Ethernet Technology Daquan (IV.)

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags connect advantage
Carrier Broadband Technology

One of the success of Ethernet is the infiltration in the field of telecommunications, not only the telecom operators for the needs of users to adapt to the needs of Ethernet transmission technology, while the telecommunications operators in the network using Ethernet technology. (Computer science)

Ethernet Pass Through

LANE: It's a technology that sounds like a long history. In many operators that use ATM technology to build data networks, these services are provided to users. Ethernet can be transparently transmitted through an operator ATM network.

The sdh/sonet of the next generation: for traditional telecom operators, SDH (the standards used in Europe and China) and SONET (North American standards) are the main technical systems used in their transmission networks. Many manufacturers have introduced new SDH and SONET technology to meet the needs of users ' high-speed network interconnection, realize the transparent transmission of Ethernet on sdh/sonet, and this kind of products are being deployed.

Martini Draft: This is an emerging IETF standard. MPLS is widely popularized in telecommunication network, Martini Draft is the technology that uses MPLS VPN technology to transmit Ethernet data transparently, the VLAN tag of transmission stream is mapped with MPLS label, this VPN channel can take advantage of MPLS Traffic management characteristics to ensure the quality and realize link circuitous.

Transparent LAN Service (TLS): A solution that leverages the two or three-tier Ethernet switch and the 802.1Q Standard encapsulation protocol to provide end-to-end connectivity, while providing VLAN services between multiple points. Some vendors have developed the technology of Super pooling VLAN, which solves this dilemma by using the two-time label technology of the switch.

Ethernet technology used by operators

Fiber-optic Ethernet: The direct transmission of Ethernet services on dark fibers for short distances in urban areas (<70 km).

RPR (resilient Packet Ring) Ethernet: Leverages the capabilities of the existing SDH loop network by using the IEEE 802.17 standard. Enables Ethernet services to transfer thousands of of kilometers using the recovery function of SDH network.

Mippo Ethernet: Enables Ethernet networks to be transmitted through multiple wavelengths or multiple light waves or a single optical fiber, thereby greatly increasing network capacity.

CWDM: Compared with DWDM, CWDM is more suitable for building a metropolitan network, it transmits a small number of wavelengths in one fiber, while CWDM equipment is cheaper and consumes less power, some manufacturers have already introduced the CWDM GBIC used in the switch.

10G Ethernet: The fusion of Gigabit Ethernet and SONET OC-192 frame structure, which can operate with OC-192 circuit and SONET/SDH device, protects the traditional infrastructure investment, and enables suppliers to provide end-to-end Ethernet through the metropolitan area network in different regions.

Epon (Ethernet Pon) and GPON (Gigabit pon): Epon is a point-to-point optical Ethernet that delivers higher bandwidth at lower cost. Based on the optical separation ratio, passive optical ethernet (EPON), while complying with the service level protocol, can support subscriber bandwidth at Mbps, and can achieve Mbps or higher burst traffic. Epon can offer a variety of economic advantages.

Ethernet over VDSL technology: This technology helps people use telephone line resources to expand Ethernet coverage. The VDSL can provide more than 10Mbps speed on the copper twisted-pair line, and can overcome the problems of low selection rate and unstable rate of ADSL technology.

Wireless local Area network: ieee802.11a/b/g and other wireless LAN technology to telecom operators provide a good service means, on the one hand can provide similar mobile data services. On the other hand can provide wireless Ethernet access services, or to do local transport services.

Bandwidth control: The Ethernet devices used by telecommunication operators have high bandwidth control requirements, different switching devices adopt different technologies, and can provide different bandwidth control capabilities, such as the initial bandwidth of 64Kbps or 1Mbps, increasing the granularity of 1Kbps.

Remote management and maintenance: For telecom operators, the network maintenance, manageability is very important, some vendors to provide the switch physical port, circuit remote loop test function. In addition, with some proprietary software vendors, they can remotely configure, manage, and upgrade a group of switches or other Ethernet products.

