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|Creation process before the birth of Taijiquan Tian Jinlong  (College of Physical Education, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002)Abstract:In the context of ideology, culture, and martial arts practices of each historical stage of Chinese martial arts before the birth of Taijiquan, this paper explores the historical trajectory of the creation process of Taijiquan and its corresponding technical forms. That is, excited martial arts of instinct technology-simple martial arts of direct technology-sublimation martial arts of change technology-spirit of the flash war technology-whole type martial arts of Control TechnologyKeywords:Taiji culture; Martial Arts; Technical Map: g852.11 Document ID code: Article A No.: 1000-5498-(2004) 01-0041-04 creating course before birthTaijiquanTian Jinlong (Physical Education College, Yangzhou College, Yangzhou 225002, Jiangsu, China)Abstract:In the light of the background of thoughts, culture and practice of Wushu in each of the Chinese wushu before the birth of Taijiquan, this article has made an approach of the creating course of Taijiquan, and its corresponding technical shapes, I. e. emotive-type Wushu with instinctive technique, simple-type Wushu with Directive technique, sublimate-type Wushu with changeable technique, mind refining-type Wushu with lightning war technique and entirety-type Wushu with Control TechniqueKey words: Taijiquan; Wushu; technique has experienced several important stages of development before the birth of Taijiquan. The occurrence of these technological revolutions has its ideological and cultural background and the background of martial arts practices. To explore Taijiquan in this background, we will direct our sight to the source of Chinese martial arts and extend our vision to the whole martial arts field. Therefore, this article intends to analyze the historical trajectory of the creation process of Taijiquan. 1. the passionate martial arts dragon Totem Worship of instinct and technology is the cultural form of ancient China. It is like a seed deeply rooted in the Chinese cultural spirit. As a hazy consciousness of the Chinese Humanistic Spirit, Dragon totem creates a vivid image of the Taiji concept. The dragon absorbs the spirit of eight animals in the natural world. It looks like camels, horns, deer, eyes, ears, cows, snakes, belly, scales, and claws, the palm is like a tiger. They seem weird and unreasonable. However, this hostile force, due to their mutual constraints, gives people a conflicting aesthetic feeling and becomes a unique spiritual animal. Long weiwu is magnificent and beautiful. It is superb and omnipotent. It is capable of setting up the cloud to let off the fog. It can hide under the bottom of the water, be large, be small, and be invisible. People appreciate the image of the dragon and yearn for the spirit of the dragon. Dragon has become the spiritual pillar of Chinese people in ancient times. Dragon's spirit has created Chinese martial arts in ancient times. It is said that during the battle between the yuyou tribe and other tribes, they often hold together with each other and attack each other with a horn on the helmet. [I] it seems that most of such battles involve collective melee, with few personal technologies. War relies mainly on the collective cohesive power and the Instinctive Power of the individual. From the perspective of the scale of the battle, it is also the entire tribe. Maybe the worship of the dragon has a certain relationship with the embodiment of this collective and instinctive power. For this reason, it is not difficult for us to understand the mythical legends of the Battle of dragons in the ancient age. In that era, Dragon created a strong, brave, and United National temperament. The Chinese martial arts created by dragon's spirit are also manifested in martial arts activities in the form of drills. According to the study, Emperor Shundi used the "dry Qi Dance" to show the three Miao people. He was defeated by the three Miao people and won the victory [II]. Martial arts drills have been widely used. Today, they are about to become members of the Olympic family and contribute to the development of world culture. Martial arts drills are a special form of Chinese martial arts. It is an important means to bring martial arts into a superior realm. I don't know whether people had such knowledge at that time. However, as an important part of martial arts activities in ancient times, it has been demonstrated in many aspects in the history of martial arts. Or is it because of the passion during the drills, which can inspire people to be fascinated by the spirit of the dragon, or because the knowledge of martial arts of the Ancestors has reached such a high level, however, the drills of martial arts can make people feel the treasure of dragons. By instinct, fighting is a natural skill. Even if it is cultivated in the learning of the day after tomorrow, it can be regarded as an instinctive action if it is not the result of an analytical study, but by means of vague images and intuitive imitation. Image boxing contains many such ingredients. In some mature boxing, hieroglyphics are also an indispensable component. Instinct technology is built on a firm belief. Through instinct training, we can cultivate an extremely advanced martial arts technology. Today, we may not be able to reach this state, or even cannot understand it. However, this technology is full of strong individual colors and is not easy to spread and promote. unless it has a corresponding social and cultural background, a general technology and a wide range of boxing groups can be formed spontaneously. The cultural background and martial arts background of God Belief and mass melee are the fertile ground to nourish this technology. The spirit of the dragon Totem Worship has melted into the soul of the primitive