English Grammar final Collector's note-6 "modal verb +have+ done" meaning

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Meaning of "modal verb +have+ done"

1, must has the meaning of done. "Must have+ past participle" means speculation in the past, meaning "must have been, presumably already, must have been ...", only used in affirmative sentences. For example:

The streets is wet. It must has rained. The street is wet, it must be raining.

He must has been drinking beer. He must have been drinking beer.

To express the negation, use "Can ' T/COULDN ' t+ have+ the past participle", meaning "impossible":

The money can ' t has been lost there. The money can't have been lost there.

2, May/might has the meaning of done. "May/might have+ past participle" means speculation in the past, meaning "maybe already, probably already ...". Used in affirmative or negative sentences. Can or could in interrogative sentences. "Might (not May) have+ past participle" also means "could have ..." means, containing the tone of reproach, used to criticize people. For example:

He may be gone to bed. He may have gone to bed.

She might not has settled the problem. She may not have solved the problem.

You might have told me earlier. You could have told me earlier. (blame)

Don ' t do that again. You might have been fired. Don't do that, you'll get fired. (Blame, warning)

You might are succeeded if you had tried. If you have tried it, you may have succeeded. (Subjunctive mood, dissatisfaction)

3, Needn ' t has the meaning of done. "Needn ' t+ have+ past participle" means doing what is not necessary or unnecessary. " can be translated into "not necessary", "originally do not need." For example:

I Needn ' t has borrowed the money yesterday. I didn't need to borrow money yesterday. (actually borrowed)

You Needn ' t has come so early. You needn't have come so early.

4, Can/could has done: used to talk about the past situation

(1) in interrogative sentences, negative sentences, the doubt and impossibility, when they do not have time differences, but the tone of could is weaker some:

Who could has taken them? Who's going to take them away?

Where can he have gone? Where could he have gone?

He can ' t have taken it home. He couldn't have taken it home.

She couldn ' t has left so soon. She can't have left so soon.

I don ' t see how I could has done otherwise. I don't see what else I was doing.

Who could has supposed you were going to do such a thing? Who would have thought you would have done such a thing.

Nobody could has foreseen such a calamity. No one would have imagined such a calamity.

( 2 could has done (but not can) in a positive sentence, saying "at that time could have ... , and almost want ... ", sometimes used to mildly criticize (with might agreeing, but with a stronger tone):

We could has solved the problem in a more reasonable fashion. We could have solved the problem more rationally.

He could has told her, but he does not choose to. He could have told her, but he didn't want to do it.

When she heard the news, she could has cried. Hearing the news, she was almost crying out.

I could have died laughing. I'm going to die of laughter.

You could has been more considerate. You can actually think more thoughtful.

We could have started a little earlier. We can actually start a little earlier.

The result could has been better. The results could have been better.

5 ,should/ought to has the meaning of done. "Should/ought to have+ past participle" means "in the past should do something but did not do", "should not/ought not to have+ past participle" means "did not should do". Contain the meaning of reproach or regret. For example:

You shouldn ' t/oughtn ' t to having come here alone at such a late hour. You were supposed to be here by yourself when you were so late. (actually a person comes in)

She Should/ought to has gone there alone. She should have gone there alone. (Not really)

You should has come here ten minutes earlier. You should have been here 10 minutes earlier.

The boy shouldn ' t has been playing the piano. The child should not have been playing the piano.

6, might, may, must said the difference in speculation: may,might, must can be said to speculate "possible". Depending on the size of the representation possibilities, we arrange these three words as: Might<may<must (perhaps → possible → yes). For example:

It might rain tomorrow. It may rain tomorrow (in the future).

They might is watching TV now. They may be watching TV (now).

Jane might has visited the Summer Palace last year. Jenny may have been to the Summer Palace last year.

He may has something important to do. He may have more important things to do now.

They may has been to Shanghai last summer. They may have been to Shanghai last summer.

There must is something wrong with him. He must have had a problem (now).

He must has made a mistake. He must have made a mistake (in the past).

