Computer motherboard hardware Knowledge motherboard main types Overview

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags socket

Computer now has become a daily necessities of life, then how much do you know about computers? The following small series for you to organize some common computer hardware knowledge, quickly to learn!

Computer hardware, including all the physical parts of a computer, to differentiate between the data it contains or executes and the software that provides instructions for the hardware to complete the task. Computer hardware mainly includes: chassis, motherboard, bus, power, hard disk, storage controller, interface card, portable storage device, built-in memory, input equipment, output equipment, CPU fan, buzzer and so on.


At: The standard size of the motherboard, IBM pc/a machine first used and named, some 486, 586 motherboards are also used at the structure layout.

Baby at: pocket-sized motherboard, smaller than at motherboard, hence named. Many of the original machine's integration motherboard first adopted this motherboard structure.

ATX: Improved at motherboard, optimized for component layout on the motherboard, better heat dissipation and integration, needs to be used with a dedicated ATX chassis.

BTX: An improved type of ATX motherboard that uses narrow-plate (low-profile) design to make parts more compact. For the internal and external airflow movement characteristics of the chassis, the motherboard engineers to the layout of the motherboard optimized design, so that the computer's thermal performance and efficiency of higher, less noise, motherboard installation and disassembly has become more simple.

BTX developed 3 specifications from the outset, namely BTX, Micro BTX, and Pico BTX. The 3 BTX widths are the same, all 266.7mm, except that the size and extensibility of the motherboard vary.

Integration (all in one) motherboard: integrated sound, display and many other circuits, generally do not need to card can work, with a high degree of integration and space-saving advantages, but also have difficulties in maintenance and upgrade difficult shortcomings in the original brand machine used more.

Nlx:intel the latest motherboard structure, the biggest feature is the motherboard, the upgrade of the CPU is flexible and convenient and effective, no longer need to each launch a CPU must update the motherboard design in addition to some of the above motherboard deformation structure, such as ASUS Motherboard on a large number of 3/4 Baby at the size of the motherboard structure.

According to the structure of the motherboard classification can also be divided into a CPU based motherboard, adapter based on the motherboard, integrated motherboards and other types. CPU based integration of the motherboard is a better choice.

According to the printed circuit board of the process classification can be divided into two-tier structure board, four-storey structure plate, six-storey structure board, and four-storey structural plate products.

According to the installation of components and welding process classification of surface installation and welding process plate and dip traditional craft board.

Sort by CPU sockets, such as Socket 7 motherboard, Slot 1 motherboard, and so on.

Classification by memory capacity, such as 16M motherboard, 32M motherboard, 64M motherboard, etc.

Plug and Play categories, such as PnP motherboards, non-PNP motherboards, and so on.

According to the system bus bandwidth classification, such as 66MHZ motherboard, 100MHZ motherboard and so on.

Sorted by data port, such as SCSI motherboard, EDO Motherboard, AGP motherboard, etc.

Classification by expansion slot, such as EISA Motherboard, PCI motherboard, USB motherboard, etc.

According to the manufacturer classification, such as ASUS Motherboard, gigabyte motherboard and so on.


Intel:socket386, Socket486, Socket586, Socket686, Socket370 (810 motherboard, 815 motherboard), Socket478 (845 motherboard, 865 motherboard), LGA 775 (915 motherboard, 945 motherboard , 965 motherboards, G31 motherboards, P31 motherboards, G41 motherboards, P41 motherboards, G43, P43 motherboards, G45, P45, X38, X48), LGA 1156 (H55 motherboards, H57 motherboards, P55 motherboards, P57 motherboards, Q57 motherboards), LGA 1155 are divided into 6 series, 7 Series two (6 motherboards are: H61 motherboard, H67 motherboard, P67 motherboard, Z68 motherboard, 7 Series motherboards are: B75, Z75, Z77, H77. ), LGA 1366 (X58 motherboard), LGA (X79 motherboard).

2013 Cpu,ivy Bridge LGA 1155 upgraded to LGA 1150 as a new specification for Intel's launch of the 22nm Haswell.

Amd:socket am2am2+ (760G motherboard, 770 motherboard, 780G motherboard, 785G motherboard, 790GX motherboard), am3am3+ (870G motherboard, 880G motherboard, 890GX motherboard, 890FX motherboard, 970 motherboard, 990X motherboard, 990FX motherboard), FM1 (A55 motherboard, A75 motherboard), FM2 (A55 motherboard, A75 motherboard, A85 motherboard).

The same level of CPU often also has a further division, such as Pentium Motherboard, there is whether to support more Pentium (P55C,MMX requirements of the motherboard built double voltage), whether support Cyrix 6x86, AMD 5k86 (are Pentium-class CPU, require the motherboard has better heat dissipation) and other differences.


ISA (Industry Standard architecture): Industrial Standard Architecture Bus.

EISA (Extension Industry Standard architecture): Extends the standard architecture bus.

MCA (Micro Channel): Micro-channel bus.

In addition, to solve the "bottleneck" problem of slow transmission between CPU and high speed peripherals, there are two local bus types:

VESA (Electronic Standards Association): Video Electronic Standard association local bus, referred to as VL bus.

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect): Peripheral Parts interconnect local bus, referred to as PCI bus. The 486-level motherboard uses the VL bus more, and the Pentium board uses the PCI bus more.

Following PCI, a more peripheral interface bus is developed, which is:

USB (Universal serial buses) Universal Serial bus.

IEEE1394 (American Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1394 standard) commonly known as "FireWire (Fire Ware)".

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