Getting Started with Java Programming (glossary)

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Tags deprecated stack pop try catch

abstract class: Abstract classes cannot create objects and are used primarily to create subclasses. Abstract classes in Java are defined using the abstract modifier.

abstract data type ADT: the abstract data type indicates the possible types and operations allowed, but does not provide an implementation.

access specifier: used in a method or variable definition to qualify which classes can access the method or variable. The access identifiers in Java are public, protected, and private. The default visibility of a method or variable that does not have an access identifier adornment is "package".

activity record (activation record): The activity record contains all the information necessary to implement a subroutine call, including parameter values, local variables in the subroutine, and the return address of the computer at the end of the subroutine call. Activity records are stored in the stack, making it possible for multiple subroutine calls to be active at the same time. This is important for recursion, where multiple calls to the same sub-program at recursion are required to be activated simultaneously.

Arguments (actual parameter): the parameters of the subroutine are called declarations. When the call executes, the value is passed to the self function by declaration. The arguments are also called arguments.

Address: Each location in the computer's memory has an address that represents the number of that location. The locations in memory are sorted by ordinal. In modern computers, each byte in memory has its own address. Addresses are used when storing or reading memory information.

algorithm (algorithm): The process of completing a task in step-by-step, without ambiguity, and ensuring that the task is completed within a limited number of steps.

Alpha Color composition (alpha color component): color composition is used to describe the transparency or opacity of a color. The higher the alpha composition, the more opaque the color.

API: application Programming interface. The interface description for the package or the toolbox. The API contains all of the classes or subroutines in the toolbox and their usage instructions.

applets: Unlike an application that can run on its own, an applet is a Java program that runs on a Web page in a Web browser.

Animation (animation): A quick display of a set of static pictures shows a dynamic effect. Each static picture is called a frame. In Java, animations are usually driven by a Timer object. Each time the timer is triggered, the next frame of the animation is displayed.

anti-aliasing (antialiasing): when graphics and text are displayed in pixels, you can reduce the "jagged" effect by adjusting the color of the pixels. When anti-aliasing is drawn, the graphic only covers part of the pixel, and the color of the graphic is blended with the color before the pixel. The degree of blending is determined by how much of the pixel is covered.

array: an ordered list of elements. In the list, each element can be identified by its own index, which is the ordinal number. In Java, all elements in an array must be of the same type, also known as the base type of the array. An array is a data structure that can be accessed randomly, meaning that you can directly access any element in the array at any time.

Array Type: The value of this data type is an array. For example, the name of the type, type[] is the array type, the base type is type.

Assignment Statement (Assignment statement): A statement in a computer program that can read or calculate a value and store it in a variable. The assignment statement form in Java is: variable name = expression.

Asynchronous events (asynchronous event): An asynchronous event is an event that is not expected to occur at a time when the computer program cannot control it. User input events such as mouse clicks and keystrokes are asynchronous.

ASCII code: American Standard Code for information interchange. This encoding uses 7 bits to encode characters. The ASCII code supports only 128 characters and does not support ideographic characters, non-English characters, special symbols, or non-character languages, such as Chinese. Java employs larger, more complete Unicode encoding processing characters.

baseline condition (base case): in a recursive algorithm, the baseline condition can be processed directly without the need to continue recursion.

Binary Number: The value is encoded as a set of 0, 1 sequences. The general figure is "10 as the base" and the binary number is similar to the "2 base".

two binary tree: A two-tree is a chain data structure. Can be an empty tree, or it consists of two smaller two-fork trees (possibly empty trees) and root nodes. The root node contains pointers to the two subtrees trees. These two smaller two-prong trees are called Saozi right subtrees.

bit (bit): a binary number, which may be 0 or 1.

black box: refers to a system or component that does not care about the internal structure when it is used. The black box includes the interface and implementation. In a system, a black box that is used as a component is called a module.

