File Server 2: stream and stream operators

Source: Internet
Author: User

* The stream abstracts the external storage of data (usually objects ).
* Streaming APIs are abstract
-It provides interfaces for reading data from the storage and writing data to the storage, but does not care what the storage is
-Defined in s32std. h, and the file stream defined in s32file. h
· This header file is associated with Estor. Lib.
* Based on two key concepts
-Stream operators



* External representation of data structures (such as objects) in the form of binary data sequences
* Access through read/write streams
* Design the C ++ class for stream implementation
-Externalizel ()
· External stream status
-Internalizel ()
· Internalized stream status
* Advantages
-More suitable for operations on raw files
-Easier to use



* The External Object process is to write the data of this object to the stream.
* For a class instance, this process includes externalizing its data members and components to the stream.
* This process is encapsulated in the member function externalizel () of this class.
* Use the rwritestream-like write stream interface
-Allow externalizel () to write object data to the stream, regardless of the specific implementation method of the stream.
* The class generally defines the externalizel () function in the following way:
Void externalizel (rwritestream & astream) const;

Write stream
* This operation is represented by the abstract class rwritestream.
-Provide necessary interfaces for external operations to flow
* Rfilewritestream inherits from rwritestream and provides interfaces for associating to files.
-Other specific implementations, such as rstorewritestream
* Rwritestream provides external support for the following objects:
-Tint, tuint, treal, and treal64 types
-Descriptor content
-Data from the enabled Stream object reading, type: rreadstream
* The stream write operation is not executed until rwritestream: commitl () is called to buffer the stream into the stream.

Write stream-Example
* Use rfilewritestream: Create () to create a file
* Use rfilewritestream: open () to open an existing file

RFS & FS = ccoeenv: static ()-> fssession ();

Rfilewritestream writestream;
User: leaveiferror (writestream. Create (FS, ktxtfilename, efilewrite ));

Writestream. pushl ();/press in to clear the stack

Iobject. externalizel (writestream );

Writestream. commitl ();
Writestream. Pop ();
Writestream. Release ();

* The process of internalizing an object is to read the object data from the stream.
* For an instance of a class, this process includes reading its data members and components from the stream.
-The order of internalization is the same as that of externalization.
* This process is encapsulated by the internalizel () member function of this class.
* Use the stream reading Interface Class rreadstream
-The interanlizel () function is allowed to read object data from the stream without considering the specific implementation of the stream.
* Classes generally define internalizel () as follows ()
Void internalizel (rreadstream & astream );


Read stream
* Represented by the abstract class rreadstream
-Provides necessary interfaces for internalization from the stream
* Rfilereadstream inherits from rreadstream and provides interfaces associated with files.
-There are other forms of specific implementation, such as rstorereadstream.
* Rreadstream provides internal support for the following data:
-Tint, tuint, treal, and treal64 types
-Descriptor content

Stream reading-Example
* Use rfilereadstream: open () to open a file
RFS & FS = ccoeenv: static ()-> fssession ();

Rfilereadstream readstream;
User: leaveiferror (readstream. Open (FS, ktxtfilename, efileread ));

Readstream. pushl ();/press in to clear the stack

Iobject. internalizel (readstream );

Readstream. Pop ();
Readstream. Release ();

Stream Operator
* There are two templated stream operators: Operator <and operator>
* Used for externalization and internalization of various types of data
* Use a syntax similar to the C ++ input/output stream
* The implementation of this operator depends on the type of the called object.

/You can use the write stream to externalize an object to a stream.
Writestream <object;
/Afterwards, the data can also be internalized by reading the stream
Readsteam> object;



Standard Type and class
* The storage framework provides necessary implementations for external and internal operators, including
-Basic types, such as tint8, tuint8, and treal32
-Graphic API class, such as tpoint, tsize, and trect
-UID operation API class, such as tuid
-Dynamic Buffer API class, such as cbufflat and cbufseg
* When Using stream operators for built-in types and classes
-<Operator resolved to the rwritestream function associated with the built-in type or class
· For example, rwritestream: writeint8l (tint avalue)
-> Operators are resolved to rreadstream functions associated with built-in types or classes.
· For example, rreadstream: readint8l ()



Serializable class
* A serializable class is a class that defines and implements externalizel () and internalizel ().
* For this type, the storage framework
-The operator is implemented by calling the externalizel () member function of the class. <
-You can call the internalizel () member function of this class to implement the operator.>
For example, iobj is a serializable object.
Iobj. externalizel (writestream)
Writestream <iobj

Iobj. internalizel (readstream)
Readstrem> iobj



Serialize tint
* Tint is a special case
-Define a minimum size (occupied space)
-The actual size is determined by the platform.
* The operator <or> cannot be used to serialize tint.
* The function must be used to specify the external size.




Non-class type
* For example, enumeration type
* For non-class types, specific operators must be defined and implemented.
-The operator definition must be consistent with the template definition.
* For example, for the enumerated TXXX type, operators should be implemented in the following way:
Rwritestream & operator <(rwritestream & astream, const TXXX & anxxx)
Astream writeint8l (anxxx );
Return astream;
Rreadstream & operator> (rreadstream & astream, TXXX & anxxx)
Anxxx = TXXX (astream. readint8l ());



Non-serializable class
* This class is not deterministic and implements externalizel () and internalizel () functions.
* By defining and implementing some additional global functions, you can still serialize the class.
* In fact, it is easier to define and implement externalizel () and internalizel () for a class.
* However, in a few cases, you do not need to define this function. For example, when porting a class
* All newly created classes should contain this function.



External Descriptor
* Use the writel () function of the rwritestream class
-Only write the descriptor content into the stream
-They do not write any length information.
* Use templated stream operators <
-Implemented by the storage framework, the content and length of the descriptor are written into the stream.
-It is more suitable for descriptor, because it can be easily internalized.
· Corresponding operators>
· Reload hbufc: newl () or hbufcl: newlc () to take the read stream as a parameter



Internalization Descriptor
* Use the real () member function of the rreadstream class
-Assume that the stream contains only the descriptor content.
* Use templated stream operators>
-Implemented by the storage framework, the description content and length are read from the stream.
-Reload hbufc: newl () or hbufc: newlc () to take the read stream as a parameter.
-Heap descriptors need to be allocated before being internalized from the stream.
* The premise of the last two items is that the descriptor is externalized using the templated operator <


Internalization of unmodifiable Descriptors
* Data cannot be read directly into unmodifiable Descriptors (tbufc, tptrc, hbufc ):
-APIs that cannot be modified, so there is no reloaded> Operator
-Use: des () to create modifiable Descriptors
-Use modifiable descriptors to access memory owned by unmodifiable Descriptors
Tbufc idataitem1;
Tptr modifiabledataitem1 = idataitem1.des ();
Astream> modifiabledataitem1;

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