CentOS+nginx+uwsgi+Python 多網站環境搭建

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上載者:User

   環境:

  CentOS X64 6.4

  nginx 1.5.6

  Python 2.7.5

  一:安裝需要的類庫及Python2.7.5

  安裝必要的開發包

  yum groupinstall "Development tools"

  yum install zlib-devel bzip2-devel pcre-devel openssl-devel ncurses-devel sqlite-devel readLINE-devel tk-devel

  CentOS 內建Python2.6.6,但我們可以再安裝Python2.7.5:

  cd ~

  wget http://python.org/ftp/python/2.7.5/Python-2.7.5.tar.bz2

  tar xvf Python-2.7.5.tar.bz2

  cd Python-2.7.5

  ./configure --prefix=/usr/local

  make && make altinstall

  安裝完畢後,可是使用”python2.7”命令進入python2.7的環境。

  二:安裝Python包管理

  easy_install包 https://pypi.python.org/pypi/distribute

  方便安裝Python的開發包

  cd ~

  wget https://pypi.python.org/packages/source/d/distribute/distribute-0.6.49.tar.gz

  tar xf distribute-0.6.49.tar.gz

  cd distribute-0.6.49

  python2.7 setup.py install

  easy_install --version

  紅色部分必須是“python2.7”,否則將安裝到預設的2.6環境內。

  pip包 https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pip

  安裝pip的好處是可以pip list、pip uninstall 管理Python包, easy_install沒有這個功能,只有uninstall

  easy_install pip

  pip --version

  三:安裝uwsgi

  uwsgi:https://pypi.python.org/pypi/uWSGI

  uwsgi參數詳解:http://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.org/en/latest/Options.html

  pip install uwsgi

  uwsgi --version

  測試uwsgi是否正常:

  建立test.py檔案,內容如下:

  def application(env, start_response):

  start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type','text/html')])

  return "Hello World"

  然後在終端運行:

  uwsgi --http :8001 --wsgi-file test.py

  在瀏覽器內輸入:http://127.0.0.1:8001,看是否有“Hello World”輸出,若沒有輸出,請檢查你的安裝過程。

  四:安裝django

  pip install django

  測試django是否正常,運行:

  django-admin.py startproject demosite

  cd demosite

  python2.7 manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8002

  在瀏覽器內輸入:http://127.0.0.1:8002,檢查django是否運行正常。

  五:安裝nginx

  cd ~

  wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.5.6.tar.gz

  tar xf nginx-1.5.6.tar.gz

  cd nginx-1.5.6

  ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx-1.5.6

  --with-http_stub_status_module

  --with-http_gzip_static_module

  make && make install

  六:配置uwsgi

  uwsgi支援ini、xml等多種配置方式,但個人感覺ini更方便:

  在/ect/目錄下建立uwsgi9090.ini,添加如下配置:

  [uwsgi]

  socket = 127.0.0.1:9090

  master = true //主進程

  vhost = true //多站模式

  no-stie = true //多站模式時不設定入口模組和檔案

  workers = 2 //子進程數

  reload-mercy = 10

  vacuum = true //退出、重啟時清理檔案

  max-requests = 1000

  limit-as = 512

  buffer-sizi = 30000

  pidfile = /var/run/uwsgi9090.pid //pid檔案,用於下面的指令碼啟動、停止該進程

  daemonize = /website/uwsgi9090.log

  設定uwsgi開機啟動,在/ect/init.d/目錄下建立uwsgi9090檔案,內容如下:

  #! /bin/sh

  # chkconfig: 2345 55 25

  # Description: Startup script for uwsgi webserver on Debian. Place in /etc/init.d and

  # run 'update-rc.d -f uwsgi defaults', or use the appropriate command on your

  # distro. For CentOS/Redhat run: 'chkconfig --add uwsgi'

  ### BEGIN INIT INFO

  # Provides: uwsgi

  # Required-Start: $all

  # Required-Stop: $all

  # Default-Start: 2 3 4 5

  # Default-Stop: 0 1 6

  # Short-Description: starts the uwsgi web server

  # Description: starts uwsgi using start-stop-daemon

  ### END INIT INFO

  # Author: licess

  # website: http://lnmp.org

  PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin

  DESC="uwsgi daemon"

  NAME=uwsgi9090

  DAEMON=/usr/local/bin/uwsgi

  CONFIGFILE=/etc/$NAME.ini

  PIDFILE=/var/run/$NAME.pid

  SCRIPTNAME=/etc/init.d/$NAME

  set -e

  [ -x "$DAEMON" ] || exit 0

  do_start() {

  $DAEMON $CONFIGFILE || echo -n "uwsgi already running"

  }

  do_stop() {

  $DAEMON --stop $PIDFILE || echo -n "uwsgi not running"

  rm -f $PIDFILE

  echo "$DAEMON STOPED."

