The Enchantment of cc: Breaking the shackles of copyright in the digital age

Source: Internet
Author: User
Keywords Copyright Google Facebook facebook Hu Kung Fu
Our reporter/Star talked about the current Internet life, my first thought is to dig video in Tudou, to happy net to steal vegetables and fishing, open Facebook chat friends.  Today's young people are growing up with Google search engine generation, because of advanced and efficient network technology, making replication more convenient, some works modified, decomposed, reorganized into new works, let all come easily. Famous intellectual property experts, Larry Lessig, a professor at Stanford University's Law school, describes in his new book, "mixing: a thriving business in a mixed economy," that today's internet age is dominated by literacy, and that the recipient of each message can easily be created on the basis of the original work. From the economic form, one is the original commercial economy, the other is based on a new literacy culture to share the economy.  This era needs to be merged and borrowed from each other, and the continuous prosperity and expansion of the wiki culture is an example. In the case of the recording industry, the marginal cost of publishing music over the internet is almost nil. because of the cost savings of the traditional recording industry; good music is spread more widely for free and the creator's popularity is rising, thus driving the revenues of the record sales and performance.  This is one of the profit models for sharing the economy. However, after the advent of digital technology, the traditional copyright system-the author requires that all rights reserved mode is not applicable to the current production and dissemination trend. Intellectual property lawsuits about Internet applications, both at home and abroad, have caused great controversy. The most typical recent is the Google "copyright" incident, regardless of infringement or not, Google's commitment to build a digital library vision will unlock a large number of out-of-print paper books, so that many people do not have the opportunity to "rise from the dead."  The copyright gives the author the absolute right to his works, which will hinder the spread of the works and become the shackles of the development of the cultural industry. According to Tencent's survey of the Google incident, more than 60% of netizens do not object to Google's efforts to scan some writers ' work online.  This shows that the concept of sharing is increasingly popular, the traditional publishing will irreversibly be digitized changes.  In the area of intellectual property, there is an urgent need for a flexible and free rule to make copyright operations easier and more humane, such as today's widely popular knowledge sharing (CC) agreements.  As the director of the CC China Mainland project, Dr. Wang Chunyan read the CC's operating philosophy for our correspondent. CC is the initials of Creative Commons, which advocates the legal sharing, use and deduction of knowledge creation results, and solves the problem of the dissemination and utilization of works in the digital age through the flexible copyright mode advocated by the "partial rights reservation".  It is the result of the study and research cooperation, and is being applied to the industry field continuously. The CC protocol consists of four core elements: signature, non-commercial Use, prohibition of deduction and sharing in the same way, and the formation of six core CC protocols based on different combinations of different elements. of which, "the signature, non-commercial use, prohibition of deduction "is the most stringent set of agreements.  But in contrast to the traditional model, it has released a number of freedoms, such as the attribution and prohibition of deduction in the context of the user does not exclude non-commercial use, such as free transmission. 2001, experts from Harvard University, Stanford University, MIT and a group of network pioneers co-founded the Knowledge Sharing (Creative Commons) organization, the goal is to design a number of legal tools for free to the public, intended to help people express their work to the public level. 2002, the organization released the 1.0 version of the CC agreement. The CC agreement has lasted seven years since it was officially released. By December 2009, a total of 52 jurisdictions in the world had formally introduced a localized version of the CC protocol.  Under different legal circumstances, each clause will be changed to local conditions. The CC protocol contains three different levels of architecture: plain text, legal text, and digital code. Plain text is a concise text and illustration for ordinary people to read, and this version is universally available.  The legal text is a formal authorization clause for the legal person, which stipulates the relationship between the rights and obligations of the two parties in detail. The digital code is read by the machine, which presents the terms of the license in a machine-readable manner, facilitating search engines and other applications to identify works authorized by the CC protocol. CC users are all over the world, and ABC's website links in Australia follow the CC protocol. Most libraries and galleries in the United States use CC agreements, such as the University of Michigan, Harvard University, and the Yale University Library. YouTube, the famous video website, also uses the CC contract format in terms of intellectual property rights. Video uploads can choose their own form of authorization, such as the need for signature after downloading, whether it can be deduced, it has the right to determine whether the video can participate in commercial activities.  Through the CC protocol for video uploads to provide different rights of choice, so that the most widely spread of their works. Scientific data sharing in the field of scientific research, many scientists have noted that today's technology has been able to obtain scientific data on a global scale, but because of legal restrictions it is difficult to link these data. At the same time, traditional journals documenting scientific research are too expensive for scientific institutions, and their narrow distribution has made many people unable to obtain these results. To publish scientific and technological literature on the Internet, we must overcome some limitations of the traditional copyright law, and the legal problems cannot be solved.  In view of this, some American MIT scholars began to set up scientific sharing projects in 2005. Scientific sharing project is a sub project of CC project, whose goal is to promote scientific innovation by promoting the sharing of scientific data and research results. Scientists have issued a "data-opening" agreement to enable scientific organizations around the world to use the agreement for the development of data and results created under different legal systems so that they can be shared. So far, scientific sharing project has launched five projects, scholars copyrightPlans, biomaterials transfer plans, Neurocommons plans, Healthcommons plans, Greenxchange plans. China's Ministry of Science and Technology related leaders also recognized that the integration of many databases, to achieve a shared platform, is China to achieve from the data resources to the great power of data resources to the only way.  