Database server Security

Source: Internet
Author: User
Keywords Security server
The database server is actually the foundation of every electronic transaction, financial and enterprise resource Planning (ERP) system, and it often includes sensitive information from business partners and customers. Although the data integrity and security of these systems are important, the level of security checks taken against the database is not as high as the security measures of the operating system and the network. Many factors can disrupt data integrity and lead to illegal access, including complexity, poor password security, misconfigured, undetected system backdoor, and mandatory routine use of adaptive database security methods. Why is the database security issue so important? Protects system-sensitive information and digital assets from unauthorized access. Any company's major digital assets are stored in modern relational data products. Business organizations and government organizations use these database servers to get personnel information, such as employee payroll, medical records, etc. So they have a responsibility to protect the privacy of others and keep them secret. The database server also contains previous and future sensitive financial data, including trade records, commercial contracts and accounting data. Confidential information, such as ownership of technology, engineering data, and even marketing planning, must keep the competition confidential and prevent unauthorized access, and the database server also includes detailed customer information such as financial accounts, credit card numbers, and credit information for business partners. The database is a very complex system, so it is difficult to properly configure and secure the application of the database server is quite complex and difficult to master-and of course the operating system used by the competition is just as complex. Oracle, Sybase, and Microsoft SQL Servers all have the following characteristics: User accounts and passwords, validation systems, priority models, and special permissions to control database targets, built-in commands (stored steps or packages), unique scripting and programming languages (typically SQL-specific derivative language) , middleware, network protocols, patches, and service packs ⑶ pits, , were Fairlie xing, polyester, oyster, ⒐ぞ, and 郉 BA are busy managing complex systems, so it is likely that there are no serious security risks and improper configuration, or even no detection at all. Therefore, it is precisely because the traditional security system largely ignores the topic of database security that the database professionals often do not regard security issues as their primary task. The idea of "adaptive network security"-seeing security issues as an ongoing "worker process" rather than a one-time check-is not accepted by most database administrators. Ensuring network and operating system data security on the database server is critical, but these measures are not sufficient to secure the database server. There is a widespread misconception among many senior security professionals that all applications on the server are secure once they have been accessed and locked out of critical network services and operating system vulnerabilities. Modern database system has a variety of features and performance configuration methods, in use may be mistakenUse, or endanger the confidentiality, validity and integrity of the data. First, all modern relational database systems are "port addressable", which means that anyone with the right query tool can connect directly to the database and avoid the security mechanism of the operating system. For example, you can use the TCP/IP protocol to access Oracle 7.3 and 8 databases from ports 1521 and 1526. Most database systems also have well-known default accounts and passwords that support all levels of access to database resources. Combining these two simple data, many important database systems are likely to be affected by the threat. Unfortunately, the high level of intruders has not stopped attacking the database. Poor database security facilities not only endanger the security of the database, but also affect the server's operating system and other credit systems. There is also a less obvious reason for the importance of ensuring database security-the database system itself may provide a mechanism to endanger the entire network system. For example, a company might use a database server to keep inventory lists of all technical manuals, documents, and white papers. This information in the database is not particularly important, so its security priority is not high. Even in a well functioning operating system, intruders can gain access to the local operating system by accessing the database with powerful built-in database features such as extended entry procedures. These programs can issue administrator-level commands to access the basic operating system and all of its resources. If this particular database system has a credit relationship with other servers, intruders can compromise the security of the entire network domain. Databases are the foundation of new electronic transactions, enterprise resource Planning (ERP), and other important business systems. While E-commerce and electronic commerce focus on Web servers, Java, and other new technologies, it should be remembered that these user-oriented and enterprise-enterprise systems are based on a Web server relational database. Their security is directly related to the effectiveness of the system, data and transaction integrity, confidentiality. Inefficient system delays not only affect business activities, but also affect the company's credibility. Inevitably, these systems are more likely to be invaded, but do not have more effective precautions against the confidentiality of sensitive information from business partners and customers. In addition, ERP and management systems, such as ASPR/3 and PeopleSoft, are built on the same standard database system. Unattended security vulnerabilities are directly related to time delays, system integrity issues, and customer trust. What type of security vulnerability do I need to look for? Traditional database security systems focus on only the following: User accounts, roles, and operational licenses for specific database targets. For example, access to forms and stored steps. A broader, thorough security analysis of the database system must be done to identify potential vulnerabilities in all possible areas, including the following. Risks associated with the software provided by the vendor-software bugs, missing OS patches, fragileService and choose an insecure default configuration. Management-related risks-security options available but not properly used, dangerous defaults, more inappropriate permissions to the user, unauthorized changes to the system configuration. Risks associated with user activity-malicious actions such as insufficient password length, illegal access to critical data, and theft of database content. All of these risks can occur in network devices, operating systems, or databases themselves. These factors should be taken into account when securing the database server. Database security-vulnerability areas and examples there are many database server vulnerabilities and bad configurations in important database servers. Several instances are listed below. The security features are not mature enough-most of the common relational database systems have existed for more than 10 of years and have strong characteristics and are very mature. Unfortunately, many of the features that it and security professionals take for granted are not available in the operating system and in the database system that is now commonly used. Non-built-in database standard security performance MS SQL Server Sybase Oracle 7 Oracle 8 account lockout device No no no Yes Rename admin Account No no no no no no no no no no yes stale account no no n No password No Yes No Yes no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no no. For example, the table above lists the features that most IT professionals expect or require