Configuration and management of file and print systems

Source: Internet
Author: User
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configuration and management of file and print systems

The main contents of this chapter:
1. Distributed File System
2. Printing system
3. Indexing Service

  8.1 File System
The basic concept of 8.1.1 Distributed File system

System administrators can leverage Distributed file systems (DFS) to make it easier for users to access and manage files that are physically distributed across the network. With DFS, you can make files that are distributed across multiple servers appear in front of users as if they were located on a network where users no longer need to know and specify their physical location when accessing files.
§dfs type
The DFS console enables users to implement distributed file systems based on an independent distributed file system or a domain-based Distributed file system.
§DFS Architecture
In addition to the Server-based DFS component in Windows 2000, there are also client based Dfs components. DFS clients can cache references to a DFS root or Dfs link for a period of time that is specified by the administrator. The computer running the DFS client must be a member of the DFS root domain. DFS client components can be run on many different Windows platforms.

So when do you need to use DFS?
The user should consider implementing DFS in the following situations:
§ Users who access shared folders are distributed across multiple locations in one site or multiple sites.
§ Most users need access to multiple shared folders.
§ You can improve server load balancing by redistribution of shared folders.
§ Users need uninterrupted access to shared folders.
§ The user's organization has WEB sites for internal or external use.

8.1.2 Characteristics of Distributed File Systems
Distributed File System (DFS) provides several important features:
§ Easy access to files
Distributed file systems make it easier for users to access files. Even if a file may physically span multiple servers, the user can access the file only by going to a location on the network. Also, when you change the physical location of a shared folder, users are not affected to access the folder. Users no longer need multiple drive mappings to access files. Finally, scheduling file server maintenance, software upgrades, and other tasks (typically requiring the server to be offline) can be done without disrupting user access. By selecting the root directory of the Web site as the DFS root, you can move resources in the Distributed file system without disconnecting any HTML links.
§ Availability
Domain-based DFS ensures that users maintain access to files in two ways:
1. Windows 2000 automatically publishes a DFS topology to Active Directory. This ensures that the DFS topology is always visible to users on all servers in the domain.
2. As an administrator, users can replicate DFS roots and Dfs shared folders. Replication means that Dfs roots and Dfs shared folders can be replicated on multiple servers in a domain, even if one of the physical servers on which the files reside is unavailable, users will still have access to the files. The
§ Server load Balancing
DFS root can support multiple Dfs shared folders that are physically distributed over the network. For example, when a user has a file that knows that a user will have a lot of access. Not all users physically access this file on a single server, which increases the burden on the server, and DFS ensures that users accessing files are distributed across multiple servers. However, in the view of the user, the file resides in the same location on the network.

8.1.3 Create the root directory of Distributed file systems
A Distributed File System (DFS) topology consists of a DFS root, one or more Dfs links, one or more Dfs shared folders, or replicas that are referred to by each DFS.
The domain server where the DFS root resides is called the host server. You can replicate a DFS root by creating a root share on another server in the domain. Make sure that the file is still available when the host server is unavailable.
For users, the DFS topology provides uniform and transparent access to the required network resources. For system administrators, the DFS topology is a single DNS namespace: Use domain-based Dfs to resolve the DNS names shared by the Dfs root to the host server of the DFS root directory.
Because the host server for a domain-based Distributed File system is a member server in a domain, the Dfs topology is automatically published to Active Directory by default, thus providing a Dfs topology synchronization across the primary server. This, in turn, provides fault tolerance for DFS roots and supports optional replication of Dfs shared folders.

Let the user first create a distributed file system root directory for the domain
Step 1 Open DFS Manager
Step 2 on the Action menu, click New DFS root, and then click Next
Step 3 Click the type of Dfs root that you want to create (domain-based or stand-alone), where the user chooses "create a domain DFS root" as Figure 8.1, and then click Next

Step 4 If you want to create a domain-based DFS root, select the domain name that you want to create the root directory, and then click Next.
Step 5 Enter the host computer name for the DFS root, or click the name "" from the list of available servers, as shown in Figure 8.2. Then click Next.

Step 6 Click to specify the path and name of the new shared folder that you want to create as Figure 8.3, and then click Next.
Step 7 Accept the default name for the DFS root, or specify a new name, and then click Next.

Step 8 Click Finish to create a new DFS root for as shown in Figure 8.4.

8.1.4 Configure Distributed File system
§ Add a DFS root share
Step 1 Turn on DFS
Step 2 on the Action menu, click New Root Share.
Step 3 Enter the name of the host computer for the root share, or click the name in the list of available servers, and then click Next.
Step 4 Click the existing shared folder or specify the path and name of the new shared folder that you want to create, and then click Next.
Step 5 Accept the default name for the root share, or specify a new name, and then click Next.
Step 6 Click Finish to create a new root share.

