January 25 This year, U.S. President Barack Obama in the United States Congress issued a second State of the Union address since taking office. In his one-hour speech, "Winning the Future" became the topic of high frequency. The third step to winning the future, he suggests, is "rebuilding America's Infrastructure", the most important of which is to provide next-generation high-speed Internet access to 98% of Americans within the next 5 years.
On February 3, the Internet Domain name Authority (ICANN) announced in Miami, the United States, that the IPV4 address library has been depleted, a major historical event in the world's Internet. It also means that the new generation of Internet has entered an era of accelerated construction, which requires a high degree of understanding from the top of the global Internet of the significance of the changes brought about by the IPV6 address model. To this end, the famous strategic scholar Professor Wu Jiandong wrote the morning paper detailing the overall development strategy of China's new generation of Internet.
Wu Jiandong in this series of articles, IPV6 address upgrade is only a superficial problem, its essence is the TCP/IP protocol and domain name management system to a higher level of organizational change. For the first time, he put forward four kinds of models to construct the new generation of Internet by IPv6 change, and pointed out that the Internet is not only a productive force, but also a third currency which is tied to money and energy, and the Internet is the basic property of the world shared with the sea and space.
To this end, Wu Jiandong proposed the development of "super Internet" strategic thinking, that is, in the existing Internet, energy network, bio-network, environmental network, industrial network, financial network, based on the duplex domain name Analysis System, the Public protocol group, advanced wireless or wired communication links, the construction of the network on the "Network of public network" network cluster, to achieve human , machine, network and the integration of flexibility
Since IPV6 has not yet constructed its main battlefield, the author also systematically discusses the system, structure and rules of the integration of Internet and energy network.
Wu Jiandong that the internet is not only a productive force, but also a third currency tied to money and energy. The internet should reflect the mainstream consciousness of the market, embody the core interests of the world and radiate the spirit of human innovation.
During the Chinese New Year, the biggest event in the world was the change in the use of Internet IPv4 addresses. According to the U.S. Hurricane network (Hurricane Tepco, the world's largest IPV6 Internet backbone and leading host hosting provider) IPV4 address Countdown card, as of February 2, 2011, the Internet IPV4 address has been exhausted. ICANN, the global Internet IP address management agency, also announced February 3, 2011 in Miami, US, that the last 5 groups of addresses based on the Internet communications IPV4 protocol have been assigned to the world's five regional internet registries, and the IPV4 address matrix has been Ching, The future development of the Internet will be to popularize next generation Internet Communication protocol IPV6 in the world.
However, the announcement is not enough to cause panic in the world. On the one hand, it will take some time for the five regional Internet registries in the world to finalize the IPV4 address placement, on the other hand, IPV6 application has not found the commercial battlefield, its promotion period is also the most favorable application cycle.
However, Internet IP Address resources have indeed become one of the hottest topics in the world today.
The so-called IPV4, the fourth edition of the Internet Protocol (Internet Protocol,ip), is also the first protocol to be widely used to form the cornerstone of today's Internet technology. The current IP protocol version is divided into IPv4 and IPv6 two, and IPV6 can provide a larger address resource than IPV4.
In fact, announcing the IPV4 address is only a superficial problem, but it should be more Olling the spirit of the truth behind the scenes-this essence includes how to build a comprehensive network to meet the 21st century market, but also contains how to achieve the international division of the Internet and international benefits distribution.
1, IP address upgrade logic starting point: The next generation of internet four kinds of development mode
What is the basic power of the Internet? How does it work? This is the Internet upgrade, reorganization, the main problem of transformation.
Because all the services in the Internet depend on the domain name parsing, as well as the unique IP address to realize the interaction, therefore, the Internet two basic power is the TCP/IP protocol and domain name management system, the essence of the network between them together with the construction of the core mechanism of the Internet. As far as the two natures are concerned, the former holds the table, the latter is in, and in both positions, the former is a frame and the latter is a frame; for both expressions, the former is global and pervasive, and the latter is the top of the internet power of ICANN's management hub, the United States. The design of any internet change strategy can not be separated from the above two elements, inseparable, indispensable, in which the Domain name Management Authority has a decision status, whether the IP address is up, or address how to upgrade all reside in the Internet architecture subordinate position.
Therefore, the design of different domain name management embodies the development mode of different Internet, and different Internet development mode should be based on major technological change and market expansion.