the operating system to have, but does not appear in the database server's standard security Because these databases are port addressable, the core security mechanisms of the operating system are not applied to databases that are directly connected to the network. Some products, such as Microsoft SQL Server, can use a more powerful Windows NT security mechanism to discover the security vulnerabilities mentioned above. However, most of the security standards for MS SQL Server are still enforced, considering compatibility issues (not all Windows NT). and implementation is another matter. If the company is Oracle 8, how can administrators know if the security features are actually implemented? Has it been implemented throughout the company? The combination of these features makes the problems associated with them even more severe. Because the system administrator account is not renamed (SQL and Sybase is "SA", for Oracle is "System" and "sys"), if no password blockade is available or configured, the intruder can launch a powerful dictionary login attack on the database server, which will eventually break the password, What can stand in the way of their patience with the server and persistent high level of attack? Database Password Management-there is no mechanism in the security standards provided by most database systems to ensure that a user is choosing a strong-orarbitrary-password. This basic security issue requires careful supervision. There is also a need for management and security checks on all password lists. For example, an Oracle database system has more than 10 specific default user accounts and passwords, as well as a unique password for managing important database operations, such as management of an Oracle database startup, access to a network audience, and remote access to the database. If security problems arise, many of these systems have passwords that allow intruders to have full access to the database, which is even stored in the normal text file of the operating system. Here are a few examples: Oracle Internal password-oracle internal passwords are stored in a text file named "Strxxx.cmd", XXX is an Oracle system ID or SID, and the default is "ORCL". Used in the Oracle database startup process, the Oracle Internet password is used, with the right to randomly access the database resources. This file should be properly kept for use with Windows NT based Oracle programs. Oracle Listener procedure Password-the password used to start and stop the Oracle listener process, which routes all new services to the appropriate Oracle example on the system, choosing a password-strong default value for the replacement system, which must be in "Listener.ora" File, which stores all Oracle password. Improper access to passwords may allow intruders to deny service attacks on Oracle-based electronic trading sites. Oracle internal Password-"ORAPW" file license control-oracle internal Password and SYSDBA authorized account password stored in the "ORAPW" text file. Although files are encrypted, in Oracle's UNIX and Windows NT programs, you want to limit the permissions to use the file. If the file is accessed, the decrypted file is vulnerable to a powerful attack. These examples illustrate how important administrators, system passwords, and accounts can be attacked by unexpected attack methods. Note that password management issues are by no means limited to Oracle databases, and almost all major database provider products have this problem. The backdoor of the operating system-many database systems feature parameters that are convenient for DBAs, but also leave a backdoor for the database server host operating system. As mentioned above, intruders who have compromised the "sa" password of Sybase or SQL Servers may have access to the basic operating system using the extended in program. Logged in as an "sa", an intruder uses an extended docking program, Xp–cmdshell, which allows users of Sybase or SQL Servers to run System directives just as if the user were running instructions on the server console. For example, you can use the following SQL instructions to add a Windows NT account, the account name is "Hacker1", the password is "Nopassoword", and Add "Hacker1" to the "Administrators" group: Xp-cmdshell ' net user Hacker1 nopassword/add ' Goxp-comdshell ' net Localgroup/add Administrators hacker1 ' Go now this illegal intruder is windows. NT Administrator (we can only pray that this SQL Server is not a domain controller). This simple attack was successful because the command was submitted to the operating system of a utility Windows NT account, and the MSSQLServer service ran under this account. By default, this account is the "LocalSystem" account---The most effective account in the local Windows NT system. Another approach is that hackers may use SQL Servers, using an xp-regread to read out encrypted Windows NT Sam passwords from the registry, which poses a threat to the security of your operating system. Because there are several free Windows NT password attacker software, it is particularly important to keep your encrypted Windows NT password safe. The following examples illustrate how intruders get information: Xp-regread ' hkey–local–machine ', ' securitysamdomainsaccount ', ' F ', note that reading out the encryption password from the registry is a local Windows NT Administrator account can not do. The SQL Server is able to do so because the SQL service that is running by default is using the "LocalSystem" account. Oracle database systems also have many useful features that can be used for direct access to the operating system with its own file system. For example, when legally accessed, the Utl_file package allows users to read and write files to the host operating system. Utl_file_dir Simple file variables can be easily misconfigured or deliberately set to allow Oracle users to use Utl_file packages anywhere in the file system, which poses a potential threat to host operating systems. Check-relational database system calibration system can record information and events, from the basic situation to any details, without omission. However, the calibration system can provide useful security precaution and warning information only under the premise of reasonable use and configuration. When intruders are attempting to invade a particular database server, these features provide early warning information that provides valuable clues for detecting and compensating for losses. Trojan Horse-although people know the Trojan wood in the operating systemHorse program has been for several years, but the database administrator also need to note the Trojan Horse program to the system into the threat of the program. A well-known Trojan horse program modifies the password of the assigned program, and when the password is updated, the intruder gets a new password. For example, an individual can add a few lines of command to the Sp–password system's entry program, add a new password to the form, pass the password with an e-mail message, or write the password to an external file for later use. This approach allows for successive access to the password until the intruder's "sa" password is replaced-making deeper intrusions undetected. An intruder or disgruntled employee can only enter the system once, and after the Trojan is placed, a series of passwords will be available. Summarizing security professionals, inspectors, DBAs, and e-business planners will need to be aware of database security issues when deploying critical business systems. To understand the security status and development direction of the system, you have to deploy the system to make the most thorough assessment of the database server and conduct a regular security assessment. All systems should adopt information risk management principles to monitor, detect and respond to security vulnerabilities. Responsible Editor Zhao TEL: (010) 68476636-8001 to force (0 Votes) Tempted (0 Votes) nonsense (0 Votes) Professional (0 Votes) The title party (0 Votes) passed (0 Votes) The original text: safe return of the database server network security Home
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