Computer hardware knowledge must see Computer Configuration upgrade Knowledge

Source: Internet
Author: User

computer hardware knowledge must see Computer Configuration upgrade Knowledge

First, processor CPU knowledge

Classification of ①CPU

CPU brands have two camps, respectively, Intel (Intel) and AMD, the two industry bosses almost monopolize the CPU market, we take apart the computer to see, but also Intel and AMD brand (of course, not excluding the extremely small cottage of the CPU). Intel's CPUs are divided into Pentium (Pentium), Celeron (Celeron) and core (core™). Its performance from high to Low is also core>pentium>celeron. AMD's CPU is divided into Semporn (Flash Dragon) and Athlon (Fast Dragon), the performance of course is Athlon better than Semporn.

Intel and AMD logo recognition

The frequency of ②CPU

The CPU, often hear 2.4GHZ, 3.0GHZ, such as CPU, what does this represent? These things are similar to 2.4GHZ of the CPU is the main frequency, that is, the primary clock frequency, the unit is MHz. One of the key metrics used to measure a CPU's performance. There is also a formula for the frequency calculation. The clock frequency = FSB x frequency multiplier coefficient.

Click "My Computer" → "properties" to see the CPU type and frequency size as shown below:

My Computer-Properties to view CPU information

What's the FSB ③cpu mentioned?

FSB is the front-end bus, in simple terms, this thing is the CPU and the external exchange of data, the most important channel. The speed of the FSB processing also affects the performance of the CPU. What is the cache mentioned in 4.CPU? Caching refers to a memory built into the CPU for high-speed data exchange. Split-level caching (L1cache), Level two cache (L2cache), and level three caching (L3cache).

Generally, the cache size is: Level Three cache > Level two cache > level cache. Cache size is also an important metric for measuring CPU performance.

What is the 45nm specification CPU that ④ often mentions?

Similar to 45nm these appear in the CPU of the word is actually the CPU manufacturing process, its unit is micron, for the secret system is smaller, the manufacturing process of course the more advanced, the higher the frequency, the more integrated the transistor! Now the CPU manufacturing process from micron to Nano, From 90 nm---65 nm---45 nm---to the present 32 nm---the future of the 28 nm, and then to the future of the lower, the smaller the process, the product to do the more refined, low power consumption, the smaller the volume.

What effect does the ⑤CPU core voltage have on the CPU?

Bottom line: Lower core voltages, less power consumption and fever.

The use of Cpu-z software can be detailed view of the CPU parameters of the information (pictured below, Classic machine configuration):

CPU details detected by the CPU-Z software

Edit Clear Sky Rain add: The current CPU performance grade distribution diagram is as follows:

CPU Performance Grade Distribution chart

Second: Graphics card knowledge

① Some people say that the GPU is the soul of the graphics card, why do you say that?

The GPU is the core of the graphics card, responsible for most of the graphic design work, directly determines the overall performance level of the graphics card. It's not too much to say it's a graphics soul. Now the core i3 such as the CPU also integrates the GPU, the equivalent of the CPU integrated graphics card.

② video Memory is a very important indicator of the graphics card, a brief introduction

Video memory has a great impact on the performance of the graphics card. MHz is the unit of memory. Video memory is also divided into the GDR, GDR2 and GDR3, and now the GDR5 four species, there will be higher in the future. The Memory speed unit is NS. The video memory bit width indicates that there is a number of digits in the clock cycle that can transmit data, and the larger the number of bits, the larger the data volume. The memory capacity is shared and the actual memory is divided. Shared memory is the capacity of virtual memory, while virtual memory is the capacity to use the hard disk. Actual video memory performance is greater than the performance of shared memory, this is easy to confuse, is also JS fooled our place. Performance on the current GDR5>GDR3>GDR2>GDR, the current market can see the logarithmic GDR3 and GDR5 graphics cards, GDR3 the following levels of graphics cards have been eliminated.

What is the core frequency of the ③ video card?

The core frequency of the video card is the operating frequency of the core chip. The video card overclocking is usually to provide the core frequency.

What are the ④ graphics interface types?

The interface type of the video card is two kinds of AGP and pci-express. The speed of pci-express is faster than that of AGP, and AGP has basically exited the stage of history. The AGP interface's video card is now discontinued, the channel to buy is usually second-hand trading, and performance is much the former.

Currently selling AGP interface graphics cards, such as Taobao, the price is very cheap. But these are actually on behalf of factory production, quality is certainly not the original production of good, and in order to drive down the cost, the quality of the graphics card is difficult to ensure that there are stickers, Shanzhai and other graphics cards.

AGP Low price video card

⑤ independent graphics and integrated graphics which is good?

First describes what is a stand-alone video card, and integrated graphics, stand-alone video card is a separate purchase of a video card, and integrated graphics is the motherboard integrated graphics card, or the current relatively new CPU integrated graphics core. General game users and large software computer configuration are independent graphics, integrated graphics due to space and other restrictions, poor performance can not meet the mainstream game and large-scale application needs, but to meet the general audio-visual entertainment and simple games or office needs, the speed is relatively not independent video card fast.

The independent video card and the integrated graphics card are the latter need to share the system memory as the video memory, the former is the individual configuration memory. Performance, integrated graphics can not be compared with the independent graphics, the former expensive. Integrated graphics and independent video cards are basically two grades!

⑥ current graphics card's chip brand

At present, there are many brands of computer graphics, such as Shadow Pool, seven rainbow, ASUS, etc. have a lot of, but the choice of graphics card core chips are Nvidia and ATI graphics chipset, chip decision card grade.

One of the Nvidia graphics cards (the world's largest graphics chip research and development and manufacturers) we like to call N card, ATI graphics card (the world's only able to compete with NVIDIA graphics card chip manufacturer) We are referred to as a card.

Attached below is a list of which graphics chipsets are preferred by the current brand graphics card

1 msi (MSI) graphics card (the largest global shipments of graphics card brand, A N)
2 Laguna (Leadtek) graphics card (manufacturer of the world's most famous professional drawing cards, N)
3 asus (ASUS) graphics card (one of the four big kings of Taiwan Board, A N)
4 Sapphire (Sapphire)/Penong card (“ ATI OEM Graphics ” OEM factory, A)
5 di Lan Hengjin (dataland)/Shake Xun (ati one of the three partners, A)
6 gigabyte (gigabyte) graphics card (one of ATI's three major partners, A N)
77 Rainbow (colorful) graphics card (China occupies the largest graphics card brand. A N)
8 Hon Hai/Foxconn (Foxconn) graphics card (for many front-line brands for OEM production of graphics cards. A N)
9 Elsa (ELSA) graphics card (once was the graphics industry overlord, A N)
10 Shadow (GALAXY) graphics card (Hong Kong brand, famous for its magnificent workmanship, N)
a— on behalf of the brand mainly using ATI graphics chip
n— on behalf of the brand mainly using Nvidia graphics chip
A n— represents the brand ATI and NVIDIA graphics chips are in use

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