Distinguish between getch, getche, fgetc, GETC, getchar, fgets, and gets in C Language

Source: Internet
Author: User

First, these two functions are not functions in the C standard library,

Int getch (void) // read a character from the standard input. When you enter the character on the keyboard, the screen does not display the character you entered. That is, do not bring back the display.
Int getche (void) // read one character from the standard input. when entering the keyboard, the screen displays the entered characters. Echo.

These two functions are included in the header file conio. H. Remember that conio. H is not the header file in the C standard library. The C compiler of micorsoft and Borland provides conio. h to create a console text user interface. Generally, Vs and VC files are installed in windows, which can contain the conio. h header file. However, this header file is usually not found in UNIX and Linux systems,/usr/include.

Getch and getche are waiting for the user to input data from the keyboard. After you press a key, you do not need to press Enter. The program runs automatically. In Linux, terminal input is "one pot" by default, that is, the whole line of input is processed together. Generally, this is a convenient method that people want, but it also means that when reading data, you must press the Enter key to indicate that the input data can be obtained after the input row ends. In the game, many provide"Boss key", Which is implemented by using these two functions.


In addition to getch and getche, all other header files in the C standard library are included in the header file stdio. h.

Int fgetc (File * stream); // read a character from the stream. The standard input stdin can be used as its real parameter. At this time, one character can be read from the standard input.
Int GETC (File * stream); // equivalent to fgetc, which is implemented by fgetc through macro.
Int getchar (void); // read one character from stdin. When the program waits for you to enter, you can enter multiple characters. Press enter and the program continues to run.
// But getchar is read-only.
Note: GETC and getchar are both implemented through macro definition using fgetc. For example, the implementation of getchar is: # define getchar () fgetc (stdin ).
char * fgets (char * str, int num, FILE *stream);
// Reads a maximum of num characters from the stream to the character array 'str' and stops when a line break is encountered or when a num-1 character is read.
// Automatically append the '\ 0' NULL Character
Char * gets (char * Str); // read a string from the standard input stdin and terminate when a line break or end occurs.
// Unlike fgets, num is not specified, so pay attention to the STR size of the character array.
Note: There is no macro-defined relationship between fgets and gets. Each of them has its own implementation. The implementation of the worm virus is the "credit" of the function gets ". The task of the gets function is to read a string from the stream. Its caller will tell it where to put the read string. However, the gets () function does not check the buffer size. If the caller provides a pointer to the stack and the number of characters read by the get () function exceeds the buffer space, get () will happily write the extra characters into the stack, which overwrites the original content in the stack. For example:
Main ()
Char line [512]; // allocate a space of 512 characters on the program Stack
Gets (line); // the entry of the worm virus, which can write malicious code into the stack through the extra data


Getch and getche are not recommended because they are not functions in the C standard library. The program written with them has poor portability. Different compilers cannot guarantee that they can contain conio. h. We recommend that you use the fgets function instead of the gets function.


In addition, most of these get functions have corresponding put versions.

Int fputc (INT character, file * stream );

Int putc (INT character, file * stream); // implemented by macro definition and fputc

Int putchar (INT character); // implemented by macro definition: # define putchar (c) fputc (C, stdout)


Int fputs (const char * STR, file * stream );

Int puts (const char * Str );

Note: There is no macro-defined implementation relationship between the two. Puts (const char * Str) is approximately equivalent to fputs (cosnt char * STR, stdout). The difference is that the former also outputs a '\ N'



EOF is a symbolic constant defined in stdio. H files. The value is-1. For example,

The fputc function returns a value. If the output is successful, the returned value is the output character. If the output fails, an EOF is returned.

The fgetc function returns a file end mark (EOF) when reading characters. To read characters from a disk file sequentially and display them on the screen, you can:

Ch = fgetc (FP );
While (Ch! = EOF ){
Putchar (CH );
Ch = fgetc (FP );


Note that EOF is not an output character and cannot be displayed on the screen. Since the ASCII code cannot contain-1, it is appropriate to define the EOF as-1. When the read character value is equal to-1 (EOF), it indicates that the read character is not a normal character, but a file Terminator. However, the above only applies to reading text files. Currently, ansi c allows a buffer file system to process binary files. The value of binary data read from a certain byte may be-1, which is exactly the value of EOF. This results in the need to read useful data, but it is processed as "End of File ". Feof (FP) is used to test whether the current state of the file pointed to by FP is "End of File ". To read data from a binary file in sequence, you can:

While (! Feof (FP )){
C = fgetc (FP );



For more information, see the C standard library.

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