A Free Trial That Lets You Build Big!
Start building with 50+ products and up to 12 months usage for Elastic Compute Service
[Abstract] various factors in the design, such as human-machine operations, functions and structures of using objects, and Humanistic Characteristics of forms, all reflect the ways and means of communication between people, things, and people. The core of the design is "people ". In the past, man-machine interfaces were used to study people's conflicts with one machine. They were applicable to analysis of things and mechanisms without innovative analysis. They were relatively one-sided compared to the Design Art of the relationship between people-things-environment-information. Therefore, it is meaningful to discuss the design interface, that is, the human-thing and thing-person interface.
I. Definition of the design field
In the past, it was common in ergonomics. "Man-Machine Interface" refers to the area in which man-machine interaction is applied. All fields involved in man-machine information communication belong to man-machine interfaces. "Design Art is a discipline that studies the relationship between people and things. Objects represent not simple machines and equipment, but things with breadth and depth. People here are not" biological people ", we cannot simply analyze human physiological characteristics. "The human scale should be both a natural person's scale and a social person's scale. It should not only study the influence and efficiency of human physiology, psychology, and environment, it also studies the requirements and changes in culture, aesthetics, and values ". The design interface exists in the communication of people and things. It can even be said that all fields of communication of character information belong to the design interface, and its connotation elements are extremely extensive. The design interface can be defined as the sum of all information interactions faced and analyzed in the design, which reflects the relationship between people and things.
2. Design Aspects
American scholar Albert A. Simon proposed that design is the combination of the internal environment (material and organization of the human being) and the external environment (work or use environment of the human being) of the human being. Therefore, the design is to grasp the subject of the joint of the internal environment and the external environment of human resources. This joint is carried out around people. "People" is one aspect of the design field, the subject of understanding and the object of design services, and the "thing" as an object is another aspect of the design field. It is a combination of object entities, environments, and information. Just as we see a product and a building, it brings not only the functions and materials used, it also includes cognition of traditional thinking, cultural metaphor, and scientific concepts. "The content of any piece of work must go beyond the appearance of individual objects contained in the work ." The Analysis of "things" also analyzes the diversity of design interfaces.
To facilitate understanding and analysis of the design interface, you can classify the design interface as follows:
1) The functional design interface accepts the functional information of things, controls and controls, as well as interfaces with production, that is, the application of materials and science and technology. This interface reflects the coordination between design and man-made objects.
2) The Emotional Design Interface refers to the interface in which objects are transmitted to people to resonate with each other. There is a unity of certainty and uncertainty in the communication of such feelings. The emotional grasp lies in the feelings of the target object's users, rather than the personal emotions. Designers "devote themselves to enthusiasm, not feelings" to avoid any subjective disconnections and the free use of their personality. This interface reflects the relationship between design and people.
3) Environmental Design Interface external environmental factors transfer information to people. Any one or one product or graphic visual communication work or indoor and outdoor environmental work cannot be separated from the environment. The physical conditions and spiritual atmosphere of the environment are indispensable interface factors.
It should be said that the design interface is composed of functional interfaces, environmental interfaces as the premise, and emotional interfaces as the center of gravity. They form an organic and systematic relationship.
Iii. Methodological Significance of the Design Interface
When the machinery industry develops, how to effectively manipulate and control the problems of products or machinery leads to ergonomics. After the Second World War, human engineering was further extended to the design of human thinking ability as physical work turned to mental work, "enable the design to support, liberate, and expand people's mental work ". In the current era of knowledge economy, when people meet material needs and pursue personal development and emotional needs, the design must focus on people's emotional needs. Complicated design factors lead to difficulties in designing evaluation standards. Can a personalized design work be recognized by consumers? Can New Product Development be accepted by the market? At present, most enterprises in China are not strong yet, and the design and development are not strong enough. How to systematically and rationally understand and evaluate the design to adapt it to the market, we need to review the design factors. Using the interface analysis method, it is precisely to make the design factors organized, to avoid the one-sided use of people as "biological People" and the simple misunderstanding of general saying "design = Science and ten arts.
