Linux Learning Tutorial II

Source: Internet
Author: User

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I believe that a lot of beginners who want to learn Linux are worried about what to look at Linux learning Tutorials Good, the following small series for everyone to collect and organize some of the more important tutorials for everyone to learn, if you want to learn more words, can go to wdlinux school to find more tutorials.

Install PHP Extension Module phpize

One way to install PHP modules is to recompile PHP with related parameters

One is used to phpize, such as Eaccelerator,memcache, this is more convenient, do not recompile PHP, can also be enabled or deactivated at any time

Here's how to use Phpize

In the system where PHP is installed, there will be this file, in the Wdlinux system, this file


And then into the corresponding to compile the source directory, and then run the above phpize, will generate the appropriate configuration, and then run the configuration, the compilation can be completed


Tar zxvf eaccelerator-

CD eaccelerator-




Make install

As long as there is no error, this is done, the module is installed

There is one that may need to be configured or set

You can modify the php.ini file, such as


Linux distribution or branch

Specifically, Linux should be a kernel, Linux system kernel, but today's Linux, usually refers to a system, this is called the system

How does Linux come from?

The first was written by a Finnish college student, later published on the network, and is open source published, anyone can download the world, you can see the source code

Also because of open source, there are some open source enthusiasts interested in participating in open source and maintenance

Today, this is a very powerful and mature system.

It says, Linux is a system, is also a kernel, and open source

Because of open source, and strong, there are a lot of companies, teams participate in, develop, improve

There are many branches and versions because of the different applications or the user groups considered

I think, the most powerful and influential, it will be redhat,suse, and debian,centos,ubuntu,fedora,gentoo,slackware,mint and so on, too much.

Now, centos,ubuntu a lot of people.

Desktop version of Ubuntu is very good, server version, I did not use, not good comment, but there are still a lot of people use

I think CentOS is better, this is based on the Redhat of the compiled version, may be the reason I used to, so like, but also a lot of people think CentOS is very good

So, I've also made a streamlined version based on CentOS, which is for Web servers, and integrates the most current web environments, as well as the WDCP management system

Can manage servers, virtual hosts, create Web sites, FTP, databases, etc.

Linux history and the branch version, too much, here is simply introduced, I personally understand and familiar with the

In Windows, we are accustomed to using the letter, such as c,d,e,f ... Disk, etc., representing each partition

In Linux, there is no concept of the letter, all partitions or hard disk, are represented by the directory, directories and files, representing all, and the topmost directory, is called the root directory

Here, also understand the root directory or root partition, the root directory will have a corresponding subdirectory or partition, you can understand that the root directory is Windows "My Computer"

At the same time, either partition can load or mount any directory or subdirectory, which can be used flexibly for specific applications or needs.

A typical Linux directory structure is listed below

/root directory

Bin to store the necessary orders

Boot store kernel and boot required files, etc.

/dev Storage device files

ETC Storage System configuration file

FileSystem The home directory of user files, where user data is stored in its home directory

Lib store the necessary run-time libraries

MNT store the temporary mapping file system, we often hang the floppy drive and the optical drive in the filename and CDROM subdirectories here.

/proc Storage process and System information

/root Super User's home directory

/sbin Storage System Management Program

/tmp directory for temporary files

/usr contains applications that do not normally need to be modified, command program files, libraries, manuals, and other documents.

var contains frequently changing files generated by the system, such as printers, mail, news, spool catalogs, log files, formatted hand albums, and data files for some applications, etc.

The structure in the/usr directory is as

The typical/usr directory is as follows:

/USR/X11R6 Storage X Window System

/usr/bin Store added User program

/usr/dict Store Dictionary

/usr/doc an appended document

/USR/ETC Storage settings File

/usr/games Store games and teaching documents

/usr/include Storage C Development tool header file

/usr/info holds GNU information file

/usr/lib Repository Files

USR stores locally generated incremental applications

/usr/man Store online Help files

Sbin Storage of additional management procedures

/usr/share storing structure-independent data

/USR/SRC Storage Program Source code

Linux directory structure

Because the files in/usr are not related to a particular computer and are not modified in common use, this directory can be shared over the network (file system) so that when the administrator installs the new software, all computers that share the file system can use the new software.

Linux inherits the clear features of the UNIX operating system. The file structure under Linux is very organized. However, the above advantages can only be realized when you are quite familiar with Linux. Now, bugs are simply introducing the directory structure under Linux.


We already know that every Linux has a kernel (vmlinuz), and we add modules to the kernel that can accomplish a variety of specific functions, each of which is embodied in various directories in Linux. Of course, there are small differences in the catalogues of different distributions, but the main structure is the same. We also need to combine Linux's functional modules with a variety of applications so that your Linux system can serve you. The kernel of the system is stored in the/vmlinuz directory. Remember when we were configuring Lilo to mention this kernel?


Obviously, the bin is a binary (binary) abbreviation. In the general system, you can find the Linux common commands in this directory. In some versions you will also find directories that are the same as the root directory.


stored in this directory are the programs to be used when the system starts. We use some of this information when we use LILO to boot Linux.


Dev is the initials of the device (device). This directory is important to all users. This directory contains the external devices used in all Linux systems. But this is not a driver for external devices. This is different from our usual Windows, DOS operating system. It is actually a port to access these external devices. We can easily access these external devices, and access to a file, a directory without any distinction. For example: We type in the system: Cd/dev/cdrom we can see the files in the CD drive. In the same way, we type: Cd/dev/mouse can look at the relevant files of the mouse. In this directory, there is a null device, which has no meaning in itself. If you write a file or content to this directory, they have nothing to go back to.


This directory is empty when you just installed the system. You can hang the optical drive file system in this directory. For example: Mount/dev/cdrom/cdrom


Etc This directory is one of the most important directories in the Linux system. A variety of configuration files and subdirectories are stored in this directory for system administration. We want to use the network profile, file system, x system configuration files, device configuration information, set user information, etc. are in this directory. Later, the worm will also explain the contents of this directory in detail.


This directory is used to store system administrator's system management programs.


If we build a user, the username is "xx", then there is a corresponding/home/xx path in the filesystem directory to hold the user's home directory.


Lib is the library English abbreviation. This directory is used to store system dynamically connected shared libraries. Almost all applications use shared libraries in this directory. Therefore, do not easily do what this directory operation, once there is a problem, your system can not work, then you do not say bug did not remind you AH.


This directory is empty in most cases. But if you're working on a sudden blackout, or not shutting down in a normal way, when you restart the machine, some files will not be able to find where it should be, and for those files, the system places them in this directory, like providing a temporary shelter for the homeless.


This directory is also empty in general. You can temporarily hang another file system in this directory.


You can get system information in this directory. This information is in memory, generated by the system itself.


If you are logged in as a superuser, this is the home directory of the super user.


A temporary file that is used to store the execution of different programs.


This is the directory in the Linux system that occupies the largest amount of hard disk space. Many of the user's applications and files are stored in this


This tutorial is excerpted from Wdlinux forum, reprint please specify!

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