The internet is not only a productive force, but also a third currency tied to money and energy. The internet should reflect the mainstream consciousness of the market, embody the core interests of the world and radiate the spirit of human innovation.
From the Dapodali of the Internet reengineering, there can be roughly four kinds of models:
One is to continue to maintain the ICANN-led model of internet community governance, which is essentially a model of the United States-based analytic model of the root service, whose limitations are limited to the expansion of the sovereign and private markets. If the international community is to develop the Internet market as the first goal, this model will need to keep pace with the times, to accommodate the challenges and changes.
Second, the implementation of the model of common governance by a number of international organizations, that is, from a group of ICANN management model to a multinational group of international models, the core of this model is through different international organizations to achieve root server management expansion, autonomy, can be compatible with the energy network, financial network, environmental network and other security needs, The transition dividend of this model is a limited democratization of Internet management in exchange for the expansion of the market.
Third, reference to the ITU Telecom's numbering, naming, addressing and identification of resource allocation and management procedures, the establishment of sovereign state-dominated Internet domain name management interconnection mechanism, such as: The ITU e.164 standards for the allocation of international telephone area code mode. The core of this model is to establish a loose root server management model based on each country or region, and its transformation is difficult to start and manage the system.
Four, the existing Internet restructuring into a great power governance model. For example, a coordination mechanism based on an alliance of large or great powers as the major Internet centre in the world, or restructured as a cooperative mechanism based on G20 countries, or a major national accountability model based on other hybrid mechanisms. The core of this model is that the existing Internet corporate governance model, which is based on the United States and ICANN as the main operator, has evolved into a great power responsibility system, which has the advantages of both the democratization of the Internet and the marketization of the Internet, especially the market of the accumulation of Internet and the expansion of new technology
The above four models reflect the sovereign interests of sovereign States or national alliances, and the Internet is the basic feature of the world's shared property, which is tied to the ocean and space. These four models are more of a development framework model, which may eventually form the compound development of several models, or a crossover strategy that can reorganize multiple patterns into a partial implementation, should have "a philosophical reflection on what the Internet should be, and a scientific judgment of what the Internet will be." It must also provide the main features of the innovative resources that the Internet can be.
The above architecture solves the problem of the logical starting point of the Internet IPv6 upgrade, that is, whether from IPV4 upgrade to IPV6 or simply the expansion of the Internet domain name server, its basic points should be compound, that is, the TCP/IP protocol and domain name management system changes and evolution.
Domain name management system, not only revealed the nature of upgrade from IPv4 to IPV6, but also explained the challenges of a new generation of internet construction and profound!
2, the network world to create a reflection: Historically, how to establish the dominance of IP protocol?
The creation of the internet originates from thought experiments rather than technological inventions, this doomed the architecture of the Internet has the characteristics of the system and the long cycle, and system innovation is higher than technological innovation, those who can control the future innovation ideas of the network will be able to win the future, have the future, and this premise is to focus on architectural innovation. According to this, the idea of comprehensive reform, the principle of concentrating the technology and resource breakthrough, the idea of compatible with various networks and the principle of super interconnection can be fully embodied and fully applied.
It can be said that the real leadership of the Internet is mainly reflected in the ideological leadership. This conclusion can be understood more clearly by reviewing history.
Correctly understanding the initial architecture design of Joseph Liclede Internet
One of the world's leading Internet-recognized leaders is Professor J.c.r.licklider (Joseph Liclede), an expert on psychology and artificial intelligence at MIT. In the 1960, he designed the initial architecture of the Internet-a computer network connected by a broadband communication line-to realize the function of information storage, extraction and man-machine interaction.
For now, the innovation of this idea is that after the telephone network, Telegraph network, Radio network, the birth of the fourth network of computer-oriented, its limitation is that the computer network as a parallel to other communication networks, as one of the network, not as beyond the communications, energy, industry, The mega-system of the network of traffic over the network is uniformly unified or compatible with other networks, and is not used as an artificial intelligence network in parallel with the natural network to improve the amount of the Super network. To some extent, the early design of the Internet architecture constrains the expansion of the Internet's explosive character, resulting in the natural inadequacy of the design of Internet protocols and the construction of its organizational management model, thus creating the fragility and limitation of contemporary Internet protocols, Future generations can only promote the evolution of Internet management with the Congfong of adding patches and escalation protocols.
So, today, the industry has been the creation of a new Internet innovation planning, perhaps to enable them than to reorganize the internet is easier, so, from the United States Geni plan to LP7 action in Europe, the recycling of the internet has been Loyang, public listen and view, Hung Ming soberly!
