12 basic principles of photography

Source: Internet
Author: User
The 16 rule of sunshine. This basic law applies to scenarios where bright and even lighting is taken during the day, that is, when the aperture is F16 and the shutter speed is the reciprocal of the sensitivity index, such as the aperture F16 and the sensitivity is
Iso100, shutter speed can be set to 1/100 seconds. On this basis, the aperture can be reduced to f22 if shooting on the beach, and the aperture can be enlarged to F11 if the weather is cloudy.

The 11, 8, and 5.6 rules of the moon. This is a different rule, which is effective only when shooting the moon: the full moon time circle is F11, the shutter speed is higher than the sensitivity index; the shutter speed remains unchanged when the moon is missing, but the aperture is changed to F8; if there is only one crescent moon left, select f5.6 aperture at the same shutter speed.

Host earthquake rule. The minimum safe shutter speed for a handheld camera is the reciprocal of the lens focal length, which is lower than the shutter speed, which may cause a reduction in the sharpness of the photo. For example, if a 50mm lens is used, the shutter speed should be higher than 1/60 seconds. If the field illumination is insufficient, you can use a flashlight, a tripod, or let the camera solve the problem with some fixed objects.

Refer to the gray card rule. In the shooting process, the use of 18% Gray card light measurement is the best way to get a uniform and accurate photo exposure, even if you forget to bring a gray card does not matter, you can extend your hand, let it face the light source, you can use a metering table or in-device metering light to increase the exposure level by 1 Based on the metering value (different skin tones may lead to a slight deviation in the metering accuracy ).

Depth of field rule. When you focus on a distant subject, the length of the depth of field area in front of the subject is twice the length after the subject. In other words, the subject is usually at the last 1/3 of the depth of field. This is the same for all aperture and focal length, but the smaller the aperture, the shorter the focal length, the larger the depth of field, the larger the clear length you can take.

⒍ Maximum digital printing law. To calculate the maximum print size of the photos that your digital camera can output (on the premise that people can accept the quality of imaging ),
After dividing the resolution by 200, the digital camera printing specification can be calculated (some photography articles and photography books call it an exhibition-level photo quality). If the resolution is divided by 250, it is the ultimate printing specification of the machine, result
The Unit is inches.

Limit exposure rule. The most typical explanation is: "impression by highlight and then print by dark", which is the same accuracy for traditional reverse Conversion Films and digital cameras, however, when using a negative slice, especially a colored negative slice, it is best to overexpose the negative slice.

⒏ The rules for rapid flash exposure. When you use an automatic flashlight that does not automatically reduce the flashlight output and implement flashing, you can increase the sensitivity settings on the flashlight to twice the focal length sensitivity you use.

The working range of the flashlight. This rule is required to understand the maximum scope of work of your flashlight. This rule is: "The distance is doubled, and the sensitivity speed is increased by 4 times ". For example
When the intensity is iso100, the maximum effective distance of the flashlight is 6 meters. When the iso400 film is changed or the sensitivity of the digital camera is increased to iso400, the maximum effective distance of the flashlight is 12 meters.

Limit the law of a million-pixel multiplier. To double the resolution of a digital camera, you must multiply the number of valid tokens of the digital camera by 4 (not twice !), Why? If you want
The resolution must be doubled, and the effective pixels of the image sensor must be doubled in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Therefore, the number of pixels on the image sensor is 2X × 2x = 4x!

The solidification rule of the inner body. To record objects that are perpendicular to the lens's optical axis, you need to increase the shutter speed required when the object is facing or moving back to the camera by two levels. When the object is at the same time as the lens's optical axis
When the 45-degree angle is facing or the back camera moves, the required shutter speed is equal to the shutter speed required for the object to face or the back camera moves, which is basically increased by 1 level. For example, if a person is running at a medium speed
The motion is fixed in 1/125 seconds. It takes 1/500 seconds for the shutter to speed out of the viewfinder at the same speed. If he is out-of-sight, the shutter speed is only 1/250 seconds.

⒓ Sunset Rule. To get accurate exposure at sunset, the metering area should be above the sun, but not the sun itself. If you want the entire scene to look like a half hour after sunset, you can scale down the first aperture or reduce the first-level exposure.

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