BLOCK: in Java programming, a set of statements surrounded by curly braces ({}) is called a block. (code) blocks are used to combine a set of statements into a single statement. The block can be empty, meaning that there is no statement, or a pair of empty curly braces.

blocking operations (blocking operation): an operation that waits for certain events to occur is called a "blocking" operation, such as reading data from a network connection. The thread that performs the blocking operation remains in a "blocked" state until the event occurs. When in a blocking state, the thread cannot execute any instructions. Other threads in the program can continue to execute.

blocking queues (blocking queue): when the blocking queue is empty, the outbound operation causes blocking until a new member is added to the queue. If the blocking queue has a size limit, the queued operation can also cause blocking when the queue fills up.

Bottom-up (bottom-up design): Bottom- up design is a software design approach. Design from the underlying components of the system, and then combine them into more complex components, and so forth.

BufferedImage class: The BufferedImage class shows an "off-screen canvas," Where pictures are stored in computer memory and can be drawn off-screen.

Branch (Branch): A branch is a control structure that a computer chooses from 2 or more different execution paths through a branch. There are two types of branching statements in Java: The IF statement and the switch statement.

byte (byte): A byte is a memory unit consisting of 8 bits. A byte can hold 8 bits binary number.

bytecode (bytecode):"Java bytecode" is a common name for the Java Virtual Machine machine language. Java programs are compiled into Java bytecode, which is executed by the JVM.

Character Set (charset): A character set is a specific encoding form that encodes character data into binary. such as UTF-8 and iso-8859-1.

Examined exception (checked exception): the exception that is examined in Java must be handled, can be caught through a try catch statement, or thrown with a throw statement on a method. A syntax error is reported if the inspected exception is not handled in either way.

class: class is the underlying programming unit of Java. A class is a collection of static methods, non-static methods, and variables. A static member is a part of the class itself, and a non-static or "instance" member is the blueprint for creating an object that "belongs" to that class.

class variable and class method (class methods):aliases for "Static variables" and "Static methods". They are part of the class, regardless of the object.

client/server (Client/server): a network communication mode. Where the server waits for a known address on the network, waiting for the client to initiate a connection request to it. This is the underlying communication model of the TCP/IP protocol.

command-line interface (command-line interface): a method of computer interaction. The user enters a command to the computer and the computer responds to each command.

Note (comment): in a computer program, annotations are text that is ignored by the computer. The purpose of annotations is to facilitate people's reading and to help understand the program.

compiler (compiler): A compiler is a computer program that translates a program written in a computer language (usually a high-level language) into a machine-language program.

Component (component): A component is a general term to a GUI visual element, including a window, button, or menu. In Java, the component behaves as an object created by the Java.awt.Component subclass.

Constructor (constructor): a special subroutine of a class that is used primarily to create objects of a class. Constructors are generally called with the new operator and are not generally considered "methods."

container (Container): a component such as JPanel that can contain other GUI components. The Add () method of the call container can add components to it.

method Contract (contract of a method): The semantic component of the methods interface. It indicates the responsibilities of the method and its callers, how to invoke the method, and the tasks that will be performed when the method is called correctly. The method contract should be fully described in the Javadoc comment of the method.

Control Structure: An If statement, a while loop that affects the program structure that controls the flow of programs, that is, the order in which the instructions are executed in the program.

CPU: central processing Unit. The CPU is the part of the computer that actually performs the calculations and runs the program.

Data structure: A collection of datasets that are organized. is treated as a unit in the program.

Deadlock (Deadlock): a situation in which multiple threads wait indefinitely. The cause of a deadlock, such as a resource that each thread waits for another thread to lock.

Default method: The method in the Java 8 interface, which provides its own implementation. All interfaces that implement a default method can use the default implementation, but cannot override the default method. The default method is marked with the name reserved word. The default method is not supported in Java 7.