Professor J.c.r.licklider later became the first core leader of the U.S. Defense Department's senior research program. Based on the above thought, the development route of the computer network can be summed up as the model of "Test Net-computer network", rather than the development route of establishing "Synergy Network-integrated network" between computer network and telephone network, telegraph network and Radio network. In this sense, the strategic framework of the Internet has a congenitally deficient design, but also makes the TCP/IP layered system has a natural change in the space, until we today to promote the Internet a major breakthrough.
The construction of the dominant power of IP protocol
In 1969, in order to create a new communication network system in the future war, the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Program (ARPA) supported the creation of the world's first packet-switched experimental network ARPANET, known as the Apache network. October 29, 1969, Stanford University and UCLA computers completed the first connection to build the Internet's early framework. Later computer test network also has UUCP, USENET, Bitnet, Csnet, X.25 network, but, the Apache network continues to maintain the leading development momentum. From 1973 to 1974, Arpa's Robert Karn and Stanford University's Winton Sove successfully developed the Basic protocol--TCP/IP protocol for communication between computer networks, which is equivalent to building the world's Internet building framework.
The TCP/IP protocol is also known as the DoD model (Department of Defense models), which includes two protocols: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and IP (Internet Protocol). By converting the core protocol from NCP (receptacle core Kyoto) to TCP/IP protocol on January 1, 1983, Apache established the TCP/IP protocol's dominant mechanism throughout the Internet. In 1984, the U.S. Department of Defense used TCP/IP as the standard for computer networks. In 1985, the Internet Architecture Committee invited 250 vendors to participate and established a business application architecture for the TCP/IP protocol. Thus, the TCP/IP protocol becomes a common agreement between all the hosts on the Internet. If this progress is evaluated, it is equivalent to the human history of replacing passenger ships with airplanes, an innovative protocol that successfully solves the communication method between computers.
It should be said that the TCP/IP protocol developed by Robert Karn and Stanford University Winton Sove is essentially an inevitable discovery, when the Pentagon deployed three research teams to develop TCP/IP agreements, and the Winton Sove team at Stanford University is just a leading team, Instead of the only developing team, the TCP/IP protocol was developed to be the correct expression of American scientific research capability. In the future, the TCP/IP protocol has been successfully applied to a wide range of applications, the IP protocol has finally established its dominant position, and the core mechanism of the modern internet has been established, which makes human have the foundation of micro-space construction.
Grasping the evolutionary direction of the Internet
As far as Internet status is concerned, Robert Karn and Stanford University Winton Sove belong to the construction team of Professor J.c.r.licklider's thought structure, History should give Professor J.c.r.licklider a higher praise and a deeper reflection on the limitations of his generation of pioneers in the process of building the Internet.
The significance of this reflection is whether the contemporary world needs to recreate the Internet, or it is advisable to upgrade to the IPV6 code access level, and then the overall transformation of the Internet. Regardless of the route orientation, the 2011 world was destined to take the life of the traditional internet, a revolution that required both the impetus of ideological change and the innovation of technological inventions. What is more important, however, is the creation of ideas.
3, one of the new generation of Internet changes: To achieve the upgrade from IPV4 to IPv6
The IP was defined in the request for Comments (RFC) 791 file of the Internet powering (ISOC) Internet Task Force (Postel) by the founder of the Network numbering Agency (IANA) in 1981: "Internet Protocol ( IP) is specifically a protocol that provides the necessary functionality for the transmission of bit packets (Internet packets) from one source to a destination on a interconnected network system. It does not increase the end-to-end data reliability mechanism, flow control mechanism, sorting mechanism or other functional mechanisms that are common to end-to-end protocols. Internet protocol can provide services on its supported network, and realize many types and quality services. ”
Based on this, we can understand that IP protocol has two basic tasks, namely: first, provide connectionless and most efficient packet transfer, second, provide packet segmentation and reorganization to support different maximum transmission unit size data connection.
Aftermath or escalation: the prospect of IPV4
The IPv4 we are using now is the first official application version of the IP protocol. In 1985, the number of hosts online on the Internet was 2000, which led to the conservative arrangement of the IPv4 address system, which has plagued the Internet in recent years.
