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Carbon tax can be done from thermal power to interview the former vice chairman of the NPC Standing Committee, the famous economist Siwei "We have to achieve the minimum cost of development, which is the essence of the development of green economy." "Wen/Caijing National Weekly correspondent Van Johong the fourth round of the United Nations climate talks, held in Tianjin, China, from October 4 to 9th, the first United Nations climate talks in China's history and the last round of climate talks before the end of the Mexican climate change conference in Mexico." There is a contradiction between the rapid economic development and the energy saving and emission reduction. To meet the Chinese government's commitment at the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, the carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 2020 will fall 40%~45% than in 2005. At the moment, it is vital to choose a path suitable for China's sustainable economic development. "I think the ' green economy ' is more in line with China's reality than ' Low-carbon economy '. "The former vice chairman of the NPC Standing Committee, famous economist Siwei, said in an interview with Caijing National Weekly." In Siwei's view, the concept of "green economy" is more extensive than "Low-carbon economy", which includes not only "low-carbon economy", but also circular economy and ecological economy. On the other hand, "green economy" is focused on energy-saving emission reduction, which is also in line with China's current development phase of the situation. Siwei also pointed out that the development of "green economy" must first be a breakthrough in technology, but also need to develop green finance, the government's fiscal and monetary policy follow-up cooperation, and then from the government and the market two levels to promote the "green economy" forward. Environmental debt should not be left to children and grandchildren "financial countries weekly": The current "Low-carbon economy" is a lot of people, but some people think that China's development of "Low-carbon economy" will bring about the future economic development, how do you think of this problem? Siwei: Western developed countries have completed the process of industrialization, now mainly in the service industry, the service industry basically does not emit carbon dioxide. China is a developing country, still in the middle of industrialization, the second industry occupies the main position, heavy chemical industry still need to develop. Therefore, China and developed countries are not the same, it is impossible to develop not to emit carbon dioxide, but should be as far as possible to reduce emissions, reduce environmental pollution, which is one aspect of the problem. On the other hand, from China's energy structure, the current fossil energy to account for 90% of which coal 70%, oil and gas accounted for 20%, not fossil energy accounted for only about 9%. Even by 2020, China's fossil-fuel share has increased to 15%, and 85% of fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels is bound to produce carbon dioxide, so China for a long period of time, it is impossible to use fossil energy without emitting carbon dioxide. In terms of mode of production, the Low-carbon economy includes four areas: developing industries that do not emit carbon dioxide, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, using carbon dioxide, and handling carbon sequestration. For China at the moment, the focus should be on reducing the amount of carbon dioxide emitted from fossil-energy use,The "Low-carbon economy" should not be simply advocated, as developed countries do, to limit the absolute number of carbon dioxide emissions. By 2020, the absolute emission of carbon dioxide in China is still increasing trend, the industry that does not emit carbon dioxide is not much, the utilization ratio is not big, the storage cost is very high. Therefore, China currently emphasizes low energy consumption, low pollution and low emissions. Financial countries Weekly: So, compared to the "Low-carbon economy", which model do you think is more suitable for China's future economic development? Siwei: I think the term "green economy" is more in line with China's reality than a low-carbon economy. Because the concept of green economy is much wider than Low-carbon, it contains not only low-carbon economy, but also recycle economy and ecological economy. On the other hand, the green economy is focused on energy-saving emissions, which is also in line with China's current situation. In the long run, the development of green economy is very important for China to change the mode of economic growth. Because of the rapid development of China's economy, we should pay more attention to environmental costs. 2005, China due to waste of resources, ecological damage, environmental pollution caused by losses accounted for 13.5% of GDP, and China's GDP growth of 10.4%, that is, we put the potential environmental debt to our children, this is absolutely not allowed, We must not allow only the pursuit of economic development speed and neglect to protect the environment, save resources, improve the ecology. China still has to develop, it is impossible to completely stop development, back to the primitive society, but we have to achieve the minimum cost of development, which is the essence of the development of green economy. The feasibility of levying a carbon tax "financial countries weekly": China in the "green economy" in the process of transformation, the first step to how to go? Siwei: The first step in developing green economy is to make a breakthrough in technology. For example, now a one-time electricity, the national average of 350 grams of Tce, but some advanced enterprises in China can use 283 grams Tce to send a one-time electricity. If the coal consumption of a national thermal power plant can be reduced from 350 grams to 300 grams, by 2020, China's carbon dioxide emissions will reduce by more than 4 billion tons. Now Japan and Europe already have advanced thermal power generation technology, China needs to vigorously develop this technology. On the other hand, it is to develop green finance. Without financial support, the new energy industry is hard to do bigger and stronger. This includes the development of capital market finance and the use of the clean development mechanism for carbon emissions trading. At the same time, the development of green finance needs the government to provide financial policy and monetary policy support. From the fiscal policy, to support the development of new energy, we should give tax concessions and subsidies, and government procurement should give priority to the purchase of green products. On the monetary policy, I think we should give a differentiated treatment to the financing of green projects, one is to reduce the interest rate appropriately, and the other is to extend the term appropriately. Government control should be conducive to promoting the development of green economy, should be as much as possible to mobilize the strength of enterprises and markets, rather than too much use of administrative means such as vetting and approving.Overall, it is from the government and the market two layers to the new energy industry to give impetus to the green economy. Caijing National Weekly: What do you think of the current feasibility of a carbon tax? Siwei: Now wind power and solar energy costs are relatively high, wind power is one of the cost of coal, solar energy is four times times the cost of thermal power. While government subsidies are necessary, state subsidies should be gradually reduced, forcing new energy to try to improve technology and reduce costs. Germany, for example, now has a 8% per cent reduction in new energy subsidies every year. In addition to subsidies from the government, my proposal is to levy environmental taxes on thermal power, also known as carbon tax. As for the general levy, there are many international factors, and China should not go too fast. According to our calculation, about 4 cents per charge, it is enough to support the current development of wind power and solar energy in China. 4 cents per charge, I don't think it's much. And this 4 cents, my suggestion is that 2 cents can increase electricity prices, there are 2 cents enterprise internal digestion. Then we may say that the increase in electricity prices, will affect the lives of ordinary people, but the income of the people are increasing every year, it is impossible to demand only increased income, and prices do not rise, for the development of new energy to make some contribution is necessary. The estimated electricity price increases 2 cents, is acceptable to the ordinary people, but to the low insured can increase the subsidy correspondingly. The other 2 cents require the power sector to digest itself, because it forces it to save energy, cut emissions, and reduce costs. Pai: Government regulation should be conducive to promoting the development of green economy, should be as much as possible to mobilize the strength of enterprises and markets, rather than too much use of administrative means such as approval
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