Be sure to record it in time to make it clear and explicit, no matter whether these ideas, sparks of wisdom, inspiration, and thoughts are useful at this time, must be recorded in a timely manner to create conditions for future possible conversion and utilization. These occasional inspiration knowledge can be regarded as non-renewable resources to a certain extent, and must be recorded and managed in a timely manner to play its due role. We must be aware that any indifference to and irresponsible thoughts and actions on our own inspiration knowledge will cause irreparable impact and damage to the conversion and utilization of personal inspiration knowledge.

Step 2: focus on these new inspirational knowledge raw materials or inspirational knowledge semi-finished products to find out why these knowledge raw materials or knowledge semi-finished products flash in your mind, what things, phenomena, or knowledge elements are stimulated, related to things, phenomena, processes, people, and specific places; let's see how much relevance it has. This is a horizontal correlation. Then there is a vertical correlation between thinking, to see if these knowledge raw materials or semi-finished products are related to the previous accumulated knowledge in the mind, can they be incorporated into the brain knowledge system? If yes, the knowledge raw materials or semi-finished products will be in what position in the overall knowledge structure of the brain, what impact it has on the overall knowledge structure of the brain, and whether it has improved the knowledge structure of the brain, is it possible to further inspire new inspiration or wisdom.

Step 3: Check the knowledge raw materials or semi-finished products using documents to see if these knowledge raw materials or semi-finished products can be incorporated into the explicit knowledge system accumulated by yourself, if you can, analyze where it is, whether there are complementary knowledge, conflicts between knowledge, and the reasons. This is actually a task of mutual evidence between knowledge. Let's take a look at this.The correctness, accuracy, and future development of new inspiration knowledge.

Step 4: communicate with people who are interested or need knowledge of raw materials or semi-finished products (the objects of communication must be carefully selected, instead, they conduct extensive and in-depth exchanges, which must take these inspiration knowledge as the subject of communication. There are certainly many ways and means of communication, but it can always be attributed to direct communication and indirect communication, face-to-face communication in direct communication, exchanges at seminars or seminars, and exchanges of knowledge are all good methods and worth trying. Through communication, new knowledge will be inspired and a new spark of wisdom will emerge. Of course, in the context of modern information technology, it is a good way to choose online communication. To a certain extent, it can also achieve or be close to the effect of face-to-face communication, in addition, this method can greatly expand the scope of the communication, coupled with bold communication, often unexpected results. You can also choose other communication methods, such as traditional correspondence and telephone communication. No matter which communication method you choose, you must make preparations for the communication so that participants can fully understand the topic to be discussed and the participants can understand the importance and necessity of the topic, master the communication process to prevent or avoid the deviation from the subject during the communication process, so as to achieve the effectiveness of the communication.

Step 5: Evaluate the knowledge to see what practical problems the new knowledge can solve, what theoretical and practical significance the new knowledge has, and what the application prospects are, which formal knowledge category or knowledge system can be incorporated.

Through the above five steps, we can quickly manage the conversion of inspiration knowledge, so that it can be applied step by step as possible.

4 Innovation Management of personal knowledge projects

Personal knowledge project management is also a kind of organization knowledge project management to a large extent, because projects often come from the delegation of the Organization, in addition, the use of project funds, process control, result appraisal, and award evaluation activities must be carried out by the Organization, but the knowledge project is ultimately shared by individuals in the project team. Therefore, the author emphasizes the management responsibilities and obligations of individuals for their own knowledge projects. Personal knowledge project management focuses on innovation management, because innovation is the soul of knowledge projects and the core value of knowledge projects. The so-called innovation management of knowledge projects, in my understanding, is the knowledge project management centered on innovation. Through this innovation management, we strive to make the knowledge achievements produced by personal knowledge projects, it is "the first time in the world to discover, invent, create or apply". The meaning of "newest" is the new meaning of intellectual property rights, that is, there are significant changes in principles, structures, functions, properties, methods, processes, and other aspects, not new in time or geographical significance." [11]

4. 1Innovation Management of personal knowledge projects
According to the above understanding, the Innovation Management of personal knowledge projects mainly includes the following aspects:

The first is the novelty in the selection of knowledge projects. This is a prerequisite for project innovation. To be innovative and advanced, you cannot repeat others' research questions. So how can we ensure the novelty of the project's selection? The solution is to strengthen the tracking of cutting-edge research in various disciplines and fields, strengthen the connections and academic exchanges between individuals and countries, and use the relevant retrieval systems in China and internationally, enhance the search for question libraries.