He said that China's goal in the scientific data sharing project is to build a networked scientific data management and sharing service system covering the basic and public welfare areas by 2020, to achieve more than 80% of the public welfare, basic data resources of the whole society. With the government, Larry DOWNWS, Chunka MUI has suggested that the rapid growth of science and technology caused by the gradual increase of the gap between the social economy and the slow change, will eventually lead to the social system, economic system, and so on the outbreak of a sudden change. The rapid development of information and network technology has also put forward the change requirement for government public service. The quality of public service is directly related to the efficiency of government operation.  The slow, one-way, passive provision of information resources services has not adapted to the social development today. U.S. President Barack Obama after taking office, the United States presidential official website a major revision. The revamped website adopted the CC.BY3.0 protocol. Government documents are not protected by copyright, but they are required to protect their freedom of speech by requiring web site visitors to leave comments and comments on the site and to publish their statements in a CC agreement. Mr Obama has a long-standing affinity with CC.  Early in 2007, Obama and his team began posting photos of Obama on Flickr, all of which were released using the CC protocol.  At the end of 2008, the Australian Federal Statistical Office began using the CC protocol to disseminate information, and most of its Web site included demographic data, economic data, analysis, press releases, etc., which were published in the "Knowledge sharing-signature license Agreement". A large amount of data from the Northland Regional Council Geographic Information System (GIS) in New Zealand has been released for public access through the CC agreement. GIS plays a more and more important role in GPS satellite positioning system. More and more people want to obtain GIS information, and more and more such requests are received in the Northland District Council of New Zealand.  As a result, the Urban Council opened about 90% of the data in the GIS database to the public. Government agencies benefit from releasing data free of charge through the CC protocol, which saves time and management costs of data release and can be an investment tool.  Neale Hooper, chief lawyer for the Australian Economic Statistics Research Office, argues that knowledge sharing has become an international movement, with a relatively mature and internationally recognised licensing system that will drive the maximization of information utilization. Knowledge sharing in China's first contact with CC in China is some forward-looking blogs about web culture. Before the release of CC in China, they were already using the version of the protocol that was not localized。 There are also a class of very important CC users, such as the Marvel Library site, who have been promoting knowledge sharing early on.  Many people want to share their work through the CC agreement. 2009, the first Chinese mainland to use the Knowledge Sharing license agreement published medical works, by the Beijing Conbour National Medical Church founder Kong Ling editor-in-chief of the "Conbour Medical family Medicine Koep Record" published in Beijing. The book contains 526,000 words, which includes the academic thought and clinical experience of the second and third generations of the ancestors Conbour and Conbour Traditional Chinese medicine family. Legal experts have assessed that intangible cultural heritage is a resource that is held or occupied jointly and equally enjoyed by many people.  This kind of resources is passed down from the generation to the other, and the CC protocol is helpful for the legal and smooth dissemination, use and re-creation of knowledge.  The CC protocol develops the copyright model from the traditional "All rights reserved" model to the flexible "partial rights reservation" model, and also receives good feedback in the Art field. 2008, CC China mainland project in Japan Sapporo did "watch China" CC photography exhibition. Domestic famous photographers Huvu, Wang Wenxian, Xinmin, Zhu Xianmin and so on exhibited the use of CC agreement authorized to release the photographic works.  Compared with the traditional model of "All rights reserved", more and more artists prefer the new business model of "reserving some rights", which can bring new benefits to their innovative investment. In December 2009, a "mix and share" CC art exhibition, co-sponsored by CC China, Art International, and the Art Center, Interactive Encyclopedia, was held in Beijing 798 Art District Ying Art Center to disseminate and share the works of young artists. Fei, June, Wu Xiaojun, Liu Wei and other well-known artists of the use of CC agreement published works are also invited to participate in the exhibition.  Mixing and sharing cc comprehensive art exhibition collection activities released after the release, in less than one months time, received more than 200 artists of hundreds of exhibitors using the CC agreement. Fei is one of the most internationally renowned contemporary artists in China and an important artist who used the CC protocol to publish related works. Fei that CC gives a lot of people the opportunity to share artistic thinking and creative work, and give entertainment a legal and legitimate copyright background. Reading paper Media people are limited, and will be less and more, only the effective opening of its copyright space, can be a creative crystallization to the maximum extent of its benign cycle and interactive development process.  In its publications and video works, Fei will choose CC's "Signed-non-commercial-no deduction" agreement, while the audio and video publishing is applicable to "signed-non-commercial use-the same way to share." At the May 2009 Flute Music Festival, the musician June set up CC's Live booth to show the concept of the agreement. June, the CC China and throwing mustard/kwan-yin Record of the joint production of the music festival, "Noise are Free" officially released, this is the first in mainland China to use the CC agreement officially published experimental musicRecord。 The protocol needs to evolve. "Now looking back at CC's original version, there are 11 options available, some of which are not suitable for current development. For example, some agreements do not contain the terms of the signature, but after practical feedback, no one chooses the agreement. This is how the CC protocol constantly discovers problems and then solves them slowly.  Dr. Wang Chunyan said. The development of digital technology has led to the emergence of some new problems, and different versions are to meet new and different needs.  The 2007 release of the CC3.0 version on the 2.5 version of a number of updates, such as in the original signature right based on the protection of the integrity of the work of the right to some personal rights. Currently, CC headquarters is investigating, ready to launch the 4.0 version. This version will cover issues such as non-commercial definition. What are the purely non-commercial uses? Based on this definition of the understanding is not clear, CC to do is through a series of research to achieve a final and more consistent opinion, the results into a new version. The CC China Mainland project will also deliver the latest version of the CC agreement as soon as the updated CC agreement is localized.
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