利用JBuilder2005開發Web應用程式

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web|程式

  JBuilder是一個開放的Java IDE,它整合了Tomcat、Weblogic等伺服器。雖然JDK、Tomcat、Weblogic不斷升級,我們仍可以在JBuilder中使用它們的最新版本。由於Tomcat伺服器的配置比較複雜,習慣了Windows平台的程式員常常對Tomcat的使用感到困惑。本文給出了一個使用Tomcat環境下的資料庫連接池Database Connection Pool (DBCP) 的例子,說明了用JBuilder開發Web應用的一般步驟,並回答了一些經常遇到的問題。

  JBuilder2005所帶JDK的版本是1.4.2_04-b05,其檔案放在目錄JBuilder_HOME\jdk1.4下,Tomcat的最新版本是5.0.27,其檔案放在目錄JBuilder_HOME\thirdparty\ jakarta-tomcat-5.0.27下。下面首先給出給出了一個使用Tomcat環境下的資料庫連接池Database Connection Pool (DBCP) 的例子。

  1. File-New Project建立工程檔案,輸入工程檔案名稱myWeb和目錄C:\myWeb

  2. Project-Project Properties設定工程檔案的屬性,選擇Tomcat為伺服器

  3. File-New建立Web Module(WAR)

  輸入Web Module的名稱DBTest和目錄DBTest

  4. File-New建立JSP,輸入jsp檔案的名稱test.jsp,產生test.jsp檔案後修改test.jsp的內容

  Test.jsp:
<%@ page contentType="text/html; charset=Big5" %>
<html>
<head>
 <title>DB Test</title>
</head>
<body>
 <%
  foo.DBTest tst = new foo.DBTest();
  tst.init();
 %>
 <h2>Results</h2>
 Foo <%= tst.getFoo() %><br/>
 Bar <%= tst.getBar() %>
</body>
</html>

  將會產生一個名稱為test的runtime configuration。

  選Run-Configurations-Edit可修改runtime configuration,特別是可以指定伺服器的連接埠號碼和是否自動搜尋為被佔用的連接埠。

  5. File-New Class,輸入類名DBTest和包名foo,產生DBTest.java檔案後修改它的內容

DBTest.java
package foo;

import javax.naming.*;
import javax.sql.*;
import java.sql.*;
public class DBTest {
 String foo = "Not Connected";
 int bar = -1;
 public void init() {
  try{
   Context ctx = new InitialContext();
   if(ctx == null )
    throw new Exception("Boom - No Context");
    DataSource ds =(DataSource)ctx.lookup("java:comp/env/JDBC/TestDB");
    if (ds != null) {
     Connection conn = ds.getConnection();
     if(conn != null) {
      foo = "Got Connection "+conn.toString();
      Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
      ResultSet rst =stmt.executeQuery("select id, foo, bar from testdata");
      if(rst.next()) {
       foo=rst.getString(2);
       bar=rst.getInt(3);
      }
      conn.close();
     }
    }
   }catch(Exception e) {
    e.printStackTrace();
   }
  }
 public String getFoo() { return foo; }
 public int getBar() { return bar;}
}

  6. 修改web.XML的內容

  web.xml:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/J2EE" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee/web-app_2_4.xsd" version="2.4">

 <description>MySQL Test App</description>
 <resource-ref>
  <description>DB Connection</description>
  <res-ref-name>jdbc/TestDB</res-ref-name>
  <res-type>javax.sql.DataSource</res-type>
  <res-auth>Container</res-auth>
 </resource-ref>
</web-app>

  7. F9運行應用,myWeb目錄中將會產生Tomcat子目錄,其中包含了conf子目錄,

  在Tomcat_HOME\conf\Catalina\localhost目錄中產生了DBTest.XML檔案

  8. 將myWeb\Tomcat\conf目錄中的檔案server8080.xml加入工程檔案,修改server8080.xml的內容

  server8080.xml:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<Server debug="0" port="8081" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
<Service name="Catalina">
 <Connector acceptCount="10" connectionTimeout="60000" debug="0" maxThreads="75" minSpareThreads="5" port="8080"/>
 <Engine debug="0" defaultHost="localhost" name="Catalina">
 <Host apPBase="C:\myWeb\Tomcat\webapps" autoDeploy="false" debug="0" deployXML="false" name="localhost" unpackWARs="false">