martial arts in the ancient Chinese age, casting the innate temperament of the Chinese martial arts. 2. The spirit of simple martial arts dragons with direct technology continues to develop, and a cultural scheme of the symbolic system is interpreted in the cultural form. Yijing is another creation of the Chinese humanistic spirit. If a dragon is a spiritual concept and an out-of-the-box creation, this spirit has already entered the natural society, the rational model of natural society is explored again from the real world. The eight symbol systems in Yijing, represented by eight natural scenes, have discovered the inherent mysteries of harmonious development in nature through their orderly structure, it reveals the movements in which everything in the Universe goes in parallel, promoting, developing, and resonating with each other. Nature has become so beautiful and angry due to harmonious symbiosis. This discovery is the contribution of the Chinese Ancients to the world culture and the pride of the Chinese Ancients. The symbolic way of thinking is the initial form of human reason, and it has gone through a long process of perfection. Legend has it that there are different versions of Yijing in the three generations. Zhou Yi is one of the most advanced versions and is also the most representative. Starting from the third generation, Chinese martial arts began to generalize and summarize Based on instinct technology, from "unable" to the creation process of the law. In the three generations, the war methods have changed significantly, and collective melee was replaced by a well-organized and well-disciplined vehicle war. In the vehicle war, the soldiers have a certain division of labor, and are responsible for driving the carriage, while they are responsible for the long-distance shooting of bows and arrows, and are responsible for the shooting of spears. The complexity of vehicle battles and the clear division of labor between soldiers require the simplicity of action and the overall cooperation. In the vehicle warfare mode, those who finally win the war are those who have certain organizational discipline and have been strictly trained. Legend has it that Wen Wang used gossip principles and methods to train soldiers and command war. In addition to the vehicle war, martial arts activities have also been fully launched during the week of business. At that time, there were hands-on battles, device battles, human fights, animal fights, routine drills, archery competitions, and other activities. According to the materials of these martial arts activities, there were already standardized technical actions. The standardization of technology is the initial form of martial arts development, because the learning of martial arts technology always starts from the direct technical level. The technical form of standardization, on the one hand, is the product of long-term accumulation of martial arts activities, on the other hand, is also an example of the entry of Taiji culture into the thinking mode of the symbol system. In the Shang and Zhou dynasties, Wu dance also experienced further development. At this time, Wu also showed a certain sequence and rhythm, which could have a certain fixed movement and match the rhythm of music. [III] Today, music plays a significant role in promoting relaxation of movements and muscle rhythm. Unfortunately, we were hard to see the martial arts theory at that time, but we can imagine that, inspired by the spirit of the dragon, the martial arts creation was driven by the pursuit of a free and unrestrained martial arts realm, it is also reasonable to dance in the rhythm of music to enter the passionate state of martial arts. 3. when the history of sublimation martial arts with changing technologies enters the Spring and Autumn Warring States Periods, the level of human thinking is further developed, and the symbolic thinking system evolves into a philosophical question, the Book of Changes has become the source of the philosophy of the hundred philosophers. Warring States culture is the most brilliant age of Chinese civilization. In this era, Taiji culture shows its rich and varied colors in every aspect of Chinese life, influences one after another outstanding British materials, and creates countless heroes of the times. Lao Tzu and Confucius are representatives of the two largest academic systems in this age. Due to their discussion of the development of the times, the concept of Taiji has become a concept form, which goes deep into all aspects of society. Due to the difference in their concerns about the true meaning of life, formed their respective theoretical systems. Lao Tzu believes that the spirit of Taiji is "Tao", so as to conform to the natural law. Confucius believes that the spirit of Taiji is "Harmony" and that the mean is the basic principle of human life. They provide more choices for people's lifestyles and lay the foundation for further differentiation and synthesis of Chinese culture. Not only does the prosperity of culture in the Spring and Autumn Period promote the diversity of the martial arts technology world, but with the promotion of Ranger and sword, the personalization of martial arts technology is becoming increasingly prominent. The theoretical sublimation of martial arts in this period is enough to prove that Taijiquan has taken shape. Let's take a look at Zhuangzi's description of the sword. He said, "the father is the sword, showing the virtual, opening the profit, then sending, first and foremost ". [IV] This kind of post-Come technology obviously requires some skill. Today, we have understood that the first step is the advancement of action and consciousness. A reasonable action structure is required for obtaining such advances, that is, let one force occur in the process of another force, the two forms of the wave-like movement of the confrontation forces kiss each other, that is to say, the