How Linux experts "practice"

Source: Internet
Author: User
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Article Title: How Linux experts "practice. Linux is a technology channel of the IT lab in China. Includes basic categories such as desktop applications, Linux system management, kernel research, embedded systems, and open source.
Now is the time to use Linux.
This free open-source operating system is rolling the world into a storm. it not only appears in discussion groups of corporate servers and professional geeks, but also begins to take root on home PC machines. The popularity of Linux is increasing, so we think it is time to help you master Linux.
Linux is not suitable for new computer beginners, but you will also like this Penguin if you have patience and ZDNET's "business application" channel. Our tips and tricks will help you select and install the appropriate Linux software package and help you go to the superuser path.
Uncover the mysteries of Linux
What is Linux?
Linux (pronounced LIH-nuks) is a free open-source operating system. That is to say, everyone can obtain the Linux source code, but some packages of this operating system are charged for the release. Linux can run on almost all known processors and can do all kinds of applications-from networking and software development to running consumer applications. Those who like penguins (the mascot selected by developer Linus Torvalds) believe that Linux is reliable and safe, and it must be a high-quality and low-cost alternative to other operating systems. What they said is undoubtedly correct. Linux, light and free, is rapidly taking over the market. At present, it has a market share of about 5%, which is roughly equivalent to the share of Mac operating systems.
Is it so powerful?
From a technical perspective, the Linux kernel is written by Torvalds and a group of volunteer developers worldwide. But for most people, the Linux name refers to the operating system kernel, system software, and applications. Linux is always under development. Torvalds and companies constantly update and modify code so that the Linux problem can be solved quickly, which is incomparable to General large commercial operating systems (such as Windows and Mac.
Should you use Linux?
Linux is certainly more difficult to operate than Windows and Mac operating systems, but Linux has many advantages. It is quite stable and not easy to crash; it is very reliable and you don't need to restart it frequently; it is extremely powerful-you can run multiple programs at the same time, it will not cause a crash (that is, the well-known real multi-task processing ). Linux can connect computers and modem networks, develop software, and run Web and FTP servers. Each Linux release or software package has software that costs thousands of dollars if sold separately-and the Linux system itself is often free of charge. In addition, the Linux upgrade is also very simple. Supporters say Linux is much more flexible than its competitors.
However, Linux commands are similar to those of other operating systems, but they only require more. The simplest Linux does not have a graphical interface, but you still need to know many command line abbreviations when using this Linux. It takes some money to use the commercial version of Linux, and it is difficult to install and configure it. In addition, Linux does not support a variety of commercial software or peripheral devices like its competitors. Linux has very few commercial software, image editing tools, and consumer software, and it cannot run Microsoft applications like Office. In addition, Linux does not support some peripheral devices, such as storage drives, game poles, mouse and speakers, mainly because Linux drivers are not always used for specific products.
If you have decided to use Linux, we will show you where to start, where to obtain, how to install it, and how to use it to achieve the best effect.
Tips for selecting a software package
Linux has several forms (or packages), which are often called release packages. Some software packages can be downloaded free of charge from ZDNet China, while other commercial software packages are charged. the packages are equipped with CDs and manuals. Here are several releases selected by CNET and some of the most common release packages.
Corel Linux
For beginners, we recommend Corel Linux for the public. This is the first version of the system for beginners and home users. the installation of this version is the simplest we have ever seen-only one four-step graphic drag-and-drop process. In addition, it also provides detailed instructions and 30-day free email technical support. Corel Linux has a very good set of software, priced at between 60-90 dollars, the specific situation depends on the version. Click here to download Corel Linux.
We recommend Caldera OpenLinux, which is almost as easy to use as Corel Linux and has several more applications. In the eyes of Linux purification commentators, Caldera may not be very satisfactory, but if you are a new Linux beginner and easy to use is very important to you, then Caldera is a good start point. The full version is priced at $50. Click here to download Caldera.
Red Hat
If you want to find a Linux release for the server, you can look at Red Hat Linux. Red Hat provides two new graphical user interfaces. The style is similar to the pointing/clicking style, so it is not too difficult to use. In addition, it also includes a group of powerful server applications that can be used to carry out services such as high-end Web hosting. Compared with Caldera, Red Hat is more flexible and technically better, probably because it is more difficult to use. Red Hat standard edition only supports email, with a market price of $30. It also has several more expensive versions, the highest of which is a fully functional professional release with a market price of $180. Click here to download Red Hat 6.2.