IPV4 uses a 32-bit address that can be run in a variety of low-level networks, theoretically can address 16 million networks, with 4294967296 (=232) addresses, running 4 billion hosts. However, due to the use of the Internet A, B, c three-class address, the available network addresses greatly compromised. In China alone, the number of IPV4 addresses has been close to 280 million by the end of 2010, and the global IPV4 address matrix has been exhausted as at February 3, 2011. This will be strategically designed to solve the problem of IP address resources.
In the case of IPV4 address resources, at present, there are several ways to make use of IP address utilization, the first is to take the policy to release reserved address resources; Second, it is to establish international market transactions existing address resources, the third is to solve the expansion by Nat method, four, design new networking and other means. The strategy of exploiting IPV4 address resources can not only improve the utilization of IPV4 address resources, but also delay the adoption of new generation Internet address mode, and provide various bargaining space for reorganizing internet management rights.
In addition, another way to solve the problem is to realize the transition from IPV4 to IPV6, pushing IPV4 upgrades to a more advanced level, IPV5 already exists, it is an experimental protocol, known as the Internet Streaming Protocol (ST), which, according to the current IP address Escalation protocol process, can only be selected as a priority IPV6 protocol.
IPV6: Address upgrades without touching the Internet's core power
IPV6 is an abbreviation for "Internet Kyoto Version 6", which was published in December 1998 by Internet Engineering Task Force (Internet UB Task Force, IETF) by publishing Internet standard Specification (RFC 2460) The way the definition is introduced. IPV4 uses a 32-bit address, and IPV6 uses 128-bit addresses, so the new address space supports 2128 (about 3.4x1038) addresses. It not only solves the problem of the number of network address resources, but also clears the limit on the number of devices in addition to the computer, and solves the demand of flexible address assignment and routing forwarding.
At present, IPv6 compared with IPV4 has the following advantages: one, effectively solve the IP address expansion of the current situation; second, the packet forwarding speed is improved with a smaller routing table, and the third, the support of automatic configuration (auto-configuration), and its four, enhanced multicast ( Multicast) Support and convection support (Flow-control); its five realizes the Protocol optimization, its six realizes the optimization of host terminal configuration, its seven increases the flow label domain and Perfects QoS, its eight realizes IP in Intelligent city, intelligent community, intelligent home, intelligent transportation, The application of intelligent facility, its nine, realizes the data of the network layer in the IPV6 network encrypts and verifies the IP message, enhances the network security; its x. Increases the compatibility of IP in the integration of other networks.
Comprehensive analysis, IPV6 address upgrade design shortcut is to expand the Internet scale and not deeply touch the Internet's core power changes, such as: The bottom of the protocol, security mode, packet transmission, root server management issues, so that the territory has expanded, and even the initiative to dedicate the territory, but, The Internet Dynasty management has not changed greatly, its power even accompanied by the territorial expansion reached the peak, territorial expansion can better serve the management.
This seemingly intelligent transformation actually implicit the seeds of a decentralized revolution and the democratization of the Internet, and the real winner is to defuse this potential conflict, conflict and friction. So, calmly observe, IPV6 upgrade more need is with the symmetrical management right democratization.
Without Internet domain name management mechanism of the right, IPV6 upgrade will be difficult to smooth the expansion of the market, and even it may become the world's history of the birth of a new network Dynasty trial and error action.
The great prospect of the internet has doomed it to become the world's most powerful nation and the greatest thinker, entrepreneurs, engineers, sharing, shared, and the stage, it can accept winners, but also need to tolerate every strong, otherwise, each strong may become the seeds of division and centrifugal force.
4, reengineering the next generation of the Internet transformation of the second: the reorganization of the Domain name Management Authority
In the Internet world, the pioneer of the Internet has designed a number of brain, but only a heart, this is the root server system of the Internet-it is the power of modern Internet core, but also the first to build a new generation of Internet theme, it determines the size and nature of the new generation of Internet!
Theoretically, all the services of the Internet depend on the Domain name Inquiry service to realize the interaction, thus the domain Name System becomes the basis of the TCP/IP protocol operation, and becomes the Internet supremacy power, and becomes the prerequisite for the Internet to rely on opening, sharing, security, keeping promise and stable operation.
This heart system is the core of root-servers.net, that is, "root server" or "root domain name server", it is the modern Internet domain name resolution system (DNS) of the highest level of domain name server, or can be said to be the world's Internet switchboard, at present, a total of 13 units worldwide, It includes 1 primary root servers set up at Virginia State Dulles in the United States and 12 secondary root servers, including 9 in the United States, Sweden, Holland and Japan. The broad sense of this system also includes some root domain servers in the global set up a mirror server (mirror), distributed around the world, the root domain name mirror server (anycast) about 200.