Default Package: The default package does not have a package name. Classes that are not declared in a package with a name are attributed to the default package.

definite Assignment (definite assignment): in a program, variables must be guaranteed to be assigned before they are used. Local variables can only be used legally after they are assigned. To meet this requirement, the compiler must check the variables from the beginning of the declaration to each path used.

deprecated (deprecated): indicates obsolete, but remains for compatibility. Deprecated Java classes or methods are still part of the Java language, but are not recommended for use in new code. In future versions of Java, deprecated content will be removed.

dialog Box dialog: A dialog box is a new form that relies on other forms to create. Pop-up dialogs are often used to get user information or display messages. In the Swing API, the dialog box represents the object created for JDialog.

distributed Computing (distributed computing): A parallel process that is performed in multiple computers connected by a network.

virtual parameter (dummy parameter): The identifier used to replace the actual incoming parameter when calling a subroutine. The virtual parameter is also called the "formal parameter" (sometimes the argument is denoted by "argument argument", when the virtual parameter is also called "parameter").

enum: enum type. All possible values of the type are enumerated in the definition of the enumeration type. In Java, an enumeration type is a class, and all possible values are objects.

event: in GUI programming, an event refers to an operation that occurs outside of program control, such as a mouse click. The program must respond to events that occur.

exception (Exception): a program that controls errors or exceptions outside the process. In Java, an exception is represented as a Throwable object, which can be used by the try: Catch statements are captured and processed.

acquisition-execution cycle (Fetch-and-execute cycle): also known as the instruction cycle. Refers to the process by which the CPU executes a machine language program. The CPU obtains (that is, reads) instructions from memory, executes (runs) instructions, and then iterates over the process.

flag: A Boolean value. When set to TRUE indicates that certain conditions have been reached or something has happened. A bit in the binary number can be used as a flag.

formal parameters (formal parameter):another way of saying "virtual parameters".

frame: One of the pictures that makes up the animation is another way of saying the activity record.

function: A subroutine with a return value.

garbage Collection (garbage collection): the process of automatically reclaiming memory. The reclaimed memory is occupied by the object but is no longer accessible to it.

generic Programming (Generic programming): The code written is not limited to a single data type, but can be adapted to a variety of data types. The Java Collection framework and other classes that use similar techniques are examples of generic programming.

getter Method: An instance method in a class that is used to read a property value of a class. Typically, a property represents the value of some instance variable. By convention, the getter method is named Getxyz (), where XYZ is the name of the property.

global variable: an alias for a member variable. The member variables in the emphasis class can exist outside of the class method.

Graphics Context: the data and methods that are necessary to draw a particular location. The graphics context in Java is an object that belongs to the graphics class.

GUI: A graphical user interface is a modern way of interacting with a computer. The computer displays interface components such as buttons and menus on the display through the GUI, and the user can interact with them in such a way as a mouse click.

Hash Table: an optimized data structure that can efficiently search, insert, and delete objects. The hash table contains an array of addresses for the object. The address stored by the object is determined by its own hash code. An address integer value can be efficiently computed by the contents of the object.

Heap: the area in which objects are stored in computer memory.

High-level language (language): a computer language like Java that is easy for people to read, but needs to be translated into machine language before execution.

HSB: a color system. The color is represented by 3 values (in Java, the actual value is between 0.0 and 1.0). Represents hue, saturation, and brightness, respectively.

IDE: integrated development environment. A programming environment with a graphical user interface that integrates various tools for creating, editing, and executing programs.

identifier (identifier): a set of identifiers that can be used as a name in a program. Identifiers can be used as variable names, method names, and class names.

index number: The position number of the element in the array.

implementation (Implementation): the internal implementation of the black box, such as the implementation code of the subroutine.

immutable objects (immutable object): immutable objects cannot be changed after construction, because all the variables in the instance are marked as final.

Infinite Loop (infinite loop): The loop never ends because its loop condition is always determined to be true.

Inheritance (inheritence): A class can inherit another class. Inheritors inherit data and behavior from the parent class.

an instance of a class (instance of a Class): refers to an object that belongs to a class (or subclass of that type). When a class is used as an object template, objects created by constructors in the class are attributed to this class.

instance Method instance: a non-static method in a class that has this method for all instances of the class.

instance variable (instance variable): a non-static variable in a class that contains all instances of the class.

interface (interface): A general statement of how to use a black box like a subroutine. The interface does not provide any information about what is happening inside it. "Interface" is also a reserved word in Java. In this sense, an interface is a type that defines one or more abstract methods. The objects that implement the interface must provide definitions for these methods.