 <Context path="/DBTest" docBase="C:\myWeb\DBTest" debug="5" reloadable="true" crossContext="true" workDir="C:\myWeb\Tomcat\work\DBTest">

 <Logger className="org.apache.catalina.logger.FileLogger" prefix="localhost_DBTest_log." suffix=".txt" timestamp="true"/>

 <Resource name="JDBC/TestDB" auth="Container" type="Javax.sql.DataSource"/>

 <ResourceParams name="jdbc/TestDB">
 <parameter>
  <name>factory</name>
  <value>org.apache.commons.dbcp.BasicDataSourceFactory</value>
 </parameter>
 <!--
  Maximum number of dB connections in pool. Make sure you
  configure your MySQLd max_connections large enough to handle
  all of your db connections. Set to 0 for no limit.
 -->
 <parameter>
  <name>maxActive</name>
  <value>100</value>
 </parameter>
 <!--
  Maximum number of idle dB connections to retain in pool.
  Set to 0 for no limit.
 -->
 <parameter>
  <name>maxIdle</name>
  <value>30</value>
 </parameter>
 <!--
  Maximum time to wait for a dB connection to become available
  in ms, in this example 10 seconds. An Exception is thrown if
  this timeout is exceeded. Set to -1 to wait indefinitely.
 -->
 <parameter>
  <name>maxWait</name>
  <value>10000</value>
 </parameter>
 <!-- MySQL dB username and password for dB connections -->
 <parameter>
  <name>username</name>
  <value>sa</value>
 </parameter>
 <parameter>
  <name>password</name>
  <value>topcomputer</value>
 </parameter>
 <!-- Class name for mm.mysql JDBC driver -->
 <parameter>
  <name>driverClassName</name>
  <value>com.microsoft.jdbc.sqlserver.SQLServerDriver</value>
 </parameter>
 <!--
  The JDBC connection url for connecting to your MySQL dB.
  The autoReconnect=true argument to the url makes sure that the
  mm.mysql JDBC Driver will automatically reconnect if mysqld closed the
  connection. mysqld by default closes idle connections after 8 hours.
 -->
 <parameter>
  <name>url</name>
  <value>jdbc:microsoft:sqlserver://nt04:1433;DatabaseName=test</value>
 </parameter>
</ResourceParams>
</Context>
</Host>
</Engine>
</Service>
</Server>

  9. 將JDBC驅動放在C:\Borland\JBuilder2005\thirdparty\jakarta-tomcat-5.0.27\common\lib目錄中

  10. 在SQL Server中建立資料庫test,資料庫表檔案testdata

  creatTable.sql:
if exists (select * from dbo.sysobjects where id = object_id(N'[dbo].[testdata]') and OBJECTPROPERTY(id, N'IsUserTable') = 1)
drop table [dbo].[testdata]
GO

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[testdata] (
 [id] [int] NOT NULL ,
 [foo] [varchar] (50) COLLATE Chinese_Taiwan_Stroke_CI_AS NULL ,
 [bar] [int] NOT NULL
) ON [PRIMARY]

GO

  輸入幾條記錄作為測試資料。

  11. F9

  12. 在c:\myWebmulu中建立批次檔startup.bat和shutdown.bat內容分別如下:

  startup.bat:
C:\Borland\JBuilder2005\JDK1.4\bin\Javaw -classpath "C:\Borland\JBuilder2005\thirdparty\jakarta-tomcat-5.0.27\bin\bootstrap.jar;C:\Borland\JBuilder2005\jdk1.4\lib\tools.jar" "-Dcatalina.home=C:/Borland/JBuilder2005/thirdparty/jakarta-tomcat-5.0.27" org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap -config "C:\myWeb\Tomcat\conf\server8080.XML" start

Shutdown.bat:

C:\Borland\JBuilder2005\jdk1.4\bin\javaw -classpath "C:\Borland\JBuilder2005\thirdparty\jakarta-tomcat-5.0.27\bin\bootstrap.jar;C:\Borland\JBuilder2005\jdk1.4\lib\tools.jar" "-Dcatalina.home=C:/Borland/JBuilder2005/thirdparty/jakarta-tomcat-5.0.27" org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap -config "C:\myWeb\Tomcat\conf\server8080.xml" stop

  13. 運行startup.bat,在瀏覽器輸入http://localhost:8080/DBTest/test.JSP

  如何部署Web應用?