§ Add a DFS link
Step 1 Turn on DFS
Step 2 in the console directory tree, right-click the DFS root.
Step 3 Click "New DFS link."
Step 4 Type the name and path of the new DFS link, or click Browse to select from the list of available shared folders. As shown in Figure 8.5
Step 5 (optionally) Enter a comment to further identify or describe the DFS link.
Step 6 Type the deadline (within which the reference to the DFS link will be cached on the DFS client), and then click OK.

§ Set replication Policy
Step 1 turn on DFS
Step 2 Right-click the DFS root or Dfs link, and then click Copy Policy.
Step 3 in the list of Shared folders, click the DFS shared folder that you want to use as the primary folder for replication.
Step 4 Click each shared folder in the list, click Enable or disable, and then click OK.
Note: Once the replication home folder is set up, the initial Home folder button will no longer appear when the window is displayed later. This is because the primary folder is set up only once to initialize replication, and from that point on, the Dfs shared folder replicates to each other whenever data in a Dfs shared folder has changed. Back to top >>>

8.2 Print system
using Windows 2 000, users can share printer resources across the network. Customers from different computers and operating systems can send print jobs over the Internet to printers that connect directly to the Windows 2000 print server, or to printers that connect to a network or other server using internal or external network adapters.
§ Print settings
for administrators, Windows 2000 provides an improved universal network configuration tool. For example, the new standard port, described later in this topic, simplifies the installation of most TCP/IP printers on the network. In addition, the improved Printer property page user interface makes it easier for end users and administrators to configure and support their printing needs.
§ Print Management
Windows 2000 provides improved remote management by adding remote port management. Users can completely remotely administer and configure (including remote port management) printers from Windows 2000 computers without having to operate on the print server computer. The
§internet print
Windows 2000 print architecture is now integrated with the Internet. For end users, Windows 2000 provides across the Internet for printing.
§ You can use a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to print from Windows Server and Windows Professional customers to a Windows 2000 print server.
§ You can use a browser to manage printers. You can pause, resume, delete print jobs, and view the status of printers and print jobs.

§ You can connect to a printer on your network by using the Web point-and-click feature that installs a shared printer with just the mouse. You can also install drivers from a Web site.
§ Directory Services
By default, Windows Server will use all shared printers in the domain as objects in Active Directory. When you share a printer in a list (or publish) directory, you can use the search tool to quickly locate the most convenient print resource. For example, you can search by features such as color printing, or by location (such as a designated floor of a building). The
§ Standard port monitor
New standard port monitor connects a Windows 2000 print server to a network interface printer that uses the TCP/IP protocol. It replaces the Lprmon for TCP/IP printers that are connected directly or through a network card. The new standard port is 50% faster than Lprmon. Printers that are connected to a UNIX or VAX host still require Lprmon.
§ Print queue monitoring
You can now use the new object print queue of System Monitor to monitor the performance of local or remote printers. You can set up counters for performance criteria such as the number of bytes printed per second, job errors, and the total number of pages printed.
§ user settings
Windows Server and Windows Professional customers now also have the ability to change the default settings for personal documents. Previously, only Windows 95 and Windows 98 users could modify their document settings after the administrator initially set up a user's document.
§ Printing from applications
when printing from an application, the standard Print dialog box that appears on the screen is a dialog box that has been enhanced and improved. You can now search for printers in Active Directory and even add printers.

8.2.1 Print process
Let the user know how Windows client prints through a Windows Server Print Service Service, complete a document printing process. As shown in Figure 8.6
1. The user on the Windows 2000 client computer chooses to print the document.
2. If this document is submitted from a Windows application, the application invokes the Graphics Device interface (GDI), which invokes the printer driver associated with the target printer. GDI and the driver Exchange data with each other by using the documentation information in the application to submit the print job in the language of the printer and transfer it to the client print spooler. If the client is using a non-Windows operating system, or is not a Windows application, other components will perform similar tasks instead of GDI.
3. The client computer submits a print job to the print server. For Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 clients, the client spooler issues a remote procedure call (RPC) to the server-side spooler, which uses the router to poll the remote print provider for the client. The remote print provider then issues another RPC to the server spooler, and the server spooler receives the print job over the network.

