PHP XML Analysis function (turn) (Introduction of this PHP XML analysis function of the article is not very well. Read this article should be clear point ...

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XML analysis function of xml| function php

First of all, I have to admit I like computer standards. If everyone complies with the standards of the industry, the Internet will be a better medium. The use of standardized data interchange formats enables open and platform-independent computing patterns to be feasible. That's why I'm a fan of XML.

Luckily, my favorite scripting language not only supports XML, but it's also growing in support. PHP allows me to quickly publish XML documents to the Internet, collect statistical information about XML documents, and convert XML documents into other formats. For example, I often use PHP's XML processing power to manage the articles and books I write with XML.

In this article, I'll discuss any PHP-built expat parser to work with XML documents. With the example, I'll demonstrate the expat approach. At the same time, examples can tell you how to:

Build your own handler function
Convert XML documents into your own PHP data structure

Introduction Expat

XML parsers, also known as XML processors, enable programs to access the structure and content of XML documents. Expat is the XML parser for the PHP scripting language. It is also used in other projects, such as Mozilla, Apache, and Perl.

What is an event-based parser?

Two basic types of XML parsers:

Tree-based parser: Converts an XML document into a tree-like structure. This type of parser analyzes the entire article and provides an API to access each element of the resulting tree. Its common standard is DOM (Document object mode).
event-based Parser: Treats an XML document as a series of events. When a particular event occurs, the parser will invoke the function provided by the developer to handle it.
An event-based parser has a view of the dataset in an XML document, which means it is concentrated in the data portion of the XML document, not its structure. These parsers process the document from start to finish and report to the application similar to the beginning of the element, the end of the element, the beginning of the feature data, and so on-events through the callback (callback) function. The following is an example of a "Hello-world" XML document:

Hello World

The event-based parser will report as three events:

Start element: Greeting
CDATA The beginning of the item, the value is: Hello World
End element: Greeting
Unlike a tree-based parser, an event-based parser does not produce a structure that describes the document. In CDATA items, the Event-based parser does not allow you to get information about the greeting of the parent element.
However, it provides a lower level of access, which makes it possible to make better use of resources and faster access. In this way, there is no need to put the entire document into memory, and in fact the entire document can even be larger than the actual memory value.

Expat is such an event-based parser. Of course, if you use expat, it can generate a complete native tree structure in PHP as necessary.

The examples above hello-world include the full XML format. However, it is not valid because there is neither a DTD (document type definition) associated with it, nor an inline DTD.

For expat, this makes no difference: Expat is a parser that does not check for validity, and therefore ignores any DTD associated with the document. It should be noted, however, that the document still needs the full format, otherwise expat (like any other XML-compliant parser) will stop with an error message.

As a parser that does not check the validity of the exapt, the fast and lightweight nature of the device makes it ideal for Internet applications.

Compiling expat

Expat can be compiled into the PHP3.0.6 version (or more). Starting with Apache1.3.9, expat has been part of Apache. In a UNIX system, PHP is configured with the-with-xml option, and you can compile it into PHP.

If you compile PHP as an Apache module, expat will default as part of Apache. In Windows, you have to load the XML dynamic connection library.

XML Example: Xmlstats

One way to learn about expat's functions is through examples. The example we are going to discuss is using expat to collect statistics for XML documents.

For each element in the document, the following information is output:

The number of times the element is used in the document
The number of character data in the element
Element's parent element
Child elements of an element
Note: In order to demonstrate, we use PHP to create a structure to hold the parent element and child element of the element

Get ready

The function used to produce an instance of an XML parser is xml_parser_create (). The instance will be used for all future functions. This idea is very similar to the connection mark of MySQL function in PHP. The event-based parser typically requires you to register a callback function before parsing a document-for a particular event to occur. Expat no exceptions, it defines the following seven possible events:

Object XML parsing function description

Start and end of element Xml_set_element_handler () element

Start of character data Xml_set_character_data_handler () character data

External entity Xml_set_external_entity_ref_handler () external entity appears

unresolved external entity xml_set_unparsed_entity_decl_handler () unresolved external entities appear

Processing instruction Xml_set_processing_instruction_handler () the appearance of processing instructions

The appearance of the Declaration of Xml_set_notation_decl_handler () notation of notation

Default Xml_set_default_handler () other events that do not have a handler function specified

All callback functions must have an instance of the parser as its first argument (in addition to other parameters).

For the example script at the end of this article. What you need to be aware of is that it uses both the element handler function and the character data processing function. The callback handler function for the element is registered by Xml_set_element_handler ().