  1. 打包產生war檔案

  2. 將DBTest.war拷貝到Tomcat_HOME\webapps

  3. 在Tomcat_HOME\conf\Catalina\localhost目錄中建立檔案DBTest.xml

DBTest.xml
<!--
 Context configuration file for the Tomcat Administration Web App
$Id: admin.xml,v 1.2 2002/07/23 12:13:05 remm Exp $

-->

<Context path="/DBTest" docBase="/DBTest" debug="5" reloadable="true" crossContext="true" workDir="../work/DBTest">

<Logger className="org.apache.catalina.logger.FileLogger" prefix="localhost_DBTest_log." suffix=".txt" timestamp="true"/>

<Resource name="JDBC/TestDB" auth="Container" type="javax.sql.DataSource"/>
<ResourceParams name="jdbc/TestDB">
 <parameter>
  <name>factory</name>
  <value>org.apache.commons.dbcp.BasicDataSourceFactory</value>
 </parameter>
 <!--
  Maximum number of dB connections in pool. Make sure you
  configure your MySQLd max_connections large enough to handle
  all of your db connections. Set to 0 for no limit.
 -->
 <parameter>
  <name>maxActive</name>
  <value>100</value>
 </parameter>
 <!--
  Maximum number of idle dB connections to retain in pool.
  Set to 0 for no limit.
 -->
 <parameter>
  <name>maxIdle</name>
  <value>30</value>
 </parameter>
 <!--
  Maximum time to wait for a dB connection to become available
  in ms, in this example 10 seconds. An Exception is thrown if
  this timeout is exceeded. Set to -1 to wait indefinitely.
 -->
 <parameter>
  <name>maxWait</name>
  <value>10000</value>
 </parameter>
 <!-- MySQL dB username and password for dB connections -->
 <parameter>
  <name>username</name>
  <value>sa</value>
 </parameter>
 <parameter>
  <name>password</name>
  <value>topcomputer</value>
 </parameter>
 <!-- Class name for mm.mysql JDBC driver -->
 <parameter>
  <name>driverClassName</name>
  <value>com.microsoft.jdbc.sqlserver.SQLServerDriver</value>
 </parameter>
 <!--
  The JDBC connection url for connecting to your MySQL dB.
  The autoReconnect=true argument to the url makes sure that the
  mm.mysql JDBC Driver will automatically reconnect if mysqld closed the
  connection. mysqld by default closes idle connections after 8 hours.
 -->
 <parameter>
  <name>url</name>
  <value>jdbc:microsoft:sqlserver://nt04:1433;DatabaseName=test</value>
 </parameter>
</ResourceParams>
</Context>

  4. 啟動Tomcat,DBTest.war將會解壓到Tomcat_HOME\webapps\DBTest,並且在Tomcat_HOME\work\Catalina\localhost目錄中產生DBTest目錄

  為什麼不能產生war檔案?

  在proterties for Web Module對話方塊中設定與Build有關的屬性Build Web archive。

  如何在Web應用中加入目錄和檔案?

  右擊Module directory,在彈出的菜單中選擇New-directory,輸入目錄名稱;或右擊擬在其中建立檔案的目錄,在彈出的菜單中選擇New-File,選擇檔案類型,輸入檔案名稱。注意這樣加入的檔案只能是指定的檔案類型。這樣加入的目錄和檔案都會打包到war檔案中。

  如何加入其它類型的檔案?

  可以將檔案拷貝到指定的目錄,在proterties for Web Module對話方塊中設定屬性Content,選擇include all classes and resources,這樣也可以將加入的檔案打包到war檔案中。

  如何使用指定的JDK?

  選擇菜單Tools-Configure-JDKs,在彈出的對話方塊中按New按鈕,然後選擇JDK的路徑。

  選擇菜單Project-Project Properties,在彈出的對話方塊中選擇加入的JDK。

  如何使用指定的Tomcat?

  選擇菜單EntERPrise-Configure Servers,在彈出的對話方塊中選擇Tomcat5.0後按Copy按鈕,

  選擇Copy產生的伺服器Copy of Tomcat 5.0,選擇Home Directory

  選擇菜單Project-Project Properties,在彈出的對話方塊中設定屬性server,選擇加入的Tomcat伺服器



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