Debian usage notes

Source: Internet
Author: User
Debian notes-Linux Release Technology-Debian information. For more information, see the following. Author: Ji Qing Source:

The Linux operating system with better Gui has three major releases: RedHat, Debian, and SuSE. Since RedHat9, RedHat releases a new version in the name of Fedora. It's still a hat, but it's changed from a red hat to a shallow woolen hat.

The main author of Debian is a couple. The name of Debian is composed of the names of the couple. Chinese people like to call it stool, one is because it is consistent with Debian, and the other is because its tornado logo is also like stool. Although it is a bit vulgar, debian users regard stool as the love name of debian. It should be noted that debian-based ubuntu is very popular and the interface is more beautiful.

SuSE, not very familiar with, the younger brother installed, the interface is also very beautiful, use habits more like windows.

In the Linux world, there are two main desktop environments: KDE and Gnome. You can use KDE or Gnome for RedHat and SuSE, while Debian and ubuntu only provide the Gnome desktop environment.

I installed Debian etch before the National Day (it should be the latest stable version. Previous stable versions include woody and sarge ). Linux will be the main working environment in the future. At first, the English version was installed to solve the problem of Chinese support while using it. Below are some notes to help new debian users.

1. display the English version of debian in Chinese.
First of all, to install the Chinese character package, commonly used Chinese Character package mainly has the following types: ttf-arphic-bkai00mp traditional Chinese character book ttf-arphic-gbsn00lp simplified English character ttf-arphic-uming simplified English character ttf-arphic-ukai

Simplified and simplified
The online method is:
Add the following two lines to the file/etc/apt/sources. list: deb

Ftp: // sarge main contrib non-free deb

Ftp: // sid main contrib non-free and then use

Command: apt-get install ttf-arphic-bkai00mp ttf-arphic-gbsn00lp

Ttf-arphic-gkai00mp ttf-arphic-uming ttf-arphic-ukai
My debian is neither sarge nor sid, as if it is etch. Therefore, neither of these two sources works. Fortunately

Some fonts are available on my installation disc, So I:
Apt-get install ttf-arphic -*
I have installed all the Chinese fonts.
You can also use the font in windows. The online method is as follows:
In Windows, open the control panel and double-click the font.

Copy to Debian and put it in the/usr/loca/share/fonts/directory.
If the desktop environment is KDE, click the main menu of KDE and select settings> System under Actions.

Administration-> Font Installer, this program lists the Fonts installed in the system. Click Add Fonts ..., a browser dialog box is displayed, and you can select your own font directory/usr/local/share/fonts /, click OK to add the font in the window to the debian system. Another method is to back up and modify the/etc/X11/xorg. conf file. Cp xorg. conf

Xorg. conf-back: Press enter to back up the file, and then use any editor to edit xorg. conf (note that some systems are not the file). Add this line to it: FontPath

"/Usr/local/share/fonts /"
Section "Files" FontPath "/usr/local/share/fonts /"......

Save and exit. (I don't know why I use the windows Font and the text is displayed as square .)

Later, I checked the windows Font in the/usr/local/share/fonts/truetype/ms directory, and changed simsun. ttc to simsun. ttf.

And fc-cache-f-v, load all the fonts to the cache, lock out, and then come in.

It may also be related to the installation of xpdf-chinese-simplified. Before installing xpdf-chinese-simplified, install cmap-adope-gb.

After all, openOffice can export pdf files in Chinese.

After the Chinese character package is installed, set locale.
Run the locale command to view the currently used locale. Use locale-a to view the available locale. I use zh_CN.GB2312. You can use the command dpkg-reconfigure locales to configure locale, you can also. add this line to the bashrc file: exportLC_ALL = zh_CN.GB2312
Finally, restart X to display Chinese characters.

2. Enter Chinese characters.
There are two good Chinese Input Methods: scim and fcitx.
If you use fcitx:
Apt-get install fcitx install this input method, and then

Write: export to 95im-launch in the/etc/X11/Xsession. d/directory.

XMODIFIERS = @ im = fcitx
Fcitx automatically starts with the desktop.
If scim is used:
Apt-cache search scim installation: apt-get install scim-chinese

Scim-tables-zh installation is complete. Configuration:/etc/X11/Xsession. d/95xfree86-

Input-start export LC_CTYPE = "zh_CN.GBK" export

XMODIFIERS = @ im = SCIM export GTK_IM_MODULE = scim export

QT_IM_MODULE = scim-d
(My installation CD does not contain scim-chinese. I didn't install this package, but scim is still very useful.) I personally recommend scim, because fcitx does not know why the fcitx input method cannot be called up in both openoffice and molliza.

3. Let debian speak out.
After I installed debian, there was no sound or didi sound from the speaker, proving that the audio card driver was installed. So I used a method that is generally effective:

Install alsa!
The method I used at the time was:
Su apt-get install alsa * Run alsaconf and select the sound card to be used. After running, the sound will be heard.

In fact, there should be no need to install so many packages. The online approach is:
Aptitude install alsa-base alsa-utils alsaconf
(Now there is another problem, that is, sometimes my system has no sound and you need to re-run alsaconf .)

Please immediately execute alsaconf and then execute alsactl store to force save the sound card settings:
Alsactl store
(I tried it like this, but I still can't do it. I'm too lazy to get it .)
If the problem persists, try

Delete the sound card line in/etc/modprobe. d/modprobe. conf. dist. These settings generally include the sound or snd words, and then re-Execute:
Alsactl store
Restart your computer.