This function requires three parameters:

Instance of the parser
Name of the callback function that handles the start element
Name of the callback function that handles the end element
When you begin parsing an XML document, the callback function must exist. They must be defined as consistent with the prototype described in the PHP manual.

For example, expat passes three arguments to the handler function of the start element. In the scripting example, it is defined as follows:

function Start_element ($parser, $name, $attrs)

The first parameter is the parser indicator, the second parameter is the name of the start element, and the third parameter is an array containing all the attributes and values of the element.

Once you start parsing the XML document, expat will call your start_element () function and pass the argument to the beginning when it encounters the start element.

Case folding options FOR XML

Close the case folding option with the Xml_parser_set_option () function. This option is turned on by default, so that the element name passed to the handler is automatically converted to uppercase. However, XML is sensitive to capitalization (so capitalization is very important for statistical XML documents). For our example, the case folding option must be closed.

Parsing documents

Now that the script can finally parse the XML document after all the preparations have been done:

Xml_parse_from_file (), a custom function that opens the file specified in the parameter and resolves it in 4kb size
As with Xml_parse () and Xml_parse_from_file (), False is returned when an error occurs that the XML document is not in full format.
You can use the Xml_get_error_code () function to get the last error of the numeric code. Pass this digital code to the Xml_error_string () function to get the wrong text message.
Outputs the current number of rows in the XML, making debugging easier.
In the parsing process, the callback function is invoked.
Describe document structure

When parsing a document, the question for expat needs to be emphasized: how do you keep a basic description of the document structure?

As mentioned earlier, the event-based parser itself does not produce any structural information.

However, the tag structure is an important feature of XML. For example, the element sequence <book><title> the meaning of the expression is different from <figure><title>. That is, any author will tell you that the title and the name of the picture are not related, although they all use the term "title". Therefore, in order to use an event-based parser to work with XML more effectively, you must use your own stack (stacks) or list (lists) to maintain the structure of the document.

To produce a mirror image of the document structure, the script needs to know at least the parent element of the current element. The EXAPT API is not implemented, and it reports only the events of the current element, without any information about the relationship. Therefore, you need to build your own stack structure.

The script example uses the advanced back-out (FILO) stack structure. With an array, the stack saves all the start elements. For the start element handler function, the current element will be pushed to the top of the stack by the Array_push () function. Accordingly, the end element handler function removes the topmost element by Array_pop ().

For sequence <book><title></title></book&gt, the stack is populated as follows:

Start element Book: assigns "book" to the first element of the stack ($stack [0]).
Start element title: Assign "title" to the top of the stack ($stack [1]).
End element Title: Removes the topmost element from the stack ($stack [1]).
End element Title: Removes the topmost element from the stack ($stack [0]).
PHP3.0 implements an example by using a $depth variable to manually control the nesting of elements. This makes the script look more complex. PHP4.0 makes the script look more concise by Array_pop () and Array_push () two functions.

Collect Data

To gather information about each element, the script needs to remember the events for each element. Save all the different elements in the document by using a global array variable $elements. An array of items is an instance of an element class, with 4 properties (variables of the class)

$count-Number of times the element was found in the document
$chars-Number of bytes of character event in element
$parents-Parent Element
$childs-child element
As you can see, it's easy to keep the class instance in an array.

Note: One feature of PHP is that you can traverse the entire class structure through the while (list () = each ()) loop as you traverse the entire corresponding array. All class variables (when you use PHP3.0 and method names) are output as strings.

When an element is found, we need to increment its corresponding register to track how many times it appears in the document. Add one to the count element in the corresponding $elements item.

We also want the parent element to know that the current element is its child element. Therefore, the name of the current element will be added to the project of the parent element's $childs array. Finally, the current element should remember who is its parent element. Therefore, the parent element is added to the project of the current element $parents array.

Show statistic Information

The rest of the code loops through the $elements array and its child arrays to show its statistical results. This is the simplest nested loop, although the output is the correct result, but the code is neither concise nor any particular technique, it is just a loop that you may use to complete the work every day.

The scripting example is designed to be invoked through the command line in PHP's CGI mode. Therefore, the format of the statistical results output is text format. If you want to apply the script to the Internet, you need to modify the output function to produce HTML format.


EXAPT is the XML parser for PHP. As an event-based parser, it does not produce a structure description of the document. But by providing low-level access, this makes it possible to make better use of resources and faster access.

As a parser that does not check the validity, expat ignores the DTD that is connected to the XML document, but if the document is not fully formatted, it will stop with the error message.

Provides event-handling functions to process documents
Build your own event structures such as stacks and trees to get the benefits of XML structure information tags.
New XML programs appear every day, and PHP's support for XML is growing (for example, adding support for DOM-based XML parser libxml).