Second, set the goal of personal knowledge project innovation. Once the innovation objectives of the knowledge project are set, all parties in the project team should join hands and make every effort to tackle the problem, so that the achievement of the goal truly becomes the benchmark of the knowledge project innovation. Of course, the goal setting should also take into account the Restrictive Factors of the project level, time, funding, project team's research capabilities, and so on. Both the advanced nature and rationality and feasibility should be emphasized.

The second is to control the quality of the project research process. In the study of knowledge projects, we must make sure that we come up with our own things and find the unique "this one" to meet the Goal requirements, any opportunistic work or "cheap work" is essential. Instead of focusing on the quantity, the quality, the progress, and the effect, the results, and innovation. At present, there are serious problems in scientific research, especially academic research. The results of plagiarism and plagiarism have been repeated. In this case, we need to strengthen the quality control and innovation management of the research process of personal knowledge projects.

Fourth, the Knowledge achievement should be reasonably incorporated into the process of personal and organizational knowledge accumulation, utilization and updating. It is necessary to ensure the dissemination of knowledge achievements and innovation in application, so that project achievements can be effectively transformed and applied, and their productive forces can be played. It cannot be considered that once the project is completed and accepted, the task is completely completed.

4. 2 innovative management methods for personal knowledge projects
in my opinion, to do a good job in innovative management of personal knowledge projects, we can start with the following methods.
(1) Improve the Academic Standardization management of personal theoretical research and basic research. This is an important guarantee for implementing innovative management of personal knowledge projects. There are two meanings of Academic Standardization: first, the standardization of knowledge reference, beware of over-referencing or over-referencing, and make reference marks in a realistic manner. The standardization of Knowledge references implies an important principle: the reference should take knowledge innovation as its purpose and serve knowledge innovation. Only in this way can the goal of personal knowledge project management be reflected. The second is to sort out the current situation of knowledge in this field when writing academic papers, to find out the extent to which the predecessors and others have studied the problem and what problems are left behind, identify the historical context of knowledge and grasp the relationship between knowledge. On this basis, determine the problems to be solved, the work to be done, and the extent to which the study can be done, we need to make a clear explanation. In a word, we need to find out the position of our research in the Knowledge status chart of the entire field [12].
(2) establish the concept of knowledge innovation. Knowledge Innovation is the life of knowledge projects, the source of competition for individuals and organizations, and the main melody of the era of knowledge economy. Project Owners and participants must fully understand the concept of "Knowledge Innovation first" and cultivate the subject consciousness of knowledge innovation, to form a sense of responsibility and mission of knowledge innovation that focuses on me and starts from me, we must have the sincerity and courage to "Never innovate, never give up.
(3) Implement the Personal Knowledge Innovation responsibility system. In order to promote personal knowledge innovation, the project owner must take responsibility and maintain close contact with the project team members for necessary guidance, supervision, and communication during the project study, the responsibility system for personal knowledge innovation should also be formulated and implemented to define the knowledge innovation objectives, rewards and punishments standards and specific implementation methods of each member, so that knowledge innovation can be specifically implemented to each person in the project team. For members whose knowledge innovation is not up to standard, they may be considered to be excluded from the research team in subsequent studies.
(4) Evaluate the knowledge project with the project owner as the core.
the novelty and advancement of project achievements should be evaluated, especially the evaluation of stage knowledge achievements, which must be carried out in strict accordance with the standards of knowledge innovation.

Targeted Management of 5 Individual Learning

The focus of personal learning management is targeted management, because in the knowledge economy and network environment, the knowledge content, approaches, methods, methods, knowledge structures, and practical needs of individuals are becoming more and more complex. To ensure the efficiency and effect of personal learning, targeted management becomes the focus of management.

The first is to improve the mental model of an individual. Mental patterns are many assumptions, stereotypes, values, beliefs, ideas, images, impressions, and so on that are rooted in people's minds and influence people's understanding of the world and how they take actions ." [13] mental patterns are not easy to observe, and their impact is not easy to discover. Bad Mental patterns impede individual learning, and sound mental patterns help individual learning. Therefore, as an individual, you must always cultivate and improve your mental model to form a sound and good mental model that lays a good foundation for individual learning. An adult often forms a seemingly "deep-rooted" mental model based on his own experiences and cannot be changed. As long as we work hard and persistently (such as spreading out our mental patterns, taking a good mental model as an example, checking our lack of mental and smart patterns, and then openly communicating ideas with others, and slowly change it in action.) to a certain extent, you can improve your mental model.

