Use Python & amp; Flask to implement RESTful Web APIs. Use python

Source: Internet
Author: User

Use Python & Flask to implement RESTful Web APIs, and use python

Environment installation:

sudo pip install flask

Flask is a Python microservice framework, based on Werkzeug, a wsgi class library.

Advantages of Flask:

  • Written in Python (that can be an advantage );
  • Simple to use;
  • Flexible;
  • Multiple good deployment options;
  • RESTful request dispatching

An API service that responds to/articles and/articles/: id:

from flask import Flask, url_forapp = Flask(__name__)@app.route('/')def api_root():    return 'Welcome'@app.route('/articles')def api_articles():    return 'List of ' + url_for('api_articles')@app.route('/articles/<articleid>')def api_article(articleid):    return 'You are reading ' + articleidif __name__ == '__main__':




GET /WelcomeGET /articlesList of /articlesGET /articles/123You are reading 123
from flask import request@app.route('/hello')def api_hello():    if 'name' in request.args:        return 'Hello ' + request.args['name']    else:        return 'Hello John Doe'


GET /helloHello John DoeGET /hello?name=LuisHello Luis
Request Methods (HTTP Verbs)
@app.route('/echo', methods = ['GET', 'POST', 'PATCH', 'PUT', 'DELETE'])def api_echo():    if request.method == 'GET':        return "ECHO: GET\n"    elif request.method == 'POST':        return "ECHO: POST\n"    elif request.method == 'PATCH':        return "ECHO: PACTH\n"    elif request.method == 'PUT':        return "ECHO: PUT\n"    elif request.method == 'DELETE':        return "ECHO: DELETE"

Request type specified by the request:

curl -X PATCH
Request Data & Headers
from flask import json@app.route('/messages', methods = ['POST'])def api_message():    if request.headers['Content-Type'] == 'text/plain':        return "Text Message: " +    elif request.headers['Content-Type'] == 'application/json':        return "JSON Message: " + json.dumps(request.json)    elif request.headers['Content-Type'] == 'application/octet-stream':        f = open('./binary', 'wb')        f.write(                f.close()        return "Binary message written!"    else:        return "415 Unsupported Media Type ;)"

Request specified content type:

curl -H "Content-type: application/json" \-X POST -d '{"message":"Hello Data"}'

curl -H "Content-type: application/octet-stream" \-X POST --data-binary @message.bin
from flask import Response@app.route('/hello', methods = ['GET'])def api_hello():    data = {        'hello'  : 'world',        'number' : 3    }    js = json.dumps(data)    resp = Response(js, status=200, mimetype='application/json')    resp.headers['Link'] = ''    return resp

View response HTTP headers:

curl -i

Optimization code:

from flask import jsonify


resp = jsonify(data)resp.status_code = 200


resp = Response(js, status=200, mimetype='application/json')
Status Codes & Errors
@app.errorhandler(404)def not_found(error=None):    message = {            'status': 404,            'message': 'Not Found: ' + request.url,    }    resp = jsonify(message)    resp.status_code = 404    return resp@app.route('/users/<userid>', methods = ['GET'])def api_users(userid):    users = {'1':'john', '2':'steve', '3':'bill'}        if userid in users:        return jsonify({userid:users[userid]})    else:        return not_found()


GET /users/2HTTP/1.0 200 OK{    "2": "steve"}GET /users/4HTTP/1.0 404 NOT FOUND{"status": 404, "message": "Not Found:"}
from functools import wrapsdef check_auth(username, password):    return username == 'admin' and password == 'secret'def authenticate():    message = {'message': "Authenticate."}    resp = jsonify(message)    resp.status_code = 401    resp.headers['WWW-Authenticate'] = 'Basic realm="Example"'    return respdef requires_auth(f):    @wraps(f)    def decorated(*args, **kwargs):        auth = request.authorization        if not auth:             return authenticate()        elif not check_auth(auth.username, auth.password):            return authenticate()        return f(*args, **kwargs)    return decorated

Replacingcheck_authFunction and usingrequires_authDecorator:

@app.route('/secrets')@requires_authdef api_hello():    return "Shhh this is top secret spy stuff!"

HTTP basic authentication:

curl -v -u "admin:secret"
Simple debug & LOGGING



import loggingfile_handler = logging.FileHandler('app.log')app.logger.addHandler(file_handler)app.logger.setLevel(logging.INFO)@app.route('/hello', methods = ['GET'])def api_hello():'informing')    app.logger.warning('warning')    app.logger.error('screaming bloody murder!')        return "check your logs\n"



Flask documentation

Flask snippets

Werkzeug documentation

Curl manual


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