4. On the print server, print jobs from Windows NT or Windows 2000 customers are enhanced Metafile (EMF) data types. Most non-Windows applications use RAW (print ready) data types.
5. Routers on the server route the print job to the local print provider on the server (the component of the spooler), which prints the job in the background (writes it to the disk).
6. The local print provider polls the print processor. The print processor recognizes the data type of the job and receives the print job. The print processor then converts the print job based on its data type.
7. If a target printer is defined on a client computer, the print Server service determines whether the server's print spooler converts the print job or assigns another data type. The print job is then routed to the local print provider, which writes it to the disk.
8. Control of the print job is passed to the Separator page processor, and the Separator page processor adds a separator page before the job, depending on the designation.
9. The job is given to the print monitor. For bidirectional printers, the language monitor handles two-way communication between the sender and the printer, and then passes the print job to the port monitor. If the printer is not a two-way printer, the print job is routed directly to the port monitor, which sends it to the target printer (or another network print server).
10. The printer receives a print job and then converts each page into a bitmap format and prints it out.

8.2.2 Internet Printing
Internet printing (a new feature in Windows 2000) provides a way to submit a print job to a printer over the Internet. For example, as long as the user has the name of the Publisher printer and the appropriate permissions, the new catalog of the company can be sent directly to the publisher's printer. As shown in Figure 8.7
§ To install a printer from the Internet or an Intranet, you can use the printer's URL as the printer's name. The administrator can also use the URL format within the Intranet.
§ For Windows Server, you must run Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) to work with a print job that contains a URL. For print servers that are implemented on Windows Professional, you must run the Microsoft peer-to-peer Web Service (PWS).

§internet printing uses the Internet Print Protocol (IPP) as a low-level protocol encapsulated in HTTP that is used as a transmitter. When a printer is accessed through a browser, the system first attempts to connect using RPC (on the Intranet and LAN) because RPC is fast and efficient.
§ The security of the print server is provided by IIS or PSW, depending on whether the user is running Windows Server or Windows Professional. To support all browsers and all Internet clients, the administrator must select Basic authentication. As an option, administrators can also use Microsoft Challenge/Response or Kerberos authentication, both of which are supported by Microsoft Internet Explorer.
§ You can manage printers from any browser, but you must use Internet Explorer 4.0 or later to connect to a printer using a browser.

8.2.3 Configure network printers
Before you purchase and install a printer, as an administrator in the Windows Server environment, you should first check the print workload and estimate the required capacity to meet the requirements under various conditions. You also need to establish naming conventions that simplify the installation, use, and support of the print environment. Second, you need to determine the number of print servers required for your network, and the number of printers assigned to each server. Finally, you must determine the printer you want to purchase, the computer that is the print server, where the printer is placed, and how to manage the communication for the printer. Add Printer
To install a local printer
§ Install the parallel port (LPT port) printer
Step 1 Connect the printer to the appropriate port on your computer based on the printer specification document and verify that the print is ready.
Step 2 to open the printer. Double-click Add Printer, start the Add Printer Wizard, and then select Next
Step 3 Click Local printer, make sure that the Automatically detect and install my Plug and Play printer check box is selected, and then click Next, as shown in Figure 8.8

Step 4, depending on the printer you are installing, display the Find new hardware message or the Find New Hardware wizard, informing the user that the printer has been detected and starting installation as shown in Figure 8.9

is selected in the Printer Sharing screen of the wizard.
(step 5) Select the device drivers to find as shown in Figure 8.10

Step 6 perform installation
or, after connecting the printer, start or heavy New boot computer to allow Windows 2000 to automatically detect and start the Find New Hardware wizard.
§ Installing a Universal Serial bus (USB) or IEEE 1394 printer
1.Windows 2000 automatically detects and launches the Find New Hardware wizard. You do not need to shut down or restart your computer, just follow the on-screen instructions to complete the installation.
2. Add the printer icon to the Printers folder.
Note: To add and set up a printer that is connected directly to a computer, you must be logged on as a member of the Administrators group. In Windows Server, by default, the Add Printer Wizard shares the printer and publishes it in Active Directory unless the

To enjoy this printer. In Windows Professional, the Add Printer Wizard does not automatically share printers, and you need to select Share as to share and publish the printer.

To add a printer attached directly to the network
Step 1 to open the printer
Step 2, double-click Add Printer, start the Add Printer Wizard, and then click Next.
Step 3 Click Local printers, clear the Automatically detect and install my Plug and Play printer check box, and then click Next.
Step 4 Follow the on-screen instructions, select the printer port, select the printer's manufacturer and model, type the name of the printer, and complete the printer setup.
Step 5 When the Add Printer Wizard prompts the user to select a printer port, click Create New Port.
Step 6 Click the appropriate port type from the list and follow the instructions. (By default, only "local Port" and "Standard TCP/IP Port" appear in the list.) )
Note: Because the printer is connected directly to the network rather than to a Windows 2000 computer, you must clear the Automatically detect Printers check box. The following Group Policy settings can change the default actions for the Windows Server Add Printer Wizard:
"Allow publishing of printers" is enabled by default, and you can disable this option to prevent printers from being published.
Automatically publish new printers in Active Directory is enabled by default, and you can disable this option to prevent the Add Printer Wizard from automatically publishing a printer when you add a new printer.
The show downlevel pages in the Add Printer Wizard is enabled by default, and you can disable this option to prevent the Add Printer wizard from browsing the network of shared printers. Configure Print Server
§ Set printer properties
Step 1 to open the printer
Step 2 Right-click the printer for which you want to change settings, and then click Properties.
As shown in Figure 8.11
Step 3 Click each available tab and change options as needed, such as sharing the printer, adding and configuring ports, scheduling printer availability, assigning permissions, and specifying the format to be assigned to the tray.