Modern ergonomics and consumer psychology provide a scientific basis for design. Their success lies in experiment, investigation, and mathematical expression. For the design art, the analysis of the design field also requires the basis of physiology, psychology, culture, biology, and technology. Theoretically, it should be directly based on information theory and control theory. Compared with mechanical, electronic, and human-machine design, in the past, man-machine interface design grasped the knowledge and means of technical science and ignored the concepts and ideas of humanistic science. Its interface design can only exist in the scope of local thinking, and is only a stage of design.
Some people judge the design based on the function theory. "Function determines the form" was the design motto of the first half of the 20th century. Its formulation is one-sided. This is because: first, the functions are not single. They include usage functions, aesthetic functions, social functions, and environmental functions. "Excessive pursuit of a single function will result in the rejection of many important content (decorative, national, intermediate ". Moreover, "some content is not included in the concept of 'function'. What's more, the material and spiritual content is not always equal to the quality and harmony in a unity, the primary and secondary positions of products vary with different periods ". In today's era of high development of information technology, emotional factors are increasingly becoming the main aspect of design. While material functions maintain their basic position, they are increasingly unable to represent the expressions of emotional appeals. Second, products designed to "form a function of Obedience, it is hard for users who are not familiar with it to understand the product. To understand the product, they must use accepted tokens, that is, symbol systems. Third, the product form that satisfies the same function is not the only one, such as mature products such as automobiles, the annual model change plan and other measures become increasingly inevitable in the commodity economy. Only when the social economy develops to a certain extent can the professional design needs emerge. At this time, people's basic material needs can be met. It is inappropriate to simply decide the design based on material features.
On the contrary, the design interface reflects the essence of communication between people and things, and is also the connotation of Design Art. It includes all aspects of design and clarifies the design objectives and procedures.
Iv. Design Analysis
According to the three types of design aspects, it is helpful to investigate multiple factors in the design field. Of course, it should be said that the division of the design field cannot be completely absolute, and there may also be interactions and overlaps between the three types of interfaces. For example, religious culture is an environmental factor, however, what it brings to those who believe in it is more of a religious sentiment. In this case, the differences between environmental and emotional aspects are difficult to distinguish, but this does not prevent the substantial differences between different classifications.
1. functional interface
For a functional interface, it implements usability content. The value of any 'product, internal and external environment, or graphic visual communication works lies in usability, it involves analysis of various functional factors and technical methods and materials used to implement functions. In this aspect, analytical thinking exists as a rational thinking. If a product is designed as a processing method, this product will make multiple characteristic factors (such as nationality and purity) become dominant. If the product trademark is removed, it is difficult to identify the country or company's products. Of course, this also shows that there are common factors in the product, which allow all humans to make the same response. The perception and judgment of people are characterized by international characteristics and objectivity.
Functional interface design should be based on the symbol. The International Symposium defines that a symbol is a theory about a signal sign system (a system that transmits information through a channel). It studies the characteristics of a natural symbol system and a man-made symbol system. Broadly speaking, all things that can represent other things are symbols, such as letters, numbers, ceremonies, consciousness, and actions. The most complex symbol system may be language. The functional interface should be designed to make users understand the functional operations. Each operation should be in line with the logic of thinking and human nature, while it should be accurate and definite for machinery and electronics, the information transfer between the two parties is the core of the functional interface.
2. Emotional Interface
A family decoration should give people a warm home, a pair of print works should be emotional, and a religious appliance should reflect the piety of the faithful. In fact, only products or works that resonate with people's emotions can be accepted by people. "Being unique and cherished" is a reflection of people's emotional sustenance and the charm of design works.
The development of modern symology is also increasingly under development in this field, so as to compress such uncertainty and partially strengthen the rational composition. Symbol learning is gradually applied to fields such as folklore, mythology, clan teaching, and advertising. For example, the Japanese symbolic academic community applies the symbol learning to the study of cognition, and examines the problem of cognition perception and Cognition Process. At the same time, also used to analyze the use of human senses for communication, and the music, dance, clothing, decoration, etc. as a symbol system for analysis and research, this provides valuable and useful emotional interface design methods and technical means for the design art.
