Linux Basic-----Disk Management

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags unique id uuid

File system





VFS: Virtual file system: different from the underlying file system, through a unified interface, output to the upper application





File system: The partition file on the line organization management, and the establishment of an index table, the file system has the kernel provides

Formatting: Creating a file system

Low-level formatting: creating tracks, sectors

Advanced formatting: Creating a file system

Partitions are divided by cylinder.

Track: Data is stored on track

Sectors: Dividing tracks into fan-like sections for managing

Cylinder: multiple platters, sectors of the same position, forming cylindrical faces

0 sectors of 0 tracks: (not part of any partition) MBR 512-byte master boot record

446 Bytes: bootloader Startup related

64 bytes: Partitioned table, identifying 1 partitions per 16 bytes, up to 4 primary partitions

2 Bytes: Indicates whether the current hard drive is bootable 5A

Extended partition: Logical concept: Level two partition table

Logical Partitioning

Linux Disk partitioning


SDA1:SDA The first hard drive on the hard drive

logical partition starting from 5

Fdisk:=15 a partition

Fdisk-l View all current drive information

Fdisk Hard Drive device/DEV/SDA

Interactive commands

-M: Help

-D: Delete partition

-N: Creating partitions

E:extended Extended Partition

P Primary partition primary partition

-P: Display current partition information

-T: Modifying the partition type

-W: Save exit

-Q: Do not save exit

-L: System ID corresponding to each partition type


82:linux Swap

8e: Logical Volume LVM

-T: Modifies the system ID of the specified partition

/proc/partitions kernel-aware partition information

Red Hat 5:partpobe core re-probing device

Red Hat 6:partx-a Notifies the kernel of the current partition

Partx-a/DEV/SDA5/DEV/SDA Separate a partition for the kernel to recognize

Creating a file system

Mkfs-t File System Type partitioning

MKFS.EX3 partition formats the file system as Ext3

Blkid partitions display partition properties such as UUID, volume label

UUID: Global Unique ID number, used to avoid excessive hard disk, when loading the partition, the sda* will cause an error, the UUID can uniquely identify the partition

mke2fs-t {EXT2,EXT3,EXT4}/etc/mke2fs.conf: Used to set default features and unique features of each file system;

-b Specifies the block size {1023;2048;4096} bytes default 4096 bytes


The block size depends on the CPU support for the size of the memory page frame, the X86 system default page box size is 4K;

2*0=1k 2*1=2k 2*2=4k

-L Set Volume label

-M n reserved block of n% reserved BLOCK: The space reserved for root, to prevent the full disk, the administrator can not open the process management system, the default 5%

view reserved blocks

[email protected] ~]# Tune2fs-l/dev/sda1 | grep "Reserved"

Reserved block count:10240 reserved for fast size

Reserved blocks uid:0 (user root) to which user

Reserved blocks gid:0 (group root

Display partition information: such as inode number block size

TUNE2FS Equipment

-L: Show file system super fast Information

-L: Re-set the volume label

-M: Adjust the number of reserved blocks reserved for administrator use

-o: Set default mount Options

-O: Set file system default features

E2lable Device Volume label modify or view device volume label

Mount: Each partition needs to be mounted to a directory in the directory, which accesses the partitions attached to the directory

Mount Partition mount point


Mount based on volume label

Mount Label= "volume label" Mount point

Mount according to UUID

Mount Uuid= "UUID" mount point

Release Mount when no process access is available


/etc/fstab: System boot automatically mount file system

Mounting devices

A device file; a volume label; UUID.

Mount point

File system

Mount Options

Defaults default options, multiple options comma separated

Switching frequency:

0: Never Back up

1: Daily backup

2: One-day interval backup

Self-Test order

0: Do not check

1: First detection: Generally only the root file system is detected by the first


-O for specifying mount options

RO: Read-only Mount

RW: Read-write Mount

Noatime: Turn off update access time

Auto: Whether to run "mount-a" Auto Mount

Defaults: Default mount Options


Async: Asynchronous write: Memory is present and written to hard disk over time

Sync: Sync write: Save to memory immediately and write memory to hard disk

Dev: Allow device files to be used on the file system

EXEC: Allow running binaries on file system

Remount: Re-mount

-N does not update the/etc/mtab file when you mount the file system

/etc/mtab: Tracks all current mounted devices

-R equivalent to "-O-Ro", read-only Mount

-A Mount/etc/fstab all file systems that support auto mount options

fuser [Mount_point] Viewing a process that is accessing a mount point

Fuser mount point

fuser-km mount point kills the process

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