Interpreter (interpreter): A computer program that executes programs that are written by a programming language. By reading the instruction one after another from the program and then executing it (translating the instruction into equivalent machine language).

I/O: input/Output . A computer program communicates with other parts, such as displaying data to a user, acquiring information from a user, reading and writing files, sending and acquiring data over a network.

iterator (iterator): an object associated with a collection such as a list or set. Can be used to traverse the collection. The iterator accesses each element in the collection in turn.

Java Collection Framework (Java Collection Framework JCF): a set of standard classes that implement generic data structures. including ArrayList, TreeSet and so on.

JavaFX: The new application GUI toolset. Recommended for use in Java 8. JavaFX is not covered by this book.

JDK: Java Development toolset. Basic software that supports compiling and running Java programs. The JDK contains the command-line programming environment and the JRE. The JDK is required to compile Java source code or to perform a precompiled program.

JRE (Java Runtime environment): Java Runtime Environment. Support for running compiled standard Java programs. The JRE includes a Java Virtual machine and all standard Java classes.

Instant compiler (Just-in-time compiler): a combination of an interpreter and a compiler that can be compiled at the same time as a part of the interpreter. Next, the program executes faster than the first run. This can greatly improve execution speed. Modern JVMs use an instant compiler.

JVM: Java Virtual machine. A virtual machine that executes Java bytecode as a machine language. Also used to address a computer program that parses a bytecode program. The JVM is required to run Java programs on your computer.

Layout Manager: An object that is responsible for laying out components in a container. Some of the actions you make include setting the size and location. Layout strategies implemented by different types of layout managers vary.

chain data structure (linked data structure): a set of object data that is linked to each other by pointers. These pointers are stored in an instance variable of an object. Chained data structures include linked lists and two-fork trees.

linked list (linked list): A chain-structured data structure in which nodes are concatenated to form a linear list.

Listener (Listener): in GUI programming, you can register a trigger notification for a specific event to an object. So it can be said that objects are "listening" to these events.

text (literal): a set of character sequences that are typed in a program, representing constant values. For example, when a is present in a Java program, ' A ' is a constant character.

(memory) position (location in memory): computer memory consists of a series of locations. These positional sequential numbers, which identify the number at a particular location, are referred to as the address for that location.

local variable: A variable declared inside a method that can only be used inside the method. The validity of a variable is declared in a code block, starting at the declaration and ending at the end of the code block.

loop (Loop): a control structure that repeats a set of instructions. Java provides 3 loops: for loops, while loops, and do loops.

loop control variable:A variable in a for loop that modifies the value of a loop variable each time A for loop is executed and determines whether to end the loop by checking the variable.

Machine Language: A programming language consisting of instructions that the computer can execute directly language. Instructions in the machine language are encoded into binary numbers. Each type of computer has its own machine language. A program written in another language must be translated into the machine language of the computation in order to be executed on it.

main Memory: programs and data can be stored in the main memory of the computer, the main memory can be directly accessed by the CPU. Other forms of memory, such as disk drives, can also store information, but only the main memory can be accessed directly by the CPU. Programs and data in a disk partition are only copied to memory to be accessed by the CPU.

map: a map array. This data structure associates an object in a set (Collection) with all objects in a collection (set). In Java, map is represented by the generic interface map<t,s>.

member variable (member variable): A variable that is defined in a class, but is not part of any method. Member variables are different from local variables, which are defined in a method.

Memory: memory in your computer is used to store programs and data.

method: Another salutation of a subroutine, used in object-oriented programming. Method refers to a subroutine that is contained in a class or object.

module: a component in a large system that interacts with other parts of the system in a simple, well-defined, straightforward way.

multitasking (multitasking): perform multiple programming tasks at once. Either quickly switch back and forth between multiple tasks, or perform multiple tasks at the same time.

