C + +-operator overloading

Source: Internet
Author: User

First, what is operator overloading

Operator overloading can be divided into two parts: "Operator" and "overloaded". When it comes to overloading, this is a compile-time polymorphic, and overloads can actually be broken down into function overloads and operator overloads. The difference between operator overloading and function overloading is that operator overloading overloads must be operators. Let's take a visual look at the so-called operator overloads first:

#include <iostream>using namespacestd;intMain () {intA =2, B =3; floatc =2.1f, d =1.2f; cout<<"A + b ="<<a+b<<Endl; cout<<"C + d ="<<c+d<<Endl; return 0;}

We see the operator "+" complete the addition of float and int Two types, which is the operator overloading. The operator overloads for these built-in types have been implemented, but what if the classes we write ourselves now implement similar addition operations?? For example, now there is a point class, to achieve the addition of two points, the result is to add the horizontal ordinate, this time we need to write an operator overloaded function.

#include <iostream>using namespacestd;classpoint{Doublex; Doubley; Public:    Doubleget_x () {returnx; }    Doubleget_y () {returny; } Point (DoubleX =0.0,DoubleY =0.0): X (x), Y (y) {}; Pointoperator+(point P);};//overloaded operator "+"Point point::operator+(point P) {Doublex = This->x +p.x; Doubley = This->y +p.y;    Point tmp_p (x, y); returntmp_p;}intMain () {point P1 (1.2,3.1); Point P2 (1.1,3.2); Point P3= p1+P2; cout<<p3.get_x () <<" "<<p3.get_y () <<Endl; return 0;}

Two ways to implement operator overloading

Operator overloading is implemented in two ways, either through a "friend function" or a "class member function."

1. Format of the friend function overloaded operator:

class class Name {    operator  operator (formal parameter list);}; // Out-of- class definition format: return type operator operator (parameter table) {    // function Body }

2. The class member function implements the format of operator overloading:

class class Name {public:    operator  operator (formal parameter list);}; // Out-of- class definition Format return type class name::operator  operator (formal parameter    list) {// function Body }

To put it this way, it is still not enough to compare the differences between the two implementations, we write the "+" and "-" overloads of the point class in two ways. The code is as follows:

#include <iostream>usingStd::endl;usingstd::cout;classpoint{Doublex; Doubley; Public:    Doubleget_x () {returnx; }    Doubleget_y () {returny; } Point (DoubleX =0.0,DoubleV R0.0): X (x), Y (y) {}; Friend Pointoperator-(Point p1,point p2); Pointoperator+(point P);};//overloaded Operator "-"Pointoperator-(Point p1,point p2) {Doublex = p1.get_x ()-p2.get_x (); Doubley = p1.get_y ()-p2.get_y ();    Point P3 (x, y); returnP3;}//overloaded operator "+"Point point::operator+(point P) {Doublex = This->x +p.x; Doubley = This->y +p.y;    Point tmp_p (x, y); returntmp_p;}intMain () {point P1 (1.2,3.2); Point P2 (1.1,3.1); Point P3= p1+P2; Point P4=operator-(P1,P2); cout<<p3.get_x () <<" "<<p3.get_y () <<Endl; cout<<p4.get_x () <<" "<<p4.get_y () <<Endl; return 0;}
View Code

I don't know what you see here. When you use the friend function to overload the two-tuple operator "-", the formal parameter is two, and the formal parameter is only one when the class member function is used. Because the this pointer exists in the class member function, which is equivalent to a parameter, the class member implementation operator overloading requires fewer formal parameters than the original, such as: the use of class member functions to implement the unary operator "-", there is no need for parameters. It is for this reason that the operator overloads of the friend function implementations are limited, for example: [], (),->, and = Cannot use the friend function to implement overloading of operators.

In the actual development process, single-mesh operators recommend overloading as member functions, while binocular operators recommend overloading as friend functions. It is usually easier to load the lower binocular operator overload into a member function than the friend function, but sometimes the binocular operator must be overloaded to a member function, such as an assignment operator =. And if you need to modify the state inside the object, you can usually choose to modify it using the class member function.

Iii. Principle of operator overloading

In this case, operator overloading is pretty straightforward, and in fact operator overloading follows some principles:

Only existing C + + operators can be overloaded in 1.c++, and users are not allowed to define new operators themselves.

Most of the operators in 2.c++ can be overloaded, in addition to the member access Operators ., the scope operator ::, the length operator sizeof , and the conditional operator ?:.

3. Operator overloading cannot change the number of operands (operands) of an operator. For example: "+" is an operator that implements two operands, and is still a binocular operator after overloading.

4. Overloading cannot change the original precedence and the original binding of the operator.

5. Operator overloading cannot be all predefined basic data in C + +, and is intended to prevent users from modifying the nature of the operators used for basic type data.

Iv. Why operator overloading is performed

For operator overloading to follow so many principles, why operator overloading? Why don't I write an Add () function instead of operator + ()?? Personal feeling the overloading of operators in C + + is intended to operate uniformly with the built-in data types, such as: C = a + b and C = Add (A, A, a), which looks more intuitive, obviously the former. At the same time, we want to manipulate our own defined data types as conveniently as manipulating int and double these built-in data types. Perhaps the example of this addition is a little bit bad, and now adding the overloaded operator is [],<<,^,|, etc.? What are we going to do with the member function instead?? What effect does it take instead? Will you see what this function is going to do at a glance??

C + +-operator overloading

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