§ Set printing preferences
Step 1 Open Printer
Step 2 Right-click the printer for which you want to change settings, and then click Print Preferences, such as Figure 8.12
Step 3 Click each available tab. Change options as needed, for example, set the page orientation, specify the page size, set the print resolution, single or double-sided printing, print multiple pages per sheet, set the number of copies to print
§ Set installation options for printers
Step 1, open the printer
Step 2 Right-click the printer you want to set options for, and then click "Properties".
Step 3 on the Device Settings tab, under Installable Options, click All the options that you want to set. such as setting the printer's installable options, setting the printer's memory, matching the printer tray and paper specifications, ensuring that the complex pages are printed correctly, installing and removing external PCL soft fonts, using the font cartridge font Find Printer
Step 1 Open Find printer as shown 8.13
Step 3 in the Scope box, select the domain you want to search for, or click Browse to the Location field. If you select Entire directory, you can also use the Advanced tab to narrow your search.
Step 3 on the printers, features, and Advanced tabs, enter the search parameters you want to use. On the Printers tab, enter a name, location, and printer model.
§ If a location appears in location, the network administrator sets up the network so that Windows will attempt to display the default printer closest to the user. You can also click the Browse button to search for a printer in another location. If location is empty, Windows searches the entire directory for printers, but if the user knows the location's

Name, you can still enter the location.
§ On the Features tab, you can select additional search options, such as whether the printer can print double-sided or print at a specific resolution.
§ On the Advanced tab, you can use custom or additional fields to specify criteria, such as whether the printer supports sorting or a specific printer language, for searching.
Step 4 Click Start Find to run the search, or click Clear All to clear the standard fields and start a new search.

8.2.4 Managing network Printers
Step 1 Opening a printer
Step 2 on the File menu, click Server Properties, as shown in Figure 8.14
Step 3 Perform the following management actions as needed
Add printer drivers for other clients
§ Update printer drivers
§ Remove printer drivers
§ List all files for printer drivers
§ Change the location of the spool folder
Enable or disable record printing events
§ Enable or disable notifying users when printing is finished
§ Create custom printer format
§ Set ports and protocols

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8.3 Indexing Service
Indexing Service extracts information from a set of documents and organizes that information so that it can be accessed quickly and easily through the Windows 2000 search feature, the Indexing Service Query table, or a Web browser. This information can contain the text (content) in the document and the characteristics and parameters (attributes) of the document, such as the author's name. Once you have created an index, you can query the index of the document that contains the key words or attributes. For example, you can query all documents that contain the word "product", or you can query all Microsoft Office documents written by a specific author. The Indexing Service returns a list of all documents that match the search criteria. Through a process called indexing, the Indexing Service uses document filters to read documents and extract text and properties to pass to the indexer. The
Indexing Service indexes The following types of documents:
§ text  
§microsoft Office 95 and later  
§internet Mail and News (must install Internet Information Services) &NBSP
§ You can use any other document filter  
You first need to establish a query before using the Indexing Service. With a query, you can search for a document by searching for a word or phrase in the document's content, or by querying its properties, such as a document name or author. The simplest type of query is a single word query. For example, if a user is looking for "operation", Indexing Service returns all documents whose contents contain the word "operation". You can also find documents whose property values match the given criteria. The properties you can query include basic document information, such as document name and document size. You can also query ActiveX properties, such as document summaries. ActiveX properties are stored in a document created by an ActiveX-enabled program, such as a Microsoft Office application.

There are five kinds of queries:
§ Free text Query
§ Phrase Query
§ Pattern matching Query
§ Related queries
§ Vector space Query
Indexing Service in Computer Manager has two catalogs of "System" and "WEB", and users can create additional catalogs for their own needs. Under the catalog, there are "directories", "Properties", and "query catalogs." The directory is used to save indexed disk folders as shown in Figure 8.15, users can add or remove folders that need to be indexed and also implement manual indexing.

Properties saves the corresponding indexed query as shown in Figure 8.16, you can set whether to index an unknown file name extension, or whether to create a summary of the query file.

The query catalog applies to the user for conditional queries as shown in Figure 8.17.

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