Chapter 1 Installation Guide

Source: Internet
Author: User
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Chapter 2: Installation Guide

2.1 preparations before installation
1. Collect System Information: to smoothly install and set up a Linux system, you must record the following information for use during system installation:
Hard Disk: quantity, capacity, and type;
Memory: The amount of memory that your computer has installed;
CD-ROM: interface type (IDE, SCSI );
Scsicard: card model;
NIC: the model of the NIC;
Mouse: mouse type (serial port, PS/2, bus type), Protocol (Microsoft, Logitech, MouseMan, etc.), number of buttons, you need to know which serial port the mouse is connected;
Display Card: The model (or the chipset used) of the display card, showing the number of memory. (most PCI bus graphics cards can be automatically recognized by the installer .)
Display: model, and the range of horizontal and vertical refresh frequencies.
You can use Windows Control Panel> Device Manager to obtain relevant information, and of course you can also view the corresponding random information.
2. Check the CMOS settings:
Anti vrius: Disable this option to prevent installation from crashing, because the installer needs to write the primary boot fan.
Swap A, B: Disable to avoid problems during startup.
Boot Sque: CDROM, A, and C enable the computer to start from the CD.
Memory Hole: If Disable is not disabled, LINUX can only recognize 16 MB of Memory.
3. Understand the naming design and file system knowledge of hard disk partitions in LINUX:
Linux installation requires at least two partitions: Linux native and Linux Swap. The primary partition is used to store LINUX Files, And the swap partition provides virtual memory for running LINUX.
Swap partition every 16 ~ 32 M, up to 8, depending on the memory size. Generally, you can create a 16 m swap partition.
The file partition is determined based on the needs and hard disk size. Generally, the size should not be less than 200 MB.
Most people are familiar with the DOS operating system, so they are used to using symbols similar to \ 'C: \ 'to identify hard disk partitions, but this is not true in LINUX. Linux naming is more flexible than other operating systems and can express more information. In Linux, hard disk partitions are identified by a combination of letters and numbers. For example, "hda1" indicates that the first two letters of the partition name indicate the type of the device where the partition is located. For example, hd indicates the IDE hard disk, sd (refers to a SCSI hard disk). The device where the third letter is located is arranged in the order of a, B, c, and d. For example, hda is an IDE hard drive with one port, the primary hard disk of the IDE with two ports should be hdc. The last number is the partition sequence of the device, and the first four partitions (primary partition or extended partition) the number 1 to 4 indicates that the logical partition starts from 5. For example, hda3 indicates the third primary partition or extended partition on the first IDE hard disk.
In a Linux file system, no matter how many file partitions are there, they are all in a tree-like directory structure. For example, you can specify a partition to the/(root directory) and a partition to the/usr directory. However, after you enter the Linux system, you don't feel that they are in different partitions. You just feel that they are all in a tree. However, if you only have one file partition, you must use it for/(root directory.
4. Prepare for LINUX installation on the hard disk:
In general, the hard disk on the computer as I have been all used for MS-DOS/WIN operating system partition. In order to be able to install LINUX, we had to re-allocate hard disk space for LINUX. I immediately borrowed my friend's hard disk, backed up all the data, and re-installed the system. However, there are three options:
1) Move all the data on the last Logical Disk in MSDOS to another partition, delete the Logical Disk with the partition tool, and use the space for LINUX.
2) repartitioning a hard disk. This is the most direct and troublesome method. The procedure is as follows:
. Back up User Files
. Start the system with a MS-DOS System Disk
. Use FDISK to delete the original partition, create a new partition, and leave the space allocated to LINUX to be unallocated to any partition.
. Reinstall the original user system
3) use some partitioning tools to re-partition without deleting the original data on the hard disk. Such as the partition magician.

