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C # language
C # is an object-oriented, high-level programming language running on the. NET framework that Microsoft publishes. And is scheduled to debut on the Microsoft Career Developer Forum (PDC). C # is the latest achievement of Microsoft researcher Anders Hejlsberg. C # looks surprisingly similar to Java, and it includes processes such as single inheritance, interfaces, almost the same syntax as Java, and the process of compiling into intermediate code. But C # differs significantly from Java in that it draws on a feature of Delphi, which is directly integrated with the COM (Component Object model), and is the protagonist of Microsoft's. NET Windows network Framework.
C # reads C sharp. At first it had a cooler name, called cool. Microsoft started the cool project in December 1998, until February 2000, when Cool was formally renamed C #. In 1998, the Delphi language designer, Hejlsberg, led the Microsoft development team to begin the design of the first version of the C # language. In September 2000, the International Organization for information and communication systems standardization defined a Microsoft company-recommended Standard for the C # language. The final C # language was officially released in 2001.
C # is a secure, stable, simple, elegant, object-oriented programming language derived from C and C + + . It inherits the power of C and C + + while removing some of their complex features (such as no macros and multiple inheritance not allowed). C # combines VB 's simple visualization and C + + 's high operational efficiency, with its powerful operational capabilities, elegant grammatical style, innovative language features and convenient component -oriented programming support becoming the preferred language for . NET Development.
C # is an object-oriented programming language. It allows programmers to quickly write various Microsoft-based. NET platform for applications, MICROSOFT. NET provides a range of tools and services to maximize the development and utilization of computing and communications.
It is because C # 's object-oriented design makes it an ideal choice for building a variety of components -whether it's advanced business objects or system-level applications. Using a simple C # language structure, these components can be easily converted into XML network services, allowing them to be invoked over the Internet by any language on any operating system.
C # makes it possible for C + + programmers to develop programs efficiently, and because of the ability to invoke native native functions written by C + +, there is no loss of the powerful functionality that C + + has. Because of this inheritance , C # and C + + have great similarities, and developers familiar with similar languages can quickly turn to C #C # language versionC # 1.0-purely object-oriented
In May 2003, Microsoft launched Visual Studio. NET 2003, and also released the improved version of C #--c# 1.1.
This period of C # (hereinafter referred to as C # 1.x) presents a purely object-oriented concept. C + + is not purely object-oriented , and it retains a lot of modularity in order to be compatible with C and provide higher execution efficiency. C # also forms a unified type system through the concepts of class type, value type, and interface type. 
Although the C # 1.x provides so many fresh concepts, these concepts are actually presented by the CLI . Therefore, when compiling a C # source program into an executable file, the compiler does relatively little work. The compiler is required to translate a simple delegate definition statement into an inherited System.MulticastDelegate type definition.C # 2.0-New concepts for generic programming
Microsoft released the first beta version of Visual Studio2005 in June in 2004, while showing developers the 2.0 version of the C # language. In April 2005, Microsoft released the Visual Studio 2005 Beta2, which is already a visualstudio with almost all of its features, including products such as SQL Server2005, Team Foundation Server and Teamsuite. The C # compiler is now able to handle all the new features in C # 2.0.
The most important feature that C # 2.0 brings to developers is generic programming capabilities. As with the idea of Microsoft Visual C #. NET Step by step, the idea of generics is a well-established programming idea, but there is still no mainstream development language that supports complete generic concepts. This is primarily because the concept of generics impacts the object-oriented concept to a certain extent, and because it is difficult to complete the detection of type parameters during compilation, many problems are left to the runtime. C # 2.0 ingenuity, a new concept of "constraint" is proposed for generic type parameters, and is embodied in the language with elegant grammar. With constraints, combined with the compiler's powerful type inference capabilities, you can discover almost all "dangerous" generic applications at compile time.