Multiprocessing (multiprocessing): multiple processors are used when multitasking. This way, multiple tasks can be executed one at a time.

Mutex (mutual exclusion): prevents two threads from accessing the same resource at the same time. In Java, this method is applied to multiple threads concurrently accessing resources in synchronous methods or synchronization statements. Mutexes can block race conditions, but may cause deadlocks.

MVC pattern: Model-View-controller mode. A strategy for dividing responsibilities in GUI components. The model represents the data of the component, and the view refers to the display of the model on the screen, which is responsible for responding to model change events. In the MVC pattern, these responsibilities are handled by different objects.

non-numeric (NaN): not a numeric value. Double.NaN represents a special double value that represents an undefined or illegal value.

node: a commonly used salutation to an object in a chained data structure.

null: A special pointer value that says "Nothing pointing to anything".

Numerical analyses (numerical analysis): use approximation methods to study the fields of the algorithm, such as real numbers and errors obtained from approximation calculations.

One error (off-by-one error): A common error, which is to be processed with a number of extra or extra elements. This is often caused by technical errors or loops that are prematurely stopped or over-performed by other causes.

object: an entity with data (variables) and behavior (methods) in a computer program. Objects in Java must be created with a class as a template. The class that the object belongs to determines the classes and methods that the object contains.

Object Type: The value of this type is an object and not an underlying type. Both classes and interfaces are object types.

OOP (object-oriented programming): object-oriented programming. A method of computer program design and implementation. OOP uses classes and objects to create, represent interactions between entities and entities.

operating system (operating system): The underlying software that has been running on the computer. A computer that does not have an operating system does not work. Operating system by Linux, Mac OS and Windows Vista.

operator (operator): an operator such as "+", "<=", or "+ +" that can evaluate one or more values in an expression.

(operator) overloading (overloading of operators): the same operator can be used on different types of data. For example, the "+" operation can be applied to both numeric and character types.

(method name) overloading (overloading of names): Several methods with the same name are defined in the same class, except that the signatures of each method differ.

override (Overwrite) (overriding): redefine in a subclass. Subclass, the method that inherits from the parent class is redefined, and the newly defined method is to override the original method.

Package: in Java, a well-known collection of related classes and sub-packages is called packages, such as java.awt and javax.swing.

Parallel processing (parallel processing): performs multiple tasks simultaneously, either multiple processors or a single processor that can be re-executed between multiple tasks.

parameter (parameter): when a subroutine is called, the parameter is used to provide information to the child program. The "arguments" in the subroutine Call statement are assigned to the subroutine-defined "virtual arguments" before the subroutine code is executed.

parameterized type (parameterized type): similar to arraylist<string>, a type that contains one or more type parameters (the parameter type here is String).

parsing (parsing): The process of determining the syntax structure of a string in a rehearsal. The parsing string is used to determine whether the syntax for the language is followed in a string, and if so, determines how the string is created according to the syntax.

partially complete array (partially full array): arrays are used to store elements of varying amounts. A partial full array is represented as a normal array with the number of tracking elements counter.

pixel (pixel): refers to the "image element" in the screen or picture. An image consists of rows and columns of pixels. The color of each pixel can be set individually.

Polymorphism (polymorphism): polymorphism refers to the meaning of invoking an instance method depending on the actual type of the object when the method is called. That is, if the type of the variable is VAR, then the statement that invokes the method, such as var.action (), depends on the type of object to which Var points at execution, not the Var variable.

pointer (pointer): represents the value of an address in the computer's memory, so it can be considered as pointing to a location with that address. In Java, a variable does not have an object, and a variable simply points to the location where the object is stored. Pointers are also referred to as "references."

pragmatics (pragmatics): A rule of thumb that describes how to write a good program. For example, style rules, program organization guidelines are all part of programming pragmatics.

priority (Precedence): The precedence of an operator refers to the order in which multiple operators in an expression are ordered without parentheses.

