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xTable of Contents [1] binary [2] not [3] with [4] or [5] XOR [6] left shift [7] Shift right [8]>>>[9] apply the preceding wordsbitwise operators are very low-level operations and are not commonly used because they are not intuitive. However, its speed is very fast, and reasonable use can achieve good results. This article will cover the often overlooked operators in JavaScript--bit operators

Binary RepresentationAll the values in ECMAScript are stored in the IEEE-754 64-bit format, but the bitwise operators do not manipulate the 64-bit values directly, but instead operate with 32-bit signed integers, and the return value is also a 32-bit signed integer

This bit conversion allows the two values to be treated as a limit when the bit operation is applied to the special Nan and infinity values.

If you apply a bitwise operator to a non-numeric value, you will first use number () to convert it to a value and then apply a bitwise operation, resulting in a numeric value

//' | ' Represents a bitwise OR, an integer with 0 bitwise OR operation can get it itself, a decimal with 0 bitwise OR operation can get the rounding effect Console.log (1.3 | 0); // 1 console.log (1.8 | 0); // 1 console.log (Infinity | 0); // 0 console.log (-infinity | 0); // 0 console.log (NaN | 0); // 0 console.log (' 12px ' | 0); // 0 console.log (' 12 ' | 0); // 12

Signed integers represent integer values using the first 31 bits in the 32-bit, the integer sign with the 32nd digit, 0 for positive numbers, and 1 for negative numbers. The bit that represents the symbol is called the sign bit, and the value of the symbol bit determines the format of the other bit values. Where positive numbers are stored in a pure binary format, each of the 31 bits represents a power of 2. The first bit (called bit 0) represents 2 of 0 times, the second represents 2 1 times, and so on. Unused bits are filled with 0, which is negligible

For example, a binary representation of a value of 18 is 00000000000000000000000000010010, or a more concise 10010. This is a 5 significant bit, and the 5 bits themselves determine the actual value

Console.log ((). toString (2)); // "10010"Console.log (0b00000000000000000000000000010010); // -

Negative numbers are also stored as binary, but the format used is twos complement. The following 3 steps are required to calculate the binary complement of a value:

"1" to find the binary code of the absolute value

"2" for binary anti-code, the 0 is replaced by 1, 1 is replaced by 0

"3" to get the binary anti-code plus 1

For example, to determine the binary representation of 18, you must first get a binary representation of 18, as follows:

0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 0010

Next, calculate the binary counter code as follows:

1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1110 1101

Finally, add 1 to the binary counter code as follows:

1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1110 1101 1---------------------------------------1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1110 111 0

Therefore, the binary representation of 18 is 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1110 1110

ECMAScript will try to hide all this information from us, and when we output a negative number as a binary string, we only see a minus sign in front of the binary code with the absolute value of the negative number.

var num = -18; Console.log (num.tostring (2)); // ' -10010 '

Bitwise operators can perform 7 operations including bitwise non (not), bitwise and (and), bitwise OR (OR), bitwise XOR (XOR), left shift, signed right shift, and unsigned right shift

Bitwise NON (NOT)A bitwise non-operator is represented by a wavy line (~), and the result of performing a bitwise non is the inverse of the value returned. Its essence is that the negative value of the operand minus 1

var num1 =; var num2 = ~num1;console.log (num2); // -26

For an integer two times the bitwise non, you can get it itself; for a decimal two times bitwise non, you can get the rounding effect

Bitwise VS (and)Console.log (~~3); // 3Console.log (~~3.1); // 3Console.log (~~3.9); // 3

The bitwise-AND operator is represented by a ampersand (&), which has two operands. In essence, bitwise and operations align each bit of the two numeric values, and then perform and operations on the two numbers in the same location according to the rules in the following table

The bit result of the second numeric value of the first digit 1 1 each 0 1 xx 0 0

Bitwise AND operation only if the corresponding bit of two values is 1 o'clock returns 1, any one is 0, the result is 0

var iresult = & 3; Console.log (iresult); // "1"

bitwise OR (OR)// analysis is as follows: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 1001 3 = 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0011------------- --------------------------------= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001

Bitwise OR operator by a vertical bar symbol (|) Indicates that there are also two operands, bitwise OR operation following this truth table

Bit result of the second numeric value of the first digit 1 1 0 1 0 0

Bitwise OR operation returns 1 if there is a bit of 1, and returns 0 only if two bits are 0

var iresult = 25 | 3; Console.log (iresult); // " the"

// analysis is as follows: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 1001 3 = 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0011------------------- -------------------------= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 1011

An integer with 0 bitwise OR operation can get it itself, a decimal with 0 bitwise OR operation can get the rounding effect

Bitwise XOR OR (XOR)Console.log (3.1 | 0); // 3console.log (3.9 | 0); // 3

The bitwise XOR operator is represented by a caret (^) and has two operands. The following is a bitwise XOR truth table

Bit result of the second numeric value of the first digit 1 1 0 1 0 0

Two values of bitwise XOR return 0, not 1 at the same time

var iresult = 3; Console.log (iresult); // "a"

// analysis is as follows: 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 1001 3 = 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0011---------------- -----------------------------= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 1010

The "XOR operation" has a special application, with two numbers A and b being three times different or operations, Aˆ=b, Bˆ=a, Aˆ=b, which can interchange their values. This means that using an XOR operation allows you to swap the values of two variables without introducing temporary variables

var a=10,b=9^= B, b ^= A, a ^= b;console.log ( A, b); // 9,10

//analyzed as followsa = 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1010b= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1001---------------------------------------------A1= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0011A1= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0011b= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1001---------------------------------------------B1= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1010B1= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1010A1= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0011---------------------------------------------A2= 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 1001//a=a2=10;b=b1=9