Another prominent feature of C # 2.0 is the anonymous method , which replaces some small, once-only delegates, making the language structure more compact. In addition to making the event handler more streamlined, the anonymous method brings the developer into a new area of programming-functional programming, where an expert has implemented an important structural--LAMBDA expression in functional programming with anonymous methods combined with generic programming. Although this implementation seems cumbersome and difficult to understand, it is achieved.c#3.0-(Development Code "Orcas")
The September 2005 PDC Conference--c#3.0 (developed the technical Preview version of the code "Orcas"-devil). Speaking of C # 3.0, you have to mention Microsoft's LINQ Project, LINQ (Language-Integrated query, Languageintegrat
Ed query) proposes a query technique for non-object-oriented data sources through object-oriented syntax, which extends from relational databases to general-purpose collections (such as arrays and lists) and XML. C # 3.0 is the first language to implement LINQ.
In C # 3.0, you can easily get a collection of objects that meet certain criteria from a data source using syntax similar to SQL statements. For example, to find a string array names all strings of length greater than 5, you can write: var longname = from N in Names Wheren. Length > 5 Select N;
This will result in a new character array longname, which contains the desired results. This statement is called a query statement, and the only difference from the SQL statement is that the query statements in C # tend to put the SELECT clause at the end (which is somewhat similar to the Chinese reading order). The first time you see such a statement, you may have a big question: Is this a C # language? This is indeed a syntax-compliant C # code, and the compiler can recognize this syntax. In practice, however, the C # compiler does not actually compile this syntax, but instead translates it into a normal method call.C # 4.0 dynamic programming
(PS: There is a little version of the episode--vs2008 the corresponding. Net framework is 3.5,c# is 3.0,CLR is 2.0, and its confusion, Ms finally determined to VS2010 in the three version number unified into 4.0, so CLR3 increasing multiplicity ... ...). NET FrameWork
the. NET Framework is the new managed code programming model for Windows. Its powerful capabilities combine with new technologies to build applications with visually compelling user experiences, seamless communication across technology boundaries, and support for a wide range of business processes.
The. NET Framework is a programming platform that runs on a system virtual machine, based on the common language runtime (Common Language Runtime) and supports the development of multiple languages (C #, VB, C + +, Python, and so on). NET also provides new features and development tools for the Application Interface (API). These innovations enable programmers to simultaneously develop Windows application software and Web applications, as well as components and services (Web services). NET provides a new reflective and object-oriented programming interface. NET is designed to be sufficiently generalized so that many different high-level languages can be pooled. The Base Class library (BCL) is available in all languages in the. NET Framework.
. The net compilation platform consists of core components and other artifacts (development tools and protocols, Web clients and end-user applications, Web services, and enterprise Servers). Microsoft Windows is running under the. NET Framework as an operating system, with the. NET Framework built into the Windows XP sp2/windows Server 2003/windows Vista system, which can also be installed on most older Windows systems: NET Framework as the core component of the. NET development platform provides a building, porting, and running environment for Web services and other applications. NET component is a pre-programmed class module with a dynamic-link library extension. At run time, it is activated and loaded into memory by using a user program. NET components are used to create networks and Windows applications that enable the functionality that an application needs to be displayed externally: NET platform also contains Web forms, which are standard interfaces that can be downloaded from the Web. A Web form contains a text box for the user to enter data. The user can then submit the form to the sink. NET platform is a critical part of the network server. Network Server query protocol and standard collection. Applications can use a Web server to Exchange data on a computer network. For example, when you order a train ticket online and enter your credit card number to make a payment, you are using a Web server.Version IntroductionNET Framework 1.0
Full version number-1.0.3705. This is the original. NET Framework, published in 2002 . It can be obtained in the form of a separate, redistributable package or in a Software development toolkit. It was also the first of Microsoft Visual Studio. NET is part of the release version (also known as Visual Studio.NET 2002).. NETFramework 1.1
Full version number-1.1.4322. This is the first major. NETFramework upgrade version, released in 2003. It can be obtained in the form of a single redistributable package or in a Software development toolkit. It is also a second Microsoft Visual Studio. NET version (also known as Visual Studio.NET 2003). It is also the first version of the. Net framework built into the Windows operating system - Windows Server 2003 .
