Ubuntu hard drive "partition" graphic tutorial (for Cd, U disk to install Ubuntu)

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags temporary file storage

As you can see, I always add quotation marks to "partitions", because in any "Linux-like" system (such as red flags, red hats, and Ubuntu ), they do not have the concept of Hard Disk partitioning, which is essentially different from Windows.

I. mount point
In a Linux system, "partition" is called a "mount point". In a simple and clear way, "mount point" means to put some hard disk capacity, "Points" into a folder for what to do. The name of this folder is "mount point ". Therefore, it is essentially a big difference with Windows. In any linux release system, you will never see disk C, disk D, or disk E. What you can see, only mount points in the form of folders exist ".
In Linux, there are some mount points that have been defined to do some things. Common "Mount Points" include:
1. Boot
It should be very common for everyone to use this English as a guide. For Linux, a part of the capacity is used to "mount" Boot, which is used to store the Boot file of the system.
2. // or/ROOT
A symbol exclusive to the Linux system is the meaning of "root directory. The root directory is used to store some basic configuration files and software configuration files of users.
3. home
"Home" means that in Linux, it is used to store user programs, files, documents, and other resources. Therefore, when performing the "partition" operation, it is very large and very large.
This is the biggest difference between Linux and Windows. Windows does not have this. It is only available in Linux. In fact, it is not a "mount point". For the convenience of understanding by cainiao, I would like to regard it as a mount point. SWAP partitioning is a dedicated space for "Memory" to temporarily store files.
TIPS: For most common Linux core systems, the above 2 and 4 have two "mount points. Of course, there are many other "Mount Points" in Linux, which can be set in detail. I am talking about 2 and 4, which are only necessary and must have the most basic! You cannot install the system without the two mount points!
5. usr
It is used to store the software that comes with the system or update and install the software.
6. tmp
The temporary file storage location can be understood as the "C: \ Documents ents and Settings \ Administrator \ Local Settings \ Temp" directory in Windows. Pai_^
7. Set the "mount point" by yourself"
In Windows, we can use "create folder" to store a class of things, of course, in Linux. In addition to this method, you can also set a "mount point" when "Partitioning" (in fact, the function is equivalent to setting up a special place to store special things ")

There are many others. I will not elaborate on them one by one. The following figure shows the functions of various folders and storage items. You can manually "Mount" and set the specific capacity during the "partition" process.

Ii. Naming rules for hard drive and other devices in Linux
Linux seems to like "alternative". Its naming method for hard disk devices is also very different from that for Windows. In Linux, your hard disk device information is stored in the "dev" mount point. I didn't mention this mount point above. You know it. We will see you later. Its hard disk naming method is:
1. Hard Disk of the IDE interface, which is called (or displayed as) in Linux: HD
2. SATA hard disk or SCSI hard disk, called SD
3. The optical drive is CDROM. If multiple optical drives are available, they are listed in numbers, such as CDROM0, CDROM1, and CDROM2.
4. partitions in Windows on the hard disk
Taking Ubuntu 8.04 and later as an example, it supports read/write operations on Windows partition types (FAT32, FAT, NTFS) Very well. After your system is installed, it can automatically identify these Windows partitions. They are marked with "Capacity of the partition + volume label of the partition", such as: 22.5g game, 30G System ^. In the "location" of your system, you can see it.
5. If you have multiple hard disks ..................
As mentioned earlier, in Linux, hard disks are divided into HD and SD, which are in the order of 26 English letters. The first hard disk is hda, so the first mount point of this hard disk is hda1, and so on hda2, hda3 ^
As I mentioned earlier, multiple hard disks are listed in 26 alphabetical order, so hdb is the second hard disk. This should be easy to understand, right? Its "partition" is, naturally, hdb1, hdb2, hdb3 ........................ In the same way, you should know what sdb3 means?

Iii. capacity settings for Common mount points
Each person's hard disk size is different, and naturally there is no "final conclusion". I 'd like to say that you can consider it as appropriate based on your actual situation.
1. boot
In Linux, the boot file is very small. The boot mount point is 100 MB, which is enough (this is basically a final conclusion! No matter how big your hard disk is, that's enough! After you have installed the system, check it. In fact, it takes 45-50 m)

TIPS: The BOOT mount point is not required. However, I personally suggest that if you want to create a dual-system, you 'd better separate it. When you install the grub boot, install it on the boot, that is, the dual-system, the purpose is to be clearer and more convenient.
2./(for some linux distributions, this is also written as:/root. The functions are the same)
As I said just now, it's a little big, at least 5 Gbps
3. home
As I said just now, it is the largest and largest requirement ...... Try your best. Hey! Common online hard drives of 80 are distributed to 70 GB ..................
There is an unwritten small rule: computer memory, less than 1g, SWAP points 512 M; memory greater than 1g, just 1g.
5. TMP
Temporarily store some junk data. Let's watch it. It's a big deal.