With PHP and expat, you can prepare for an emerging set of effective, open, and platform-independent standards.


* Name: XML parsing Example: XML Document Information statistics
* Description
* This example collects and counts XML document information through the PHP expat parser (for example, the number of occurrences of each element, the parent element, and the child element)
* XML file as a parameter./XMLSTATS_PHP4.PHP3 test.xml
* $Requires: Expat requirements: Expat PHP4.0 compiled into CGI mode

The first parameter is an XML file
$file = $argv [1];

Initialization of a variable
$elements = $stack = Array ();
$total _elements = $total _chars = 0;

Basic classes of elements
class element
var $count = 0;
var $chars = 0;
var $parents = array ();
var $childs = array ();

Functions that parse XML files
function Xml_parse_from_file ($parser, $file)
if (!file_exists ($file))
Die ("Can" t find file \ "$file \". ");

if (!) ( $fp = @fopen ($file, "R"))
Die ("Can" T open file \ "$file \". ");

while ($data = Fread ($fp, 4096))
if (!xml_parse ($parser, $data, feof ($FP))
return (false);

Fclose ($FP);

return (true);

Output result function (Box form)
function Print_box ($title, $value)
printf ("\n+% ' -60s+\n", "");
printf ("|%20s", "$title:");
printf ("%14s", $value);
printf ("%26s|\n", "");
printf ("+% ' -60s+\n", "");

Output result function (Row form)
function Print_line ($title, $value)
printf ("%20s", "$title:");
printf ("%15s\n", $value);

Sort functions
function My_sort ($a, $b)
Return (Is_object ($a) && is_object ($b) $b->count-$a->count:0);

function Start_element ($parser, $name, $attrs)
Global $elements, $stack;

is the element already in the global $elements array?
if (!isset ($elements [$name]))
No-Add a class instance of an element
$element = new element;
$elements [$name] = $element;

The count of the element plus a
$elements [$name]->count++;

Is there a parent element?
if (Isset ($stack [Count ($stack)-1])
Yes-Assign the parent element to $last_element
$last _element = $stack [Count ($stack)-1];

If the current element's parent element array is empty, initialize to 0
if (!isset ($elements [$name]->parents[$last _element]))
$elements [$name]->parents[$last _element] = 0;

The parent element register of the element plus a
$elements [$name]->parents[$last _element]++;

If the parent element of the current element has an empty array of child elements initialized to 0

if (!isset ($elements [$last _element]->childs[$name]))
$elements [$last _element]->childs[$name] = 0;

The child element register of the parent element of the element plus a
$elements [$last _element]->childs[$name]++;

Add the current element to the stack
Array_push ($stack, $name);

function Stop_element ($parser, $name)
Global $stack;

Remove the topmost element from the stack
Array_pop ($stack);

function Char_data ($parser, $data)
Global $elements, $stack, $depth;

Increase the number of characters in the current element
$elements [$stack][count ($stack) -1]]->chars + = strlen (Trim ($data));

instance of generating parser
$parser = Xml_parser_create ();

Setting up a handler function
Xml_set_element_handler ($parser, "start_element", "stop_element");
Xml_set_character_data_handler ($parser, "char_data");
Xml_parser_set_option ($parser, xml_option_case_folding, 0);

Parsing files
$ret = Xml_parse_from_file ($parser, $file);
if (! $ret)
Die (sprintf ("XML error:%s at line%d")
Xml_error_string (Xml_get_error_code ($parser)),
Xml_get_current_line_number ($parser)));

Release parser
Xml_parser_free ($parser);

Releasing assistance elements
unset ($elements ["current_element"]);
unset ($elements ["last_element"]);

Sort according to the number of elements
Uasort ($elements, "My_sort");

Collecting element information in $elements
while (the list ($name, $element) = each ($elements))
Print_box ("Element name", $name);

Print_line ("Element count", $element->count);
Print_line ("Character count", $element->chars);

printf ("\n%20s\n", "* Parent elements");

Loop through the parent of the element, outputting the result
while (the list ($key, $value) = each ($element->parents))
Print_line ($key, $value);
if (count ($element->parents) = = 0)
printf ("%35s\n", "[root element]");

In the Zizhong loop of the element, the output results
printf ("\n%20s\n", "* child elements");
while (the list ($key, $value) = each ($element->childs))
Print_line ($key, $value);
if (count ($element->childs) = = 0)
printf ("%35s\n", "[No Childs]");

$total _elements + + $element->count;
$total _chars + + $element->chars;

Final results
Print_box ("Total elements", $total _elements);
Print_box ("Total characters", $total _chars);

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