Improvements since the 1.0 release:
comes with support for mobile ASP. NET Controls. This was implemented as an additional feature in version 1.0 and is now integrated within the framework. Security changes-Enables Windows Forms code to run in a reliable way, allowing the is running securely within the environment and is joined by ASP. NET application with code-safe access functionality. Comes with a pair of odbc and oracle database support. This was implemented as an additional feature in version 1.0 and is now integrated within the framework. .net Compact Framework - This is a device for smart devices (for example pocket PC or smartphone ). Net A subset of the framework. Support for ipv6 . A large number of API changes.
. NETFramework 2.0
Full version number-2.0.50727.42, released on October 27, 2005.
The components of the. Net Framework 2.0 are included in Visual Studio 2005 and SQL Server 2005. The RTM version can be downloaded free of charge via MSDN Universe. Improvements since version 1.1: a large number of API changes. The new API makes this possible for non-. NET applications that need to manage. NET runtime instances. This new API provides good control over the various functions of the. NET runtime, including multithreading, memory allocation, code loading, and so on. It was originally intended to be used efficiently for Microsoft SQL Server . NET runtime, because Microsoft SQL Server has its own schedule manager and Storage Manager.
. NETFramework 3.0
Windows 2000 is not supported in this release.
Released on November 21, 2006. Had used the name "WinFX". Still used. NETFramework the 2.0 version of the Common language runtime (CLR), and added 4 frameworks to adapt to future software development:
Windows Presentation Foundation ( WPF): Provides a better user experience for developing Windows Forms programs and browser applications. Windows Communication Foundat Ion ( WCF): Provides a secure network services (Web Service) framework that is supported by the SOA (service-oriented software architecture). Windows Workflow Foundation ( WF): Provides an application interface for designing and developing workflow-oriented (workflow-oriented) application-based support. Windowscardspace: Provides an SSO solution for each user with their own cardspace.. NET Framework 3.5
Windows 2000 is not supported in this release.
This version will contain a support for C # and VB. NET-centric language features, and support for language-integrated queries (linq,language-integrated query). This version is published with Visual Studio .
Also, the. NET Framework 3.5 is automatically included. NETFramework 2.0 SP1 and the. Net Framework 3.0 SP1 are used to provide security fixes for these two versions, as well as a small number of new class libraries (such as system.datetimeoffest). The new features available in this release are:
The extension methods (Extension method) property (Attribute), which provides support for extension methods, including LINQ Toobject, LINQ to ADO, and LINQ support. NET and the linqto XML expression tree, which is used to provide support for Lambda expressions tightly integrated with language-integrated query (LINQ) and data-aware. With this new feature, you can use the same syntax to write code in any language that supports LINQ to filter and enumerate multiple types of SQL data, collections, XML, and Datasets, and to create projections for them. Using ASP. Netajax can create a more efficient, interactive, and highly personalized web experience that can be implemented on all the most popular browsers. New Web protocol support for generating WCF services, including Ajax, JSON, REST, POX, RSS, Atom, and several new WS-* standards. Full tooling support for WF, WCF, and WPF in VisualStudio 2008, including the new technology for workflow-enabled services. The new classes in the. Net Framework3.5 base Class Library (BCL) can meet many common customer requests.
This version of the new ASP. NET features, released with Visual Studio2008 SP1, this release provides the following new features:
The new ASP. NET features include ASP. NET Dynamic Data and ASP. NET AJAX add-on, which provides a rich scaffolding framework for fast development of data driven without writing code, which provides support for managing browser history (Back button support). ADO. NET Entity Framework. Support for data providers for SQL Server 2008. The. NET Framework client configuration document is a subset of the full version of the. NET Framework for client-side applications. This improves the installation experience on computers that do not already have the. Net Framework installed. Improved performance of the Windowspresentation Foundation, including the performance of bitmap effects for startup speed. Features added to Windowspresentation Foundation include better support for line-of-business applications, native splash screen support, DirectX Pixel shader support, and new WebBrowser controls. ClickOnce application Publishers can decide whether to cancel signatures and hashes as appropriate, and developers can programmatically install a ClickOnce application that displays custom branding, and the ClickOnce Error dialog box supports links to application-specific support sites on the network. The. Net Framework Data Provider for SQL Server (System.Data.SqlClient) fully supports all the new features of the SQL Server 2008 database engine. For more information about the. Net Framework's support for SQL Server 2008, see new Features in SQL Server (ADO. net). Ado. NET Data platform is a multi-versioning strategy that enables developers to program on a conceptual Entity Data model to mitigate their coding and maintenance efforts. This platform provides the ADO. NET entity Framework, Entity Data Model (EDM), Object Services, LINQ to Entities, entity SQL, EntityClient, ADO. NET Data Services and Entity Data Model tools. Windows Communication Foundation now provides improved interoperability support, enhances the debugging experience in partial trust scenarios, and extends integration protocol support to more broadly apply to Web 2.0 applications. This makes the DataContract serialization program easier to use. The Microsoft.VisualBasic.PowerPacks namespace introduces the new DatarepeatEr control, which displays data in a customizable list format. This namespace also contains new vector shapes.. NETFramework 4.0
Windows 2000 is not supported in this release.