4. watch videos in debian
Debian comes with Totem movie player, which does not need to be complete. When I read a wmv file, the decoder is missing. Another player that comes with debian, VLC media player, can play. It feels good. In addition, the mplayer decoder is very complete. You can install it to watch the video. Apt-get install mplayer. (In fact, many of the current discs still cannot be viewed. It seems that the decoder is missing. The younger brother installed an suse, and it was okay to watch almost all the discs .)

5. What should I do if the PDF file is garbled?
Opinions of Some netizens:
Sometimes gpdf and kpdf are garbled and annoying.
Acrobat Reader is slow and not open-source ......
The text displayed in xpdf is correct, but the title bar of the window is garbled with Chinese characters.

Not enough.
(I add that the xpdf display is not good. No built-in Evince has been provided)
In my pdf reader, I think Foxit on Windows is the best to use, fast and functional

(I agree .)
However, xpdf supports better Chinese. I have installed one.
Apt-get install xpdf-reader xpdf-chinese-simplified
Xpdf-chinese-simplified cannot be found on the CD, so I didn't install this package. xpdf is displayed.

The effect is still unsatisfactory, and some formats are messy.
Another statement:
The best way is to download Adobe Reader 7 in Simplified Chinese version from the official Adobe homepage.

Compromise: Use the font folder of Adobe Reader 7 in windows to overwrite the file in Linux.

Folder to correctly display the vast majority of Chinese pdf documents, and the display effect is the same as that in Windows. However

Yes or some cannot be displayed. The reason is unknown. It is said that some pdf documents contain their own fonts, and some do not

Built-in, resulting in a difference.
There is a way for Evince to display Chinese characters. I don't know if it works:
1 sudo apt-get install evince 2 sudo apt-get install xpdf-

Chinese-simplefied 3 you need a chinese font, simsun and fireflysun.

Cd/usr/share/fonts sudo ln-s <你的字体存放的路径> <字体名> . Ttf //

Remember that it must be. ttf !!! It cannot be *. ttc, or something else. I started here, for example:

Sudo ln-s/media/hda1/windows/fonts/simsun. ttc simsun. ttf // open

4. Open/etc/xpdf/xpdfrc-chinese-simplefied

DisplayCIDFontTT changed to displayCIDFontTT Adobe-GB1

/Usr/share/fonts/simsun. ttf! 5 now your xpdf and evince can be displayed

After a lot of attempts, it seems that evince cannot configure the background color of the page, but xpdf can.
1. Find the. Xdefaults file in your home directory, cd ~, Ls-. You can see it.
2. If the file cannot be found, create a file with the same name.
3. Add xpdf. paperColor: # c6e6c6 to it. This is my configuration, light green back

You can select your preferred color.
How to copy text in xpdf.

6. automatically mount windows partitions and display the Chinese file name normally.
1. For example, if I want to mount two partitions in windows, I can see these two partitions through fdisk-l.

The device names of the partition are/dev/sdb6 and/dev/sdb7.
2. Create two folders in/mnt: mkdir study relex.
3. Open fstab with vi and add two lines.
/Dev/sda6/mnt/study vfat rw, codepage = 936, iocharset = cp936 0 0

/Dev/sda7/mnt/relex vfat rw, codepage = 936, iocharset = cp936 0 0
Save and exit. The key is iocharset = cp936, which enables the Chinese file name in windows

Normally displayed, rather than a string ?.
4. Restart and check that the mount fails.
5. The file system type is incorrect. The parameter settings are incorrect. I read some articles and modified them:
/Dev/sda6/mnt/study ntfs ults, umask = 0, iocharset = utf8 0 0

/Dev/sda7/mnt/relex ntfs ults, umask = 0, iocharset = utf8 0 0
Restart. Umask = 0, indicating that all files are in 777 mode.

7. How to add parameters to the automatic mounting of USB flash drives?
If no parameter is added, all Chinese names are ?.
Mount/dev/sdb/media/usbdisk-o utf8 during manual mounting.
In fact, you can change the fstab file to add a line like mounting a windows partition, but the option must contain

Noauto: Disable automatic mounting upon startup.
But this is also not good. When there are multiple USB flash drives, there will be problems.
I don't want to worry about this for the moment.

8. English-Chinese dictionary In Debian.
A version is upgraded from sourceforge and cannot be installed.
It seems that some dependent package versions are incorrect.

9. What should I do if the system time is always 8 hours faster?
The system time has just been adjusted correctly, and it is faster without knowing it. Observed several times and found that every time it was a whole 8

This is a problem with the hardware read time of the system. Run hwclock -- show on the command line to view the hardware.

If you can correctly read the hardware time, it is the BIOS Processing Method of your machine and the rtc kernel module of Linux.

A problem occurs between blocks.
The new bios is probably incompatible with the old rtc module.
Try hwclock -- directisa -- show to see if it runs successfully.
After debian 4.0, you can directly add a row in/etc/default/rcS:

HWCLOCKPARS = "-- directisa"
Or open/etc/init. d/hwclock. sh. If the first line is HWCLOCKPARS =, add

Add "-- directisa".

10. What are the differences between several shells? Bash, sh, tcsh?
Shell is a command interpreter and has its own built-in shell command set, similar to dos windows. Debian has three shells: bash, sh, and tcsh. They are developed by different authors and support different commands and usage habits.

[ This post was last edited by Growth MB]
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