Common Linux File Management commands

Source: Internet
Author: User


In the previous blogs, we talked about basic linux operations, linux file management, and linux permission management in more theoretical aspects. However, I only talked about theory, but I didn't talk about many commands in detail, I just made a summary and I will review and study it myself.

File Management commands

First, I would like to sum up some commands for file management: ls, cd, pwd, mkdir, rmdir, cp, rm, mv, touch, cat, more, less, head, tail, etc, next we will give a detailed description (only common, not all commands)


(1). ls command

-A: All files, together with hidden files (Files starting with.), are listed (commonly used)

-A: All files, together with hidden files, do not include the directories... and

-D: only list the directory itself, rather than list the file data in the directory (commonly used)

-F: directly list the results without sorting them (ls will be sorted by file name by default !)

-H: list the file capacity in a readable way (for example, GB or KB) (commonly used)

-I: List inode numbers. The next chapter will introduce inode numbers (commonly used)

-L: Long data string list, including file attributes and permissions (commonly used)

-N: List UID and GID, rather than the names of users and groups (UID and GID will be mentioned in user management !)

-R: reversely outputs the sorting result. For example, if the original file name is from small to large, the reverse file is from large to small.

-R: It is listed together with the sub-directory content, which means that all files in the directory will be displayed (recursive)

-S: sort by file capacity, rather than by file name

-T: sort by time, rather than by file name


(2) cd command

Cd [relative or absolute path]

# The most important thing is the absolute path and relative path of the directory. There are also symbols of some special directories!

[Root @ www ~] # Cd ~ Test

# Indicates to go to the home directory of the user vbird, that is,/home/test

[Root @ www vbird] # cd ~

# Indicates returning to your home directory, that is, the/root directory.

[Root @ www ~] # Cd

# If no path is added, it still means returning to your home directory.

[Root @ www ~] # Cd ..

# Indicates to go to the current upper-level directory, that is, the upper-level directory of/root.

[Root @ www/] # cd-

# Return to the directory just now, that is,/root ~

[Root @ www ~] # Cd/var/spool/mail

# This is the absolute path! Specify the complete path name

[Root @ www mail] # cd ../mqueue

# This is the method of relative path. We will write it in this way from/var/spool/mail to/var/spool/mqueue.

(3). pwd command

Pwd [-P] Options and parameters:
-P: displays the actual path instead of the link path.
Example: pwd



Pwd is different from pwd-P!

(4). mkdir command

Mkdir [-mp] Directory Name options and parameters:

-M: permission of the configuration file! Directly configure it. You do not need to check the default permission (umask)

-P: helps you directly create the desired directory (including the upper-level directory!


Mkdir-p test1/test2/test3/test4 (created together)

Mkdir-m 744 test2


(5). rmdir command

Rmdir [-p] Directory Name options and parameters:

-P: deleted together with the "empty" directory at the upper level


Rmdir-p test1/test2/test3/test4 (delete all)


(6). rm command

Rm [-fir] file or directory options and parameters:

-F: indicates force. Ignore non-existing files without warning.

-I: interactive mode. Before deletion, the user is asked for actions.

-R: delete it in a batch! Delete directories (this is a very dangerous option)

We usually use them in combination. rm-rf (delete all files or directories and you must be careful when using them, because they cannot be recovered after being deleted)

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