Preconditions (precondition): in order for the program to run correctly during the execution of the program, the preconditions must be determined to be true. The pre-condition of a subroutine is a precondition that must be met in order for the subroutine to run correctly. The precondition of a subroutine is usually a restriction on the actual parameter value of the passed-in subroutine.

Priority queue: A data structure that represents the combination of elements in which each element has its own "priority". Priority queues have additions and removal operations. You can add elements in any order, but always remove the element with the lowest priority first. (Some versions of the priority queue first remove the highest-priority elements)

post Condition (postcondition): The condition evaluates to true at a node of the executing program. The post condition of the subroutine must be true after the subroutine execution finishes. The post condition of a function is usually expressed as the return value of the function.

base type (primitive type): Java's 8 built-in basic data types are double, float, long, int, short, Byte, Boolean, and Char. A primitive type variable stores a real value, not a pointer to a value.

thread Precedence (priority of a thread): An integer value associated with a thread that can affect the order in which threads are executed. Higher-priority threads are executed ahead of the thread with lower priority.

Producer/Consumer (Producer/consumer): A classic pattern in parallel programming in which one or more producers produce products that are used by one or more consumers. Producers and consumers are designed to be executed in parallel. The difficulty here is how to safely and efficiently non-matching products from producers to consumers. In Java, producer/consumer patterns are implemented through blocking queues.

Program: A set of instructions written in a suitable programming language, executed by a computer. When used as a verb, represents the action to create the instruction.

programming language (programming language): a language used to program computers. The complexity of programming languages, from machine language to high-level languages like Java, spans a great span.

Protocol (Protocol): a set of specifications that form a legitimate communication in the specified context. The agreement specifies the legal message, the time of delivery, the type of recovery expected, etc.

pseudo Code (PSEUDOCODE): informal algorithm specification. Pseudo-code is closer to English than the actual programming language. Also, there is usually no need to explicitly write out every detail of the process.

queue: A data structure consisting of a set of elements. You can only add data at one end of the list and remove data from the other end of the list.

race condition (race condition): possible source of error in parallel programming. An error is raised because a thread changes the program state (such as the value of a variable) that the second program depends on.

RAM (Random access memory): random access to RAM. A synonym for the computer's main memory. However, from a technical point of view, Ram refers to the same memory address that can be accessed at any time. RAM also means that you can read and write data at the same time.

recursion (recursion): define yourself in your own form. In particular, recursive subroutines can call themselves directly or through a series of other subroutines. The recursive algorithm works by splitting a complex problem into smaller sub-problems. Sub-problems can either be resolved directly or "recursively" using the same algorithm.

RGB: a color system. The color is defined by 3 values (in Java, values range from 0 to 255). Represents the red, green, and blue components of the color, respectively.

Reference (Reference):Another salutation to the pointer.

function return type ( return type of a function): the type of the return value of the functions.

reserved Words (keywords) (reserved word): a set of string sequences that look like identifiers. However, because there is a special meaning in the programming language, it cannot be used as an identifier. For example, class, public is a reserved word in Java.

Resource (Resource): a data file in a picture, sound, text, or program is a resource. The Java resource file and the compiled class file are stored in the same path (class path).

Robust Programs (robust program): robust programs are not only correct, they also handle errors reasonably, such as the absence of a file or the inability to establish a network connection.

Collection (SET): A group of objects that do not have duplicates. In Java, the collection is represented by the generic interface set<t>.

Scope : represents the valid scope of an identifier declared in a program.

Semantics (semantics): semantics means that the semantic rules of a language determine the meaning of a string symbol (such as a sentence or statement) in that language.

Sentinel Value: A special token that represents the end of the data series, indicating that the data has ended.