3. environment interface
Any design must be associated with environmental factors, including social, political, and cultural fields. In the external environment, "social groups rather than individual-based", environmental factors are generally in a state of uncontrolled and unpredictable changes.
With the history of design, we can use the viewpoint of artistic sociology to understand the Design Trend of each period. Since the 18th century, a group of Western artists have noticed that artistic creation and aesthetic interests are deeply influenced by environmental factors such as geography, climate, ethnicity, and historical conditions. Confucius pointed out: "literature and art are the creations of a person. In principle, they are determined by the environmental conditions of the person who creates it ." Danner, a French literary & Art thinker, believes that "the nature of material and spiritual civilization depends on three factors: race, environment, and the Times ". Whether it is the arts and crafts movement, the Bauhaus modernity, or the Anti-design in 1980s, the modern diversification, nemadism reflects the influence of environmental factors.
Environmental Interface Design covers a wide range of factors, including politics, history, economy, culture, science and technology, and ethnicity. This aspect of interface design reflects the social nature of design art.
The above describes the Characteristic Factors of the Design Art interface, and shows that there are clear, reasonable, regular, and rational methods and means of understanding both rationality and irrationality.
Successful works are the crystallization of these three interfaces. For example, the Louvre expansion project designed by beideming has good functional processing and does not succumb to the form of damage. However, it also reflects the characteristics and aesthetic tendency of the new era through new materials and forms, this is an example of environmental interface processing. People do not return to the Louvre, but review and appreciate it with new values. The appearance of the triangle meets people's psychological expectations, this is the ultimate in emotional interface processing. 5. Principles of application in the design field
1) The rationality principle is to ensure the rationality and clarity of the system design.
Any design requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis, which is a combination of rational and perceptual thinking. Efforts should be made to reduce irrational factors based on quantitative optimization and improvement. The design should not be human or cloud. It is necessary to carry out rigorous theoretical analysis on the basis of correct and systematic facts and data, so as to convince people and be emotional.
2) the dynamic principle requires the operational concept of a four-dimensional space or a five-dimensional space. A piece of work is not only a two-dimensional plane or a three-dimensional three-dimensional, but also a change of time and space, the evolution of emotion and thinking, and other multidimensional factors.
3) Diversification principle, that is, the diversity of design factors. At present, more and more professional investigators and companies are emerging, which provides a wealth of information and basis for design. However, how to obtain effective information and how to analyze design information is actually a process system with creative thinking and methods.
4) The interaction principle is that the interface design emphasizes the interaction process. On the one hand, it refers to information transmission of things, and on the other hand, it refers to the acceptance and feedback of people, so that they can actively understand and grasp the information of any things.
5) The common principle is to coordinate and unify the three types of interfaces. Functions, emotions, and environments cannot be isolated.
Vi. Application Methods in the design field
The Design Interface contains a wide range of factors, but it can only be focused and emphasized in application. Although there are many design factors, it is still an integral whole. The result is materialized, but it represents the consciousness of the times and nationalities, and ultimately reflects the "beautiful" psychological activities of people.
Design Analysis is the core of the application in the design field. There are many successful cases for some international companies, such as Sony, Panasonic, and Konica. For example, when Konica designed its camera, it first did not plot the "beautiful" shape and consider technological advances, but instead analyzed the daily behavior of the object and made a Story version (story ). It first assumes that the target person is 35 years old and named XXXX, so as to analyze his family, preferences, and decrement, analyze his daily behavior, and then investigate his/her needs for a database on any occasions, so as to provide a concept and a target for the design. Score
On the other hand, designers should also have an in-depth understanding and Investigation of the social environment, and have a clear understanding of the design work orientation: Is it in line with people's consumption expectations? Can we feel people's aesthetic perception? The Japanese designer Mr. YOO Yoo has made a picture of the changes in life and the designer's subject, which will take some very influential events in Japan and the world, such as technological advances, enterprise development, and so on, and then have a deep understanding of the design.
Therefore, to make good use of the design interface, rational understanding is the first, followed by creativity, and effective analysis and processing of information. The design is not static, and the analysis method is not static. The design interface also changes and develops in the exchange of information between people and things.
Start building with 50+ products and up to 12 months usage for Elastic Compute Service