  }

  do_reload() {

  $DAEMON --reload $PIDFILE || echo -n "uwsgi can't reload"

  }

  do_status() {

  ps aux|grep $DAEMON

  }

  case "$1" in

  status)

  echo -en "Status $NAME: n"

  do_status

  ;;

  start)

  echo -en "Starting $NAME: n"

  do_start

  ;;

  stop)

  echo -en "Stopping $NAME: n"

  do_stop

  ;;

  reload|graceful)

  echo -en "Reloading $NAME: n"

  do_reload

  ;;

  *)

  echo "Usage: $SCRIPTNAME {start|stop|reload}" >&2

  exit 3

  ;;

  esac

  exit 0

  然後在終端執行:

  -- 添加服務

  chkconfig --add uwsgi9090

  -- 設定開機啟動

  chkconfig uwsgi9090 on

  七:設定nginx

  找到nginx的安裝目錄,開啟conf/nginx.conf檔案,修改server配置

  server {

  listen 80;

  server_name localhost;

  location / {

  include uwsgi_params;

  uwsgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9090; //必須和uwsgi中的設定一致

  uwsgi_param UWSGI_SCRIPT demosite.wsgi; //入口檔案,即wsgi.py相對於項目根目錄的位置,“.”相當於一層目錄

  uwsgi_param UWSGI_CHDIR /demosite; //項目根目錄

  index index.html index.htm;

  client_max_body_size 35m;

  }

  }

  設定nginx開機啟動,在/ect/init.d/目錄下建立nginx檔案,內容如下:

  #!/bin/sh

  #

  # nginx - this script starts and stops the nginx daemon

  #

  # chkconfig: - 85 15

  # description: Nginx is an HTTP(S) server, HTTP(S) reverse

  # proxy and IMAP/POP3 proxy server

  # processname: nginx

  # config: /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

  # pidfile: /var/run/nginx.pid

  # Source function library.

  . /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions

  # Source networking configuration.

  . /etc/sysconfig/network

  # Check that networking is up.

  [ "$NETWORKING" = "no" ] && exit 0

  nginx="/opt/nginx-1.5.6/sbin/nginx"

  prog=$(basename $nginx)

  NGINX_CONF_FILE="/opt/nginx-1.5.6/conf/nginx.conf"

  [ -f /etc/sysconfig/nginx ] && . /etc/sysconfig/nginx

  lockfile=/var/lock/subsys/nginx

  start() {

  [ -x $nginx ] || exit 5

  [ -f $NGINX_CONF_FILE ] || exit 6

  echo -n $"Starting $prog: "

  daemon $nginx -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE

  retval=$?

  echo

  [ $retval -eq 0 ] && touch $lockfile

  return $retval

  }

  stop() {

  echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "

  killproc $prog -QUIT

  retval=$?

  echo

  [ $retval -eq 0 ] && rm -f $lockfile

  return $retval

  }

  restart() {

  configtest || return $?

  stop

  sleep 1

  start

  }

  reload() {

  configtest || return $?

  echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "

  killproc $nginx -HUP

  RETVAL=$?

  echo

  }

  force_reload() {

  restart

  }

  configtest() {

  $nginx -t -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE

  }

  rh_status() {

  status $prog

  }

  rh_status_q() {

  rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1

  }

  case "$1" in

  start)

  rh_status_q && exit 0

  $1

  ;;

  stop)

  rh_status_q || exit 0

  $1

  ;;

  restart|configtest)

  $1

  ;;

  reload)

  rh_status_q || exit 7

  $1

  ;;

  force-reload)

  force_reload

  ;;

  status)

  rh_status

  ;;

  condrestart|try-restart)

  rh_status_q || exit 0

  ;;

  *)

  echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|condrestart|try-restart|reload|force-reload|configtest}"

  exit 2

  esac

  然後在終端執行:

  -- 添加服務

  chkconfig --add nginx

  -- 設定開機啟動

  chkconfig nginx on

  八:測試

  OK,一切配置完畢,在終端運行

  service uwsgi9090 start

  service nginx start

  在瀏覽器輸入:http://127.0.0.1,恭喜你可以看到django的“It work”了~

  九:其他配置

  防火牆設定

  CentOS預設關閉外部對80、3306等連接埠的訪問,所以要在其他電腦訪問這台伺服器,就必須修改防火牆配置,開啟/etc/sysconfig/iptables

  在“-A INPUT –m state --state NEW –m tcp –p –dport 22 –j ACCEPT”,下添加:

  -A INPUT m state --state NEW m tcp p dport 80 j ACCEPT

  -A INPUT m state --state NEW m tcp p dport 3306 j ACCEPT

  然後儲存,並關閉該檔案,在終端內運行下面的命令,重新整理防火牆配置:

  service iptables restart

  安裝Mysqldb

  yum -y install mysql-devel

  easy_install-2.7 MySQL-python

  注意紅色部分,easy_install-2.7,否則它將預設安裝到Python2.6環境內。

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