Unfortunately, if you are using a Macintosh PowerPC, the above releases are not suitable for you. However, you can choose LinuxPPC. LinuxPPC can coexist with the Mac operating system on the hard disk, and you can partition the drive to run LinuxPPC separately. You can use simple and novel installation programs, or use traditional Red Hat installation programs and graphic interface software packages (install and use themes ). The full version of LinuxPPC is priced at $20. Click here to obtain LinuxPPC.
Install Linux with minimal effort
If you choose any of the above releases, it is easy to install Linux. You only need to insert the disc and follow the installation instructions.
Before the start, various computer components should be listed, including the optical drive standard, model and interface, the standard and model of the SCSI adapter (if any), and the mouse type; the system, model, and memory size of the video card; the system, model, and update rate of the display; and all network information that can be found: IP address, Gateway address, Nic type, domain name, and so on. Some hardware information can be found in the Device Manager (Start/set/control panel/system. In addition, you can also look at the manual provided by the release.
When installing Linux, the system may allow you to partition the hard disk, or at least allow you to adjust the size of the existing partition. This is because an operating system has been installed on your computer in most cases and is probably not Linux. Fortunately, a program named fips.exe exists in the majority of linuxboard versions. it can change a single-partition drive to a dual-partition drive without destroying data. One partition can be used to store Windows or Mac systems, and the other is used to store Linux systems. If you have used PartitionMagic (provided with Mandrake Linux) to partition the hard disk or install Linux on one of the two drives, you do not need to run the fips program. However, if you have two hard drives, you can use Windows to format the second drive.
Internal Shift: Smooth Transition
After Linux is installed, you may feel overwhelmed. The Windows or Macintosh interface that has been very familiar with is unknown, and it is a brand new operating system. The following methods can help you minimize this strangeness.
Create a familiar desktop
X Windows System is the basis of the Linux interface and supports desktop management programs with similar appearance and feeling as Windows. One of the examples is K Desktop Environment (KDE), which is a common download software, including file management, menus that can be easily configured, tool groups, and Desktop styles that we are familiar. But not everyone likes KDE because it is a commercial product. If you do not like commercial products either, try GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNOME ). This is a completely free software-based desktop environment. its interface is very similar to the traditional graphical user interface, but you can also enjoy the benefits of Linux open source code. In addition to LinuxPPC, KDE is compatible with most Linux distributions. Therefore, if you use a Mac, you may want to use GNOME.
Provide space
If you have already allocated a partition to the hard disk, you do not have to give up Windows. You only need to ensure that the tools used do not destroy the current data (fips will not destroy the data, and PartitionMagic and other similar software will not ). Install Linux on the new Linux partition and set the Linux boot manager LILO. In this way, you can boot the machine to Windows or Linux.
Do not discard Windows applications
If you still need to run Windows applications occasionally, choose Wine. This is a free tool. it does a good job in Windows simulation and can run many Windows applications in Linux. You can find many supported applications on the Wine website.
Run multiple systems at the same time
This option is also a simulation program-at least in some aspect. The VMware virtual platform enables you to run multiple operating systems at the same time without partitioning hard disks. This software installs virtual machines and allows you to share files and applications through a virtual network. Unfortunately, VMware is very expensive. After the 30-day trial period, you will have to spend $299 to buy a license. Therefore, we recommend that you use a dual-boot system or learn to work better without Windows.
Linux experts are doing this.
Now you are using Linux, but you are still exploring it like a newbie. Do not tell others that you are not doing anything. look at these tips and you will become a Linux expert.
Clever use of superuser functions
Each Linux (or Unix) version has an account that can control everything, called the root user or Super User. This account is used when you log on for the first time. Root users can rewrite file security, close out-of-control programs, adjust network configurations, and delete files and the entire directory. For the sake of security, it is best not to log on as the root user. Create some common user accounts when configuring the system, and then log on with these accounts for general operations. Later, you can use the "su" command to switch to the superuser mode (su actually represents a user, but if you do not specify a user when entering the command, the system will think that you want to switch to the Super User mode ). As long as you know the root user's password, you can become a super user at any time. To return to the normal user status, you only need to enter "exit" in the command line.
Search for files
Searching for files is actually not a superuser skill. But it is equally important. To search for a file on the system, enter "find/" and the file name, for example, "find/Journ ".
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