In this system, the parent root system has the decisive analytic ability, is also the global Internet operation Real Core. The user visits any website, all needs to complete its corresponding domain name the stepwise inquiry, but all data also will be transmitted to the root domain name server to be able to parse, therefore, the main root server can carry on the monitoring, the detection and the analysis and so on the global 4.3 billion websites, 16 million network usage situation management, Can also analyze the popular sites around the traffic situation and the basic situation like netizens, this is the basic characteristics of the modern Internet: IP address of the random configuration and the domain name management model without sovereignty.
As a result, the primary root server actually has the power of life and death over internet address disposal, it can block any domain name of the Internet, so that their IP address can not be resolved, or the blocked domain name to the site it needs. The primary root server can use this power, for example: April 2004. Ly the shield of the domain name caused Libya to disappear from the Internet for 3 days. At the same time, the management failures of the primary root server administrators can also cause Internet paralysis, for example: October 13, 2008, The Swedish administrator used the wrong configuration script to update the. SE parsing data, which caused the global DNS system to not be properly identified. The domain name of SE faces affects the internet paralysis that occurs in Sweden nationwide. Hackers can also use this power to attack the primary root server, for example: Algeria, Puerto Rico, Morocco, Uganda, Google's domain names have occurred DNS hijacked attacks. The virus attack has also caused the May 19, 2009 China to appear six province large-scale Internet crisis event. Really is Youzhou many rides, opposite angle bow!
The above events illustrate that the existing Internet domain Name System mechanism, which is created with a random address and a 13 root server management model, requires a change in its root server management model; its security mechanism needs a new consensus; its technical structure needs to be scaled up. If the energy network directly to the existing mechanism into the new generation of the Internet, the edge of the domain Name System control mechanism loopholes, can not avoid large power outages, large water supply, large hold, big stop hot crisis events! The author estimates that a regional event will lose more than tens of billions of yuan; a Cross-border event will exceed billions of dollars.
Therefore, the international community should unite to build a new Internet domain name management system for the cost of this possible loss, and achieve more high-end and secure integration of Internet and energy network.
The author thinks that the change of IPv6 and the change of domain name management system are twin brothers, the change needs to move at the same time, and this change will constitute the two main themes of the new generation of internet revolution.
5. The prospect of Internet domain name management development is internationalization and commercialization
The Internet is the greatest historical miracle of American creation, the Internet commercialization management is the most correct peaceful choice in American history
The internet was founded in the United States Military Communications network changes, later evolved into a United States-run military and research professional network.
July 1, 1997, as the United States Government to promote the global E-commerce policy, the United States Department of Commerce launched a public evaluation mechanism to consult the U.S. government in the Domain name management role, domain Name system structure, top-level domain management and other views. The Internet domain name enters the market operation stage, also can say no mercantilism has no internet space.
October 2, 2009, ICANN was allowed to be independent of the United States Government and achieved independence, it should be said that the Internet is the largest historical miracle created by the United States, Internet commercialization management is the most correct choice of the United States in history, ICANN to obtain independent status both for the deployment of IPV6, Also in order to continue to the United States-oriented root server overall management system!
The Internet is limited in terms of compatibility with new network assets and needs to continue to change
ICANN (the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), established in October 1998, is an Internet name and digital address assignment agency, a non-profit international organization that is primarily responsible for domain Name System management, IP address assignment, protocol parameter configuration, generic top-level domain name (Generic top-level domain, GTLD), country and region top-level domain name (country code top-level DOMAIN,CCTLD) system management, and root server Server) System Management.
Through the development of the last more than 10 years, the international community has also opted for the social management model of the non-sovereign Internet, however, its core power not only originated from the United States, but still remains in the United States, which is also expansionary in terms of compatible with the non-sovereign network assets, but in the compatible sovereignty The Franchise energy network and other assets have met great challenges, history requires us to make the right choice again to maintain the Internet's pioneering spirit and long-term creativity!
(The author is the director of the International Smart Grid Alliance, China International Economic Exchange Center Intelligent Energy Research Group leader, the Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the chief expert, email: email@example.com.) The series also includes "China's Super Internet" development strategy and the "Internet and Energy network integration," are tentative names, will be published in the morning paper, please pay attention.