An integer with 0 bitwise XOR can maintain itself, a decimal with 0 bitwise XOR or can be rounded

Move leftConsole.log (3.1 ^ 0); // 3console.log (3.9 ^ 0); // 3

The left shift operator is represented by two less than sign (<<), which moves all bits of a value to the left of the specified number of digits

For example, if you move the value 2 (binary code 10) to the left 5 bits, the result is 64 (1000000)

var oldValue = 2; var newvalue = oldvalue<<5; console.log (newvalue); // -

The left shift does not affect the sign bit of the operand. In other words, if you move 2 to the left 5 bits, the result will be-64

var oldValue =-2; var newvalue = oldvalue<<5; console.log (newvalue); // -64

Move left 0 to achieve rounding effect

Signed Right ShiftConsole.log (3.1 << 0); // 3console.log (3.9 << 0); // 3

The signed right shift operator is represented by the two greater than sign (>>), which moves the value to the right, but retains the symbol bit (that is, the sign mark). A signed right-shift operation is just the opposite of a left-hand operation, which means that if you move 64 to the right by 5 bits, the result will change back to 2

var oldValue =; var newvalue = oldvalue>>5; console.log (newvalue); // 2

Similarly, in the shift process, the original value will also appear empty. Only this time the vacancy appears on the left side of the original value, to the right of the sign bit. At this point, ECMAScript fills all the slots with the value of the sign bit to get a full value

Move right to simulate a 2 divide operation

Unsigned Right ShiftConsole.log (5>>1); // 2Console.log (15>>1); // 7

The unsigned Right shift operator is represented by the 3 greater than sign (>>>), which moves all 32 bits of the value to the right. For positive numbers, the result of an unsigned right shift is the same as a signed right shift. Still with the previous sign to the right, if you move the 64 unsigned right 5 bits, the result is still 2

var oldValue =; var newvalue = oldvalue>>>5; console.log (newvalue); // 2

However, the negative numbers are different. First, the unsigned Right shift fills the empty space with zeros instead of filling the empty space with the value of the sign bit, as with the right shift of the symbol. Therefore, the unsigned right shift for positive numbers is the same as the right shift with the title, but the result for negative numbers is different. Second, the unsigned right shift operator treats a negative binary code as a positive binary code. Also, because negative numbers are represented in the absolute twos complement form, this results in a very large result after the unsigned right shift

var oldValue = -64; var newvalue = oldvalue>>>5; Console.log (newvalue)//134217726

To determine the binary representation of 64, you must first get a binary representation of 64, as follows:

0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0100 0000

Next, calculate the binary counter code as follows:

1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1011 1111

Finally, add 1 to the binary counter code, as shown below

1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1011 1111 1---------------------------------------1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1100 000 0

Move the 5-bit to the right, as follows:

0000 0111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1110

Common applicationsConsole.log (0b00000111111111111111111111111110); // 134217726

"1" multiplication operation

Use left shift (<<) to achieve multiplication

Console.log (2 << 1); // 4Console.log (3 << 1); // 6Console.log (4 << 1); // 8

"2" division operation

Use the signed right Shift (>>) to simulate the 2 divide operation

Console.log (2 >> 1); // 1console.log (5 >> 1); // 2Console.log (8 >> 1); // 4Console.log (9 >> 1); // 4

"3" Value interchange

The effect of value interchange can be achieved by using XOR or operation (^)

var a=10,b=9^= B, b ^= A, a ^= b;console.log ( A, b); // 9,10

"4" Fractional rounding

Decimal rounding effect can be achieved by taking two times bitwise non, 0 bitwise OR, 0 bitwise XOR, 0-bit shift left, 0-bit right shift

Console.log (~~3.1); // 3Console.log (3.1|0); // 3Console.log (3.1^0); // 3Console.log (3.1<<0); // 3Console.log (3.1>>0); // 3

"5" switch

The bitwise operator can be used as a switch to set object properties. Suppose an object has four switches, and each switch is a variable. Then, a four-bit binary number can be set, and each bit of it corresponds to a switch

var // 0001 var // 0010 var // 0100 var // +

The above code sets a, B, C, D four switches, each of which occupies a bits

Now suppose that you need to open the ABD three switch, we can construct a mask variable

var mask = flag_a | Flag_b | Flag_d; // 0001 | 0010 | + 1011

The above code gives the ABD three variables "or operations" to get a mask value of 1011 in binary

// "or operations" ensures that the specified switch is turned on flags = Flags | Mask

// "and operations" can be the current settings of the general and switch settings are not the same, all the flags = flags & mask;

// The XOR operation can toggle (toggle) The current setting, that is, the first execution can get the opposite value of the current setting, and then execute once and get the original value . Flags = flags ^ mask;

Resources// "No operation" can flip the current setting, that is, the original setting is 0, the operation becomes 1, the original is set to 1, the operation becomes 0flags = ~flags;

"1" es5/bitwise arithmetic shift operator Https://www.w3.org/html/ig/zh/wiki/ES5/expressions

"2" Ruan one peak JavaScript standard reference Tutorial--operator HTTP://JAVASCRIPT.RUANYIFENG.COM/GRAMMAR/OPERATOR.HTML#TOC16

"3" JavaScript authoritative Guide (6th edition), chapter 4th expressions and operators

"4" JavaScript Advanced Programming (3rd Edition), chapter 3rd Basic Concepts

JavaScript operator--bitwise operator

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