The difference of several usages in part IV

1, can and is able to the difference. Can is synonymous with be able when it represents "ability". But the tense form of can is able to more than be. You can only use be able in the general future and now when you are done. Such as:

She'll be able to dance in a week. She will dance in a week.

Nobody have ever been able to do it. No one has ever been able to do it.

In the past, could said that he had some ability, but was not necessarily doing things, and was able to the effort to try to do something, after successful description of the ability, quite managed to do or succeeded in doing. At this time, could and were able to is not interchangeable. For example:

When he is a boy, he could swim across the fifteen minutes. He could swim across The river in a minute. (could expresses ability, but not necessarily)

He was able to swim across the river in fifteen minutes last week.

=he managed to swim across the river in fifteen minutes last week.

=he succeeded in swimming across the river in fifteen minutes last week.

He swam across the river in a minute last week. (was able to the fact that it was done, and that it succeeded.) You can't use could here)

2 ,must and the comparison with the. Must emphasizes subjective will, that is to say, necessity comes from the speaker's subjective will. The objective factors are emphasized. For example:

He must stop smoking. He must give up smoking. (The speaker thinks he must)

This was an awful film. ? We really must go. The film is awful-we must get out of here. (The speaker thinks it is necessary.)

You have a to go and see the boss. You must go to see the boss. (Objective factors)

Catholics has to go to church on Sundays. Catholics have to go to church on Sundays. (objective factors, such as canon, etc.)

Note: Must not means "absolutely not"; Don ' t has to (or haven ' t got to) means "No, no need", the two meanings are very different. British English is commonly used Needn ' t to replace Haven ' t got to or don ' t has to, such as:

You're mustn ' t tell Jenny. =don ' t tell Jenny. You must not tell Jenny.

You don ' t has to tell Jenny. =you can if you like but it isn ' t necessary. You don't have to tell Jenny.

3 andneed as the difference between modal verbs and behavioral verbs. As modal verbs, need has no past and future, so with had to, Will has to replace, mainly used in negative sentences, interrogative sentences, conditional sentences, meaning "necessary". For example:

He need not come at once. He needn't come at once.

If You need go there, please tell me now. If you need to go there, please let me know.

Need he come at once? Does he have to come back right away?

(answer to be used must, has to, ought to, should and so on. For example: Need he come at once? Yes, he must/ought To/should/has to. No, he needn ' t/doesn ' t has to/mustn ' t.) Needn ' t has done means "it was not necessary to do something and actually did it". For example:

We Needn ' t has waited for him. We needn't have waited for him. (He has actually been waiting for him)

When used as a practical verb, need can be used for affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences, meaning "need". Such as:

You need to wash your hands. You need to wash your hands.

Does He need to take the medicine-a day? Does he need to take the medicine four times a day?

We didn ' t need to see him at all. We don't have to look at him at all (not actually to see him, please compare the usage of Needn ' t with done)

When the need is a verb, the latter object, if it is a noun, uses the active form to express the passive meaning, if it is the passive form of the infinitive, to express the passive meaning. Similar to the use of need, there are require, want and so on. For example:

The dinning needs cleaning every day. =the dinning, needs to being cleaned every day. The canteen needs to be cleaned every day.

My shoes need repairing. = My shoes need to be repaired. My shoes need repairing.

4 ,the difference between would and used to. Would can indicate repeated movements or tendencies. Used to indicate past habitual action or state, emphasizing that it is no longer present. For example:

She used to work into the night. She used to work late into the night. (Not Now)

She would work into the might. She used to work late into the night. (doesn't mean it's not right now)

People used to think that the sun went round the earth. People used to think that the sun revolves around the earth. (now I don't think so.)

I used to smoke quite a IoT, but I had given it up. I used to smoke so much that I quit now.

The emphasis and difficulty of modal verbs are: the difference between modal verbs, the expression of "speculation", and the meaning of "modal verbs +have+ past participle".

English Grammar final Collector's note-6 "modal verb +have+ done" meaning

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