TIPS: linux and windows are not the same. There are very few spam. It can be said that there is almost no spam. Therefore, in linux, you don't have to worry about spam! Therefore, linux does not need to make a noise every day: How can I clean up garbage!
6. usr
About 15% of your total capacity. You can choose not to "Attach.
Linux partition is a headache because it does not assign a "letter drive" to each partition. Instead, it uses a specific folder name to mount the partition ", differentiate functions. In fact, you can understand the meaning of these mount points in the subconscious. Do not think about Windows. A drive letter is required for partitioning ....... ^_^ Many ideas must be changed if you want to use Linux ~

4. Ubuntu 8.04.1 hard disk partitioning

After the basic knowledge is finished, it is time to get started. Take Ubuntu as an example to explain the partition process step by step.

The hard disk "partition" is the installation process of the Ubuntu system: Step 3. The first two steps are unnecessary.

1. System language selection-all know how to select Chinese (simplified? By default, press Enter!
2. Select the time zone-the default value is (SHANGHAI), which will be understood in pinyin. Shanghai, China. Press ENTER
3. Hard Disk partitioning
This interface appears first. We select "Manual"

(1) Here, it is the "partition" software interface of the Ubuntu system. Each Linux system comes with its own partition software. Their interfaces and usage are roughly the same. cainiao can learn one way to cope with all of them. Although there are also a lot of third-party software dedicated to "Partitioning" the Linux system, I personally recommend that you use the built-in system, which is convenient, direct, and fast ~
Which of the following is my hard drive device dev/sda? Sda: "The first hard disk of the sata interface"

(2) Select the "free space" line below and click "new partition.

(3) Click "new partition" to create a mount point. Interface, I will explain one by one

★New partition type
Boot and swap (swap partition) are the primary nodes, and other mount points are all logic. This is not explained. Of course not final
★New partition capacity: Enter it by yourself
★New partition location: The default value is "START"
There are also many types of Linux "partitions", such as Windows including NTFS and FAT32. In this era, we recommend that you select the Ext3 log file system. There is also a kind of R... FS, the specific name is forgotten, ^ _ ^, you can also. However, I use Ext3 to store the division of files. In fact, apart from ext3, GNU/Linux can use ext2, xfs, reiser, jfs, and other file systems to store files. Each file system has its own length, but Beginners first use ext3.

To create a SWAP mount point in a moment, select it here! Don't forget!
★Mount point
I will not explain it. I will introduce it at the beginning. The "partition" software lists the common ones: boot,/, home, usr, temp.
Check that the following mount points have been provided, and you can choose them directly:

(4) The first step is to create a "partition" for the BOOT mount point. See the figure.

Step 2: Create a SWAP and SWAP space

Create/, root directory mount point
Creating a HOME, user mount point
Here, the most basic thing is to set up and forget. In the tutorial, I will set up these items. Others, if you want to set up one, you can just draw pictures and pictures, should I have all this skills? Pai_^ see the figure below. The hard disks have been mounted.

4. Enter your personal information: User Name, password (twice), and computer name
5. Start "automatic" installation .........
6. restart the system!

I think writing is simple enough, and it should be enough for cainiao. Please refer to the post for details. What can be solved? Try to help you solve the problem. As for the operation after the system is installed, it is not a sentence, or even thousands of words can be clearly said ........... If you really want to learn, you can go to the bookstore to buy books ..... Or students, go directly to the "sit in the library. At that time, I borrowed three books from the library and came back to study for a few months.

V. partitions of other linux distributions"

As we have said just now, we should at least be able to understand the "mount point" knowledge of linux, and the linux naming method for hardware (hard disk, optical drive, the usage and general capacity of Common mount points.

This knowledge is completely universal for any linux release system, which means: Whatever release version you use, redhat, Hongqi, Qilin, fedora, opensuse, etc, all their "partitions" follow this step: Create -- select format (ext3) -- set mount point -- fill in capacity. The difference is that, hey, their own installer, at the partitioning step, the interface graphics (background color pull, button placement pull) are slightly different.

1. First, it is the figure of the "partition" step of Fedora linux:

Almost? Create, edit, delete, and idle space. Mount point, file system, "specified size "....... I think most people may look like cats and tigers, right?
2. Open Suse linux

This is troublesome in English. Creat (create), Edit (Edit), Delete (Delete), Resize (Resize), format (format ), file system and Mount Point)
Suse "partition" here, the capacity is a little "troublesome", it is calculated by "segment", that is: cylinder, expressed in the positive, 1 cylinder = 7.64 M, the following two rows are: the "location" of the revelation section and the ending section"

Let's give an example. At the beginning, it must start from 0. We will first split the M boot.
1 segment = 7.64 M. We need to divide it into 100 M. How many segments should it be? (In Junior High School Mathematics, you can do it yourself, hey !)
The Suse partition is difficult here and you have to calculate it yourself. There is no difference between others.

3. Red Flag domestic Red Flag Linux

It is similar to ubuntu, where the background is silver, and there are all new, edit, and delete files. Chinese characters are not mentioned.
4. Red Hat, linux

Is it similar? The buttons are the same and the background is gray.

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