Remote in-line power supply: The IEEE802.3AF standard provides DC power to Ethernet products in the 5-type twisted-pair cable. Before this standard was published, many vendors had been able to provide such functionality.

QoS: Telecom operators have high QoS requirements, Ethernet IEEE802.1P technology combined with IP layer of DiffServ technology are highly valued. Ethernet-based IP storage

Some storage protocols that use Ethernet are rapidly becoming content in the networked Storage Administrator's Dictionary: fc/ip, Internet SCSI (ISCSI), Fibre Channel back Bone (FC-BB), and Internet Fibre Channel Protocol (IFCP). All of these protocols, whether as gigabit or Gigabit Ethernet deployments, run on IP.

The real benefit of IP storage protocols is that they do not care what the underlying transport mechanism is, and IP storage does not mean that the WAN connection is Gigabit Ethernet or SONET is not point-to-point.

More than 200 vendors are developing iSCSI solutions. One of the reasons why vendors have such a high interest is that IP storage provides a way to enter a fast-growing storage network without the need for Fibre Channel technology.

In the storage area, SCSI is important to speak of, as a mature technology, it satisfies the block-level data transmission requirements. Although the SAN now replaces the parallel SCSI transfer mechanism with serial Fibre Channel, it still uses the SCSI protocol and retains the SCSI controller API.

By contrast, the technical characteristics of IP determine its disadvantage in block-level data transmission. In addition, IP does not guarantee that packets are routed from the source to the destination, SCSI requires that packets not only arrive at their destinations, but also arrive in an accurate order. As a compromise, it is natural to think of IP-encapsulated block-level data (ISCSI) or IP-connected FC Sans (FCIP). iSCSI is an IP storage that can be used by a hardware device on ip-based Ethernet

The SCSI instruction set running on the upper level of the protocol. Simply put, iSCSI enables you to run SCSI protocols on an IP network so that it can be routed over a high speed gigabit Ethernet.

iSCSI is best deployed in workgroups that transmit block-level data from Fibre Channel devices to workstations or servers, but you can combine iSCSI with FC/IP or IFCP to connect remote offices and data centers. iSCSI enables ip-based Ethernet-enabled servers to access Fibre Channel Sans. Because iSCSI is a new technology, it will continue to experience the defining, interoperability, deployment, and management phases. That said, the impact of more than 200 companies that develop iSCSI solutions and a large number of existing IP networks will enable iSCSI to have a real impact on the SAN.

FC/IP is the most commonly used storage protocol in WAN and metropolitan area networks (Mans). It is ideal for mirroring and saving data between geographically distributed storage area networks (Sans), and it is rarely, if any, used as a technology for transferring storage data across LANs. In FC/IP, Fibre Channel frames are FC/IP encapsulated in IP packets.

FC/IP is an IETF standard that uses the TCP/IP protocol to connect two sans on an IP network. This protocol has the advantage of implementing error correction and detection: If the IP network error rate is high, it will try again. This is an ideal way to connect sans on a low performance, high error-rate IP network.

FC-BB is a fibre Channel backbone standard that defines a way to connect sans across multiple types of networks. FC-BB describes an IP wrapper that does not require a retry method: It relies on the high level SCSI error correction method. This IP encapsulation can be done in hardware and can be scaled to a rate of thousands of megabits. The only requirement is that the network must be high speed and low error rate.

Ends a Fibre Channel session in the IFCP gateway and converts it to a TCP/IP session on IFCP. This destination gateway receives IFCP information, initiates a fibre Channel session, and then converts the IFCP information to Fibre Channel format. IFCP is a good technology for users who need to maintain an Ethernet infrastructure. The idea behind IFCP technology is to use ubiquitous IP networks to connect optical fiber communications devices, with the disadvantage that Fibre Channel networks are now twice times faster than Gigabit Ethernet. As a result, there is no standard for defining connections to Fibre Channel switch ports.

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