The second is to make up for short items in the personal knowledge structure. According to the "Barrel Principle" in management, the development and growth of an organization (individual) are not limited by its long term (strong), but by its short term (weak ), this is the so-called "Short Term Effect ". In this case, Personal Learning Management should give priority to short items in terms of knowledge structure. The logical premise of compensatory learning is to check whether its knowledge structure is not adaptive to the current environment due to a shortage in one aspect. Intentionally and consciously observe the Personal Knowledge Structure horizontally, make up for the learning on this basis, and gradually establish and improve the personal professional knowledge system, which can be applied comprehensively for the future, dynamically combine the knowledge of different disciplines to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of individuals and lay a solid foundation.

The third is to strengthen learning based on the strengths in the personal knowledge structure. Knowledge strengths are more important to individuals. To a certain extent, they are the primary reliance on individual survival and development. Therefore, everyone must maintain their strengths to keep pace with the times, reinforcement Learning is essential. As the saying goes, although it is about human skills, it is about knowledge, or the foundation of knowledge. With the accelerated development of science and technology and the accelerated pace of knowledge updating, you must update your original unique knowledge strengths to maintain characteristics and enhance your strengths, keep your "tricks" fresh, so that you have a unique position in the workplace and competition, and there is no alternative. From the perspective of horizontal relationships, there is an important principle in the evolution of the knowledge structure-same and different requirements. For the same industry, basic professional knowledge is required. This is the common knowledge of the family, we also need to have a certain kind of unique knowledge, or have an extraordinary level of proficiency in the knowledge we all have. This is a "different request ". "Same storage" is the foundation, and "Seeking for difference" is the development. Whether it is to make up for short items of knowledge or to strengthen the learning of Knowledge strengths, the ultimate pursuit is the overall optimization of the knowledge structure and ability.

The fourth is to arrange personal learning for the actual needs of the workplace.
When people are in the workplace, they often face endless new technologies, new ideas, new management methods, and the pressure of corresponding vocational skills. Today, the competition is becoming increasingly fierce and knowledge updates are accelerating, there is no such kind of professional knowledge that can be used for good and good life. Therefore, it is necessary to participate in on-the-job training and study classes to learn some popular current knowledge to meet the practical needs of the workplace for new knowledge.

The fifth is to learn the problems to be solved and the tasks to be completed. The problems and tasks are in front of us. They may be completely new and cannot be solved by relying on old knowledge and experience. In this case, we can only conduct targeted learning or consulting, so there is no other way to do it. In fact, the essence of solving problems and completing tasks through consultation is a kind of knowledge extraction, which is still a learning process for employees of the unit.

The sixth is to learn the characteristics of the individual. To learn based on your own characteristics, you must first cultivate your interest and hobbies in learning, especially continuous learning, so that learning is based on your hobbies and can be learned happily. The ancients said: "The wise is better than the good, and the better is better than the happy ." Obviously, the hobby and pleasure of learning can greatly improve the learning effect of individuals. Next, we should start from our own conditions, learn in a planned and targeted manner, master the corresponding learning methods, select appropriate personal learning tools, and arrange appropriate learning methods. For example, people with cheerful personality can use interactive learning methods to Join learning organizations, learn while working, and exchange and learn among various interest groups, professional organizations, and project teams. Communicating with others and learning with an open mind can benefit a lot, because "three people must have our teachers ". Introverted people can store and accumulate explicit knowledge, and work hard on personal transformation of public knowledge, suitable for the use of advanced knowledge collection and processing technology and personal knowledge management software (system ). Of course, this kind of responsiveness is not absolute. The second is to reflect on the opposite of learning-teaching. From the perspective of "Teaching", "teaching is better than teaching, but teaching is better than teaching, from the perspective of learning, we should not only learn the speech expression knowledge of others, but also understand and learn the knowledge and experience that others set an example by themselves and demonstrate and reveal in their actions, we should also integrate ourselves into a situation where the environment is open, the communication is free, and there is a strong interest in learning. In addition, we should not only conduct systematic learning on the past knowledge system, but also identify new knowledge and learn in a timely manner on the basis of being sensitive to environmental changes and new problems, so that we can keep pace with the times in terms of knowledge, in a word, never give up the pursuit and learning of new knowledge. Seventh, efforts should be made to make the learned knowledge a common sense. That is to say, we need to grasp the level and degree of knowledge. "Common Sense" refers to the knowledge that can be correctly used without having to flip books. An obvious fact is that the more common sense is used, the more powerful it can be. Therefore, turning knowledge into common sense is conducive to the conscious use of knowledge, so that knowledge can generate higher value. So how can we make knowledge a common sense? There are two solutions: one is to learn repeatedly, and the other is to continuously use this knowledge.


Timely management of personal inspiration knowledge, innovative management of personal knowledge projects, and targeted management of personal learning are three key areas of personal knowledge management, in this paper, they are extracted from the research orientation of the longitudinal knowledge management process and studied, hoping to open a new research direction and lead to further exploration by other researchers.


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