The. NET Framework 4.0 mainly added parallel support, which was launched on April 12, 2010.
Enterprise Foundation. NET provides a standalone platform for developing software, with a highly secure network system that relies heavily on software components and component-oriented programs. In this regard it completely replaces the former (COM1).. NETFramework 4.5
Windows 2000, Windows XP is not supported in this release.
The. NET Framework 4.5, released on August 16, 2012, is an internal Windows component that supports the generation and running of next-generation applications and WEB services. Key components of the. NET Framework are the common language runtime (CLR) and. NET Framewor K-Class libraries (including ADO. NET, ASP. NET, Windows Forms, and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) and Windowsworkflow Foundation (WF)). NET Framewo RK provides a managed execution environment, simplified development and deployment, and integration with a variety of programming languages. 
The. NET for Windows Store apps:windows Metro style application is a specific form factor and leverages the capabilities of the Windows operating system. You can use a subset of C # or Visual basic,.net Framework 4.5 to build a Metro style application for Windows. This subset is called. NET for Windowsstore Apps
1. During deployment, you can reduce system restarts by detecting and shutting down. NET Framework 4 applications. Support for arrays larger than GB on 64-bit platforms (GB). This feature can be enabled in the application configuration file.
2. Improve performance through background garbage collection on the server. When you use server garbage collection in the. NET Framework 4.5, background Garbage collection is automatically enabled.
3. Background-just-in-time (JIT) generation, which can optionally be used in multicore processors to improve application performance.
4. Before it times out, it is possible to limit how long the regular expression engine can attempt to resolve a regular expression.
5. Ability to define the default culture for the application domain.
6.Unicode (UTF-16) encoded console support.
7. Sorting and comparing data support for version-controlled culture strings.
8. When retrieving resources, improve performance. See packaging and deploying Resources in desktop applications.
9.ZIP compression improvements reduce the size of compressed files.
10. Through the Customreflectioncontext class, you can customize the reflection context to override the default reflection behavior.
11. The 2008 version of the Internationalized domain name is supported in the application (IDNA) standard when the System.Globalization.IdnMapping class is used in Windows 8.
12. When the. NET framework is used in Windows 8, the delegation of string comparisons to the operating system implements Unicode 6.0. When running on other platforms, the. NET Framework includes its own string comparison data that implements Unicode 5.x. Each application domain is based on the ability to calculate a hash code for a string.the relationship between C # and. NET
C # is a fairly new programming language, and the importance of C # is reflected in the following two areas:
It is designed specifically for use with the Microsoft. NET Framework. (The. NET framework is a very rich platform to develop, deploy, and execute distributed applications).
It is a language based on modern object-oriented design methods, and Microsoft also draws on other similar language experiences that have been developed since the object-oriented rules have been widely applied in the last 20 years.
There is an important question to understand: C # is only a language in itself, although it is used to generate orientation. The code of the net environment, but it is not itself. NET part of the. NET supports some of the features that C # does not support. While the C # language supports other features,. NET is not supported (such as operator overloading)!
However, because the C # language is and. NET, so it is important to understand the framework if you are using C # to efficiently develop applications.
C # and various versions and contacts of the. Net Framework
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