Setter Method: An instance method in a class that is used to set some property values in a class. Typically, these properties are just instance variable values. By convention, the setter method is named Setxyz (), where XYZ is the name of the property.

method Signature (signature of a): the method name, the number of parameters in the method definition, and the type of each parameter. The compiler uses the method signature to identify which method is called by the specified subroutine invocation statement.

socket: A connection between two computers on a network, with an abstract representation of one end. Sockets represent a logical connection between computer programs, not a physical connection between computers.

stack: a set of elements of a list data structure, only at the end of the list, also known as the "top of the stack." Adding an element to the stack is called "Stack push", and removing the element is called "out-of-stack pop." The stack also refers to the activity record used to implement subroutine calls.

Standard input: a program reads a standard source of input data, represented by a object. Typically, standard input comes from text that the user types, but standard output can also be redirected to another source, such as a file.

Standard output: The program writes output text to a standard target, represented by a System.out object. Typically, standard output is presented to the user, but can also be "redirected" to other targets, such as files. Additionally, the System.err object is used to output error messages.

State machines: a computer model. An abstract "machine" can be in any state in a finite state set. The machine determines the behavior according to its state, and the state switches according to the input or event. The basic logic of GUI program can be represented as state machine.

stepwise Refinement Method (Step-wise Refinement): an algorithm development technique. Begins listing the algorithm step outline, usually expressed in pseudo-code, and then gradually fills in the details.

Stream: An abstract representation of the input data source or output data destination. Java provides 4 base classes for character and binary data input and output streams. These classes form the basis of the Java I/O API.

Source code: text written in a high-level programming language. Before the computer is executed, it must be translated into machine language such as Java bytecode.

Subclass (Subclass): A class that inherits its data and behavior by inheriting other classes directly or indirectly. The previous class is called a subclass of the second class.

subroutine (subroutine): a series of program directives. The subroutine name allows you to "call" the Child program. In object-oriented programming, subroutines are also called methods.

subroutine invocation statement (subroutine Call statement): A statement that invokes a subroutine in a program. When you execute a subroutine call statement, the computer executes the code inside the subroutine.

Super: A special variable that is automatically defined in the instance method. Super refers to the object that contains the method, which belongs to the parent class of the method's class. Super can access member variables that are hidden in the parent class that have the same name as the member variables in the child class.

syntax (syntax): defines which string symbols in the language conform to the grammar rules for that language.

TCP/IP: protocol used for network communication on the Internet.

This : A special variable that is automatically defined in the instance method and belongs to the class where the method resides.

Thread: An abstract representation of a series of statement-by-execution statements. A computer can execute multiple threads in parallel.

Thread pool : A set of "worker threads" that can be used when performing a task. When the task is ready, it can be assigned to a thread in the pool. Thread pools typically use blocking queue storage tasks.

top-down (Top-down design): a software design approach. Start with the problem as a whole, then split into smaller problems and refine them until the sub-problems can be solved directly.

type: a specific type of numeric value. For example, the int type specifies that the shaping value can be represented as a 32-bit binary number. In Java, a type can be a base type, a class name, or an interface name. The type name can be used to define the type of the variable, the virtual parameters in the subroutine, and the return type of the subroutine.

type cast: casts a value of one type to another type. For example, in (int) (6*math.random ()), (int) is a type conversion operation that converts a floating-point value (6*math.random ()) in order to reshape, discarding the decimal part of the real number.

Unicode: a way to encode characters into binary numbers. The Unicode character set contains characters in many languages and is not limited to English. The Unicode character set is used inside Java.

URL: global Resource Locator. The address of a resource on the Internet, such as a Web page.

variable (variable): a memory location (or a series of locations) with a name used to store data. Creates a variable in the program and assigns the name to the variable through a variable declaration statement. Depending on the usage, the name can be used to refer to the memory location in the program, or to store data in the memory address. In Java, a variable has a type that can represent the kind of data that a variable holds.

wrapper class (wrapper class): a class like Double or integer that "wraps" the value of a base type in an object, which is attributed to the wrapper class. In this way, basic type values, such as the Java Collection Framework, can also be used where objects need to be used.

XML (extensible Markup Language): Extensible Markup Language. A very common, grammatical standard, well-supported language. Used to create a text-based representation of the data.

Original link: translation: Yuhua

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Getting Started with Java Programming (glossary)

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