[x] is an element that is indispensable in the UI and interactive interface. And in the Baptist, almost every corner of the window will have [x], it can be said that it is a powerful symbol, because it is closed windows, pop-up boxes, tabs and any other full of visual elements that fill your screen.
and pressing [x] to close an interface is now the instinct of every person who deals with computers, networks, and software today, and it is a standard element of GUI design. However, when we backtrack on the evolution of the GUI, it seems that it is not always the case.
So where did [x] begin to become the standard configuration of the GUI from where?
If you want to backtrack [x] 's history, let's start with Microsoft, the most familiar. When using Microsoft Windows, you can always find [x] in the upper-right corner of the screen window.
However, on Windows 1.0, the button to close the window is not [x]
and Windows 2.0 is not.
So what about Windows 3.0?
In fact, [x] does not really appear on the Windows system interface until Windows 95. The closing button at this time appears in the upper-right corner of the window together with maximized and minimized, and this classic window-operation combination is stereotyped.
There is evidence that this design is actually added later. In the early development phase of Windows 95 (Development Code: Chicago), the Maximize and Minimize buttons are redesigned, but the [x] Close button is also left on the top bar as before.
Windows Chicago (August 1993)
So who changed the design at the last minute? I don't know. But this person has made this design, has been spread to today, and affects a large number of systems and software GUI design.
Gates wants to use computers for every desk and every family. So, starting with Windows 3.0, Microsoft has adjusted the GUI design based on usability feedback, which has changed the overall picture of Windows 95.
It really works.!windows 95 defeated other operating systems in the competition, gaining recognition from most businesses and families in the world. But my goal right now is not to tell you when [x] became popular, but to tell you how it has become an important part of UI design.
Can we find more and more private [x] cases in GUI design?
Yes. But the same time Mac OS does not use [x] as a closed identity, this design is in the era of OS, and only when you hover the mouse over the red button, [x] will appear.
After Windows 95 was released, the Linux GUI design began to use [x].
X Window System
Talk about so many GUI, we may wish to start from the date of the birth of the GUI to see it. Before Windows, Mac OS and Linux were born, the first graphical interface that took full advantage of the "desktop metaphor" was the legendary Xerox 8010 information System.
Known as Xerox's Xerox 8108, also known as "ViewPoint" and "GlobalView", we can see that everyone's expectations and recognition. Xerox 8101 has been developed since 1977 and is not officially on sale until 1981. Its GUI system inspired jobs and his team and was used in subsequent Lisa and Macintosh projects. In 1979, Jobs ' team saw the development of Xerox and GUI systems with team members at Xerox's research and development center, and even looked at the implementation details of the interactive interface, which made his subsequent products a great success.
Although, this time has not [x].
Think back to the early Apple OS without [x].
Mac OS 1
In 1983, the presence of [x] was also not found in IBM's earliest Visi interactive interface.
We still couldn't find [x] in 1984, Digital research based on the GEM system developed by DOS.
But, what is this? ...
Atari TOS 1.0
This is a screenshot from Atari TOS 1.0. The earliest [x] Close button was found here in 1985 when the gem system was transplanted to Atari ST to become the Atari branch. Why is this time, in this place?
This could be another visual element that Atari the American company from Japanese culture. As for the first thing they learned from Japan, the name of their company, Atari was originally borrowed from the Japanese game go, meaning "hit the target." In the case of [x] and [o] respectively, the two identifiers "Batsu" and "Maru" from Japan should be closed and opened.
Maru (O) and Batsu (x)
Batsu, that is, [x], is used to indicate incorrect, and can be expressed as error, bad, and attack. And Maru, that is, [o] means to be correct, true, good, complete, and even comprehensible as precious. Both are common gestures, two hands crossed in front of the chest to express batsu, hands across the head of the Maru.
Another example of using bats and Maru is the game handles of the PS Series game consoles, [x] and [o] are used to denote yes and no respectively. Of course, all the above is my theory and conjecture. Never appeared in the design scene I can never prove it. But I think it all make sense. Just in case, I'm going to move on to a more distant history and see what else we can find.
1965, written by Ken Thompson, is also the oldest existing text editor Quick Editor (QED), using the shortcut command [Q], [E], [C] and [ESC] to close and leave the program, but [x] is not a member. Not only that, until 1971, other text editors based on QED had never introduced this option. It is worth mentioning that Ken Thompson later assisted in the development of UNIX and made an indelible contribution to modern operating systems and software.
So what happened to the famous editor VI, VIM, Emacs, and Edlin? They never used [x] to close programs until the 80 's. [x] The shortcut key that is used as the deletion character exists in the editor, not the software shutdown.
[x] Rather than just a letter, it is a real symbol that represents the "close" behavior in graphical and interactive designs. [X] The first show in this field is most likely in the Atari TOS system, and is derived from the influence of Japanese culture. Thanks to the last minute changes made by Windows 95, [x] has become a standard in the world.
Original address: Medium (HTTPS://MEDIUM.COM/SOLVE-FOR-X/417936DFC0DC)