2.2 install Red Hat Linux 7.1 from CDROM
We can install Red Hat Linux 7.1 on a CD, hard disk, or network. The most common method is to install it on a CD. When you use a CD, there are three requirements:
1) your motherboard supports CD boot
2) You have an optical drive
3) You have a Red Hat Linux 7.1 installation CD
Normally, this is okay. I also recommend that you use a CD for installation. This is simple. As the number of applications in the Linux system increases, one CD can no longer be accommodated. Red Hat Linux 7.1 has two installation CDs, and the first one can be started directly from the CD, it contains most of the software packages and some Installation Tools. The second disc is many additional software packages. However, this time, unlike the past, Red Hat has made special improvements and the installer can read data from multiple CDs. During installation, you will find that you are prompted to change the second CD. Now let's start the installation of Red Hat Linux 7.1 together.
Step 1: select the installation mode
Plug in the first disc and start the computer from the CDROM. A Concise welcome message will appear. In this case, you can select different installation modes:
1) graphic mode: Press enter directly. The installation process is the same as that of Windows, and you can use the mouse to operate it. However, at this time, Red Hat seems very picky about the video card. Some of them have a large screen, cannot find a button, and others cannot display the graphic interface. If so, you can press the hot boot key to reselect the text mode for installation.
2) text mode: Enter text and press Enter. The installation interface in text mode is displayed. It is better for people with some experience to use this method.
3) expert mode: Enter expert and press Enter. In this case, the installer seems to have no brain, and you have to make decisions about everything. Unless you are familiar with Linux and some special hardware installation programs cannot be correctly configured, do not use this method.
4) rescue mode: This is not used during the first installation. It is only used when the original Linux system cannot be started normally. In this way, you will enter a micro-Linux system and provide many Linux restoration tools.
5) Drive disk mode: If you have a special hardware drive disk that needs to be provided to the Linux system during installation, enter "linux dd" and press Enter, the installer will provide an opportunity for you to insert a drive floppy disk.
We recommend that you use text mode for installation.

Step 2: select a language
Red Hat Linux 7.1 provides 18 different languages, but unfortunately there is no Chinese. You can only select "english ". Then proceed.
Note: Red Hat has recently released a Chinese version. You can try it out.

Step 3: select the keyboard
Select us here and continue.
Note: I have tried using the Logitech iTouch wireless keyboard in Red Hat Linux 7.1, so the normal 104 Keyboard will not be faulty.

Step 4: select the Installation Method
Red Hat Linux 7.1 provides five installation methods: Workstation, Server, Laptop, Custom, Upgrade Existing (Workstation, Server, Laptop, user-defined, and old version. We can select the installation method based on our actual needs.
1) Workstation: Workstation mode. This method is recommended for general users. Workstation installation will clear all the original Linux partitions on all hard disks and ignore non-Linux partitions (such as Windows 98. This installation method is very simple. If Windows 98 is installed on your machine, the configuration of LILO dual-start is automatically completed after installation. However, if your machine is originally NT, do not use this method, otherwise your NT may no longer start.
2) Server System: Server System Mode. Warning: using this method will erase all information about all partitions on all hard disks. This is definitely not a joke! Many beginners have already paid the price of blood and tears. Usually you need to build a network server on an empty PC to select it.
3) Laptop: host and notebook mode. It is recommended that you install the pen on your laptop.
4) Custom System: Custom installation. If you have some knowledge about Linux, we recommend that you use this method to build Linux freely. The first time Linux is installed, we will be brave enough to use this method.
5) Upgrade Existing System: Upgrade the Existing System. Suppose you have an old version of Red Hat Linux, which is your best choice.
We recommend that you use "custom installation ".

Step 5: perform hard disk partitioning
First, you will be asked to select different partitioning tools: Disk Druid and fdisk. We recommend that you use Disk Druid.
At the top of the main interface of Disk Druid is \ 'current Disk Partitions \ ', which lists information about each hard Disk partition. Each line consists of five items: Mount Point -- specifies the Linux system directory corresponding to the partition; Device -- Device Name of the hard disk partition; Requested -- minimum space applied for when the partition is defined; actual -- the space currently allocated to this partition; Type -- partition Type.
In the middle, the \ 'Drive Summaries \ 'area corresponds to a physical hard disk. Each line consists of six items: Drive-device name of the hard disk; geom [C/H/S] -- physical information of the hard disk, including the number of cylinders, heads, and fan sectors; Total -- all available space of the hard disk; Used -- allocated space of the hard disk; free -- no space is allocated to the hard disk; Bar Graph -- space used by the hard disk represents a Graph.
The bottom is the Disk Druid button area, which consists of five buttons: Add -- apply for a new partition; edit -- modify the attributes of the selected partition in the \ 'current Disk Partitions \ 'area; delete -- Delete the partition selected in the \ 'current Disk Partitions \ 'area; OK -- confirm the partition operation and overwrite the partition table on the hard Disk; Back -- exit without saving the modification, return to the previous screen and start again.
I suggest dividing Linux into one root partition and one swap partition (64 M, 256 M, or M is recommended), that is:
Select the Add button on the Tab and press Enter. A dialog box named \ 'edit New Partition \ 'is displayed on the screen. First, in the Mount Point item, enter the system directory corresponding to the partition: "/" (root directory); then, in the Size (Megs) item, enter the partition Size; select the appropriate partition Type with the cursor up and down keys in the Type field. We select the Linux file partition Linux native, and then press OK to confirm. In this way, we have successfully created a partition for Linux. Of course, if your hard disk space permits, you can create one or more partitions for Linux. Next, use the same method to add a Swap partition for Linux. The difference is that the Mount Point item makes it empty and select Linux Swap in the Type project.
Note: If you have selected a graphical interface for installation, a graphical partition interface will be provided, which is convenient to use and you can also use an automatic partitioning method. Allow the installer to create a partition.
Be cautious when performing this step. Do not accidentally delete the original partition. Click OK to continue. Then, format the new Linux partition as prompted for use.