two opposite forces described by the Taiji concept are in the same running state. This idea is also deeply rooted in martial arts. The more female's discussion of the sword is more simple, it can better reflect the technical elegance of Dragon and Phoenix. He said: "The road is very small and easy, and its meaning is very quiet and profound. There are portals, Yin and Yang, and the door is closed, Yin and Yang. The path of the Battle of hands, the spirit of the inside, external security, see it as a good woman, seize it as fear tiger. The cloth shape waits for the air, and the sky is like a day, like a rabbit, chasing shape by shadow, light if the Buddha imitation, breathing exchange, not as banned by law, vertical and horizontal inverse Shun, I never heard of it again." [V] If I elaborate on this theory from the perspective of technology, it is enough to write a huge paper. Because it has already involved advanced martial arts techniques such as change technology and control technology, it also vividly describes the use of Taijiquan Technology in the basic spirit. If the more female saw the "five-step" Action method at that time, then Taijiquan was basically formed during the Warring States period. If that was the case, the founder of Taijiquan was the more female. 4. During the Sui and Tang Dynasties Of the spirit-based martial arts, the extensive spread of the West-day Buddhism caused a great shock to the Chinese ideology. Under the influence of foreign cultures, Chinese ideological circles have deeply reflected on local cultures and deepened their understanding. Under the guidance of pursuing the true philosophical thoughts, I started the Zen movement in the history of Chinese thoughts. Zen enters into all aspects of people's life, such as taking water, drinking tea, and eating. There is nowhere to reveal the Zen machine. This kind of true, natural, profound, and down-to-earth thinking method directs Chinese martial arts to spiritual cultivation. It is worth noting that the combination of the Methods of guidance, health preservation, meditation, and meditation and other physical and mental cultivation and martial arts is becoming increasingly mature. It is also an important opportunity for the creation of Taijiquan. The basic principle of physical and mental cultivation is to focus on the spirit, calm down, discover yourself in peace, and develop yourself. The common crystallization of various cultivation methods is the discovery of powerful life energy in the human body. The development of this energy can bring a new realm to the existence of human life. It can prolong life, adjust mood, gain extraordinary will, and realize the true nature of life. For martial arts, the discovery of movements in the limbs is centered on Dantian and combined with the rhythm of breathing, and the discovery of the Gas Flow Pattern in what is called the bioelectric phenomenon today, it is a major contribution of these methods of physical and mental cultivation to the Development of martial arts technology. In The Introspection-style martial arts Study, the magical feelings brought about by the changes in muscle tightness have aroused widespread attention of martial artists. The sudden changes in muscle tightness increase the concealment of the action and the explosive strength of the action, which can generate an attack effect that cannot be prevented, thus creating the martial arts technology of the flash war. The Flash war technology has brought the martial arts of the Chinese war to a superb realm. In the Sui and Tang Dynasties, many battles have mastered the hard work of entering the white blade with empty hands and attacking the enemy camp with a single ride. In addition, there are extremely high levels of performances, and sometimes their impromptu performances can bring creative inspiration to artists. The drill level of martial arts has indeed reached the superb realm in the development process at that time and later. After watching the Sword Dance, Du Fu excitedly wrote "Sword row", leaving a fascinating masterpiece for the martial arts community. From Du Fu's view of the sword dance, he first thought of the Dragon's God, so he described the sword dance as follows: "There was a beautiful man, sun, and a sword dance was in motion. The viewer is depressed, and the world is cool for a long time.BytesSuch as nine days after the fall, as the Emperor Wu Long Xiang. Let's see the thunder and anger, and let's look at Jiang Hai Ning qingguang ." Isn't this kind of sword dance, which is prioritized by movements and movements, is it just a portrayal of the Spirit of Chinese martial arts? The rapid development of the drill level has created a batch of battles that can dance well. Isn't it the characteristic of the passionate martial arts created by the edification of the Dragon Culture? The level of martial arts practice and the superb use of skills, coupled with breakthroughs in internal repair methods, have become a must for Taijiquan. It is no wonder that some people think that tai chi was born in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, and some people think that the founder of Tai Chi was Xu Xueping in the Tang Dynasty. From the perspective of the spirit of Taijiquan in Chinese martial arts, this kind of deduction of the history of Taijiquan is not a problem. 