Step 6: Configure LILO
LILO is the Linux Loader, which is used to start the Linux operating system. We can configure it for dual-startup. First, the installer will let you fill in the kernel parameters that need to be passed to LILO, which is usually not required. Next, you will be asked where you want to install LILO. there are usually two options: 1) primary drive zone (MBR) of the first hard disk; 2) boot fan of the Linux partition.
If you want to use LILO for Dual Boot, you need to choose the first one. If you want to use Linux to boot a floppy disk or other system Boot Tool to boot Linux, then choose the second one.

Step 7: Set the Host Name
Take a name for your machine.

Step 8: select the system security level
This is also a new option provided by Red Hat Linux. It provides three options:
1) High: If you choose a High level, all Internet access questions from outside will be disabled;
2) Medium: the default level. If this level is selected, external network access is limited to the network services provided by the system;
3) No firewall: the lowest security guarantee. Any external network access is allowed.

Step 9: Set common options
Next, set the mouse, select the language type you need to support (note that Chinese support is provided here), and the time zone (Click China in the graphic interface, in text mode, select PRC ).
Step 10: user settings
1) First, set the password of the system administrator (that is, the root user). The system administrator is the highest privilege of the system and owns the system. Therefore, this password is very important;
2) The installer then provides a tool for adding users. You can use this tool to easily add system users.
3) configuration of user authentication:
A. Shadow Passwords: It is selected by default. Do not modify it. This function is used to protect the password security;
B. use MD5 password encryption: It is selected by default. Do not modify it. It also protects the password;
C. Using NIS: When you want to perform user authentication through the NIS server on the network, please fill in the relevant information;
D. Use LDAP: Fill in the relevant information when you want to perform user authentication through the LDAP server on the network;
E. Use Kerberos: Fill in the relevant information when you want to use the Kerberos system for user authentication;

Step 2: select a software package
This step is the most important step in the installation process. You can select the software you need as prompted. The installer divides all the software into many classes:
Printer Support: Printer Support
X Window System: X Window System
GNOME: Desktop Manager GNOME
KDE: Table manager KDE
Mail/WWW/News Tools: common Tools for sending and receiving Mail, WEB browsing, and News reading
DOS/Windows Connectivity: compatible tools for DOS and Windows
Graphics Manipulation: graphic operation software
Games: game software
Multimedia Support: Multimedia Support software
Laptop Support: exclusive Support software for laptops
Networked Workstation: Network Workstation tools, such as Telnet and FTP clients
Dialup Workstation: dial-up online tool
News Server: News Server
NFS Server: Network File System Server
SMB (Samba) Server: Samba (NetBIOS protocol) Server System
IPX/Netware Connectivity: IPX protocol support software
Anonymous FTP Server: Anonymous FTP Server
SQL Server: postgresql and MySQL Database Server
Web Server: WEB Server (Apache)
DNS Name Server: Domain Name Server
Network Management Workstation: Network Management Workstation, which provides some SNMP support
Authoring/Publishing: Publishing software
Emacs: well-known integrated editing software
Development: Development Kit
Kernel Development: Kernel Development kit, including Kernel source code
Utilities: some common tools, such as Linuxconf
Everything: All software packages. If your Linux partition is large enough (larger than MB), you can select it and install all the software.
Note: There is an option under the selection interface. When selected, it will list the detailed software installation list. You can also make some choices.
After selecting the software package to be installed, the system checks the software package dependency and starts copying the file. Now you can take a rest. But unlike the previous one, you need to replace the CD when copying half of it!