5. the differentiation of the overall martial arts ideology of control technology eventually leads to the unification of academic thoughts. In the Song and Ming Dynasties, the geographer systematically summarized and summarized Chinese culture in a unified manner. They not only integrate Chinese local cultures, but also actively absorb Buddhist cultures and find their internal academic consistency. Zhou dunyi is an important character in this era. He is the originator of science. When he joined the Academic Thoughts of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism in one schema, he was shocked by the academic community at that time. This figure provides the most adequate materials for the birth of Taijiquan. Song mingli's extensive discussion and summarization of the theory of Taiji promotes the comprehensive revolution of Chinese martial arts in the way of Taiji thinking. Thanks to the above-mentioned knowledge of martial arts, the systematic guidance of the Taiji style of thinking, and the unprecedented prosperity brought by martial arts when martial arts were active in the civil class during the Song dynasty, martial arts in China has emerged in the Age of Taijiquan. Therefore, we say that it is an era because Taijiquan was not limited to a specific form of expression in that period, but came into being in a situation of blooming flowers and striving for competition. At that time, the Chinese martial arts community began a heated discussion in different technical fields in order to find the true meaning of Chinese martial arts. Among them, three of them were most successful, they are the Taijiquan of Xingyi Boxing, Babu zhangzhang, and the source from Chen jiagou. These three boxing tools are used to call the internal three boxing tools because of the commonality and complementarity between the Force System and the skill system. In fact, in that period, not only were these three types of boxing, but all other types of boxing had a tendency to turn into this technology. For example, Shaolin Boxing was also undergoing a revolution in this system. Therefore, the Chinese martial arts we see today is hard to define technically. However, while CHEN jiagou's Taijiquan is transforming to fitness, as well as its technical connotation in the sense of martial arts, it has been largely lost, it has been returned to a lot of self-cultivation practices. The common feature of martial arts in this era is the technical system and skill System of Taiji. For martial arts, you can start with the jangfa system and skill system. The jinfeng system is the content of self-cultivation in the way of hard work created to adapt to the use of skills. The use of skills is a variety of processing methods in the practical use of jinfeng. Therefore, starting from these two aspects, we can better grasp the essential characteristics of martial arts. The consistency of the three boxing techniques can be identified by examining their basic strength and overall strength. Xingyi Boxing uses the internal contraction and stretching methods as the basic strength method, for example, Xingyi Boxing's "two-instrument song": "yingxiong competing ambition, take the method as the fist. Yin and Yang are hidden, indicating the source of meaning ." [VI] the explanation of the "two-instrument Theory" is that "stretch to Yang (e ), contract to Yin (xiongshi), and both hide Yin and Yang ." [VII] Bagua's palm also stretched out its basic strength. The song Sutra in Bagua's Palm said: "This palm is different from a lot of people, but it is not a trigger, it was not until now that the scale was scaled down." [Viii] This method of shrinking and stretching, and accumulating and then developing, is exactly the way that Taijiquan is trying to make one force happen to another. Wang zongyue uses the image of the waves and the sea to illustrate the basic strength of Taijiquan. the movements of strength and strength in Taijiquan are just like the waves. From the strength of the overall cooperation, we can also see their consistency. Xingyi Boxing uses the four pictures of chicken legs, Dragon bodies, bears, and tigers to illustrate the differentiation and integration of all aspects of the whole body, with the coordination and cooperation of walking, turning, and changing hands, Taijiquan is finally defined as the technical method of "rolling five steps. Therefore, the consistency of the three boxing categories is represented in the three-way method of the link and the combined method after differentiation. If they go deep into the boxing techniques, we can find that there is almost no difference between their differentiation and their combination methods, that is, the cross-join and ordered movement of the two basic methods, that is, "There is a combination in the open, there is an open "force method. Due to the powerful force of Tai Chi, you can use your skills to create a clever and clumsy method. In this way, you can use a smooth and smooth attack to break the gap and use a soft gram to force a strong attack. In the end, you can overcome the problem with a small amount of strength, implement a weak to strong conversion technology system. From the consistency of the three technical methods, we can see that the era of Taijiquan is mature, and the characteristics of this era are a situation of endless competition. It is an era where the complete concept of Taiji has entered the technical practice. Under the role of the creativity of Chinese culture, Chinese Martial Arts has gone through five historical stages of development, and has finally developed a five-level technical system that can represent the spirit of Chinese martial arts. Taijiquan is a gift from the Chinese martial arts to the martial arts in the world. It is the pride of the Chinese nation.
[I] edited by the National Sports Committee Wushu Research Institute. History of Chinese martial arts. Beijing: People's Sports Press, 1997.3[II]Same as above, 4[III]Same as above, 22 [IV] Chuang Tzu. Shuo Jian, Yang Liuqiao. Chuang Tzu's interpretation. Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 1991.650[V]Edited by the National Sports Committee Wushu Research Institute. history of Chinese martial arts. beijing: People's Sports Press, 1997.37 [VI] edited by Li tianyao. wudang stunt-a collection of secrets. jilin: Jilin Science and Technology Publishing House, 1988.483 [VII] Same as [viii] Lin Xun. authentic gossip. fujian: Fujian Science and Technology Press, 1987.8 pp.
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