Step 2: Create a boot disk
After the installation is complete, you will be prompted to create a Linux boot floppy disk. Although it is not very useful, it is better for beginners to make a backup. Therefore, it can be used in the following situations:
1) prepare to put LILO in the Linux partition, and boot Linux Through a floppy disk;
2) If the LILO program installed on the MBR is overwritten during Windows installation, you can use this floppy disk to boot the program, Run "/sbin/lilo", and write the LILO program again to the MBR;
3) when the system crashes, you can use Linux to start a floppy disk for restoration.

Step 2: copy an object
The next step is the longest and core process: copy an object. The Linux installer copies the selected software package to the hard disk partition. Note that you need to change the second disc during installation.

Step 2: configure the video card/X Window
Next, the installer will automatically detect your video card and display. Because Red Hat Linux 7.1 uses the latest XFree86 4.0, the support for the display card is better, and most of the video cards can be identified, because it cannot be identified, you have to wait for the installation to complete the configuration.
If your graphics card and display are lucky to be identified, the installer will require you to choose the resolution of the graphic interface. If your video card is good, select 800*600*24-bit color or 1024*768*24-bit color. If the video card I use is too old, I have to select 800*600*16-bit color. You can also select multiple options (after startup, you can use Ctrl + Alt + and-to switch between them ).
After setting the Resolution, the installer will test X Window. If your selection is normal, you can see the beautiful X Window, and then you can easily press OK to confirm.
After you press the OK button, the installer will ask if your Linux system enters the X Window as soon as it is started. The default value is "yes ". However, I do not like it. I select "NO" here, so that after Linux is started, it will enter the character state. When X Window is required, run the startx command to start it manually.

Okay. Now, Red Hat Linux 7.1 will prompt you to take out the CD, restart your computer, and bring the Penguin with a Red Hat to your home.
Note: When Red Hat Linux 7.1 is started for the first time, it runs a program named Kudzu, which is used to add hardware, usually Nic and sound card. The operation is very simple. You only need to select the Configure button, and the system will help you complete the configuration of these hardware.

2.3 other installation methods
If you do not have an optical drive, you can install it in the following ways:
1) install from the FTP site
2) install from the NFS server
3) install from SMB shared volumes
4) install from hard disk
1. Create a Linux boot disk
If you use these installation methods, you must first create two Linux boot disks.
1) Find the image file of the LINUX boot disk on the installation CD, and the boot. img and supp. img files under the/images directory.
2) Find the image disk creation tool RAWRITE. EXE in the/images,/install, or/dosutils directory.
3) Upload the image file and RAWRITE. EXE to the same directory, and then execute rawrite in the doscommand line:
C: linst> RAWRITE
Enter disk image source file name: Enter the image file name here
Enter target diskette drive: Enter the target drive letter here, for example,:
2. Install from the FTP site
To use this method for installation, you must meet one of the following conditions:
1) your machine is connected to the FTP server storing the installation disk in the form of a LAN;
2) There is an installation disk on the FTP server of your LAN.
Note that your FTP server must support long file names before it can be installed successfully. You need to use the Linux boot disk and extended disk boot, and configure a valid Domain Name Server or specify the IP address of the FTP server for installation.
3. Install from NFS server
If you have an NFS server in your Lan, you can copy the installation disk to the NFS server, start it with the Linux boot disk, and access the NFS server for installation. Similarly, the NFS server must support long file names.
4. Install from SMB shared volumes
Place the installation disk on a Windows 9x/NT/2000 Server that supports shared volumes, start it with a Linux boot disk and an extended disk, and install it by accessing the installation disk in the shared volume.
5. Install from hard disk
This method is suitable for users who download the installation disk from the Internet. First, you can copy the Red Hat Linux package file to your hard disk:
1) All files should be placed in a hard disk partition;
2) Put all contents in the RedHat Directory;
3) then copy the package to be installed to another subdirectory RPMS
Then you can use the Linux boot disk and extended disk to start the system installation.

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