Operating System Experiment 0

Source: Internet
Author: User

1. Definitions and concepts of computer operating systems

the operating system (Operating system, or OS) is the system software that supports the operating environment of the application and the user operating environment in the electronic computer system, and is also the core and cornerstone of the computer system. Its responsibilities often include direct monitoring of hardware, management of various computing resources (such as memory, processor time, etc.), and the provision of application-oriented services such as job management. The theory of operating system is an old and active branch in computer science, and the design and implementation of operating system is the foundation and core of software industry.

2. Classification of the operating system

① simple operating system. It is the operating system that the computer initially configures, such as IBM's disk operating system dos/360 and microcomputer's operating system cp/m etc. The functions of this kind of operating system are mainly operation command execution, file service, support high-level programming language compiler program and control external device and so on.

② time-sharing system. It supports multiple users at different terminals using one computer at a time, independent of each other, and the user feels as if a computer is all he uses.

③ Real-time operating system. It is the operating system configured for the real-time computer system. The main feature is that the allocation and scheduling of resources must first consider real-time and then efficiency. In addition, the real-time operating system should have strong fault tolerance.

④ network operating system. It is the operating system configured for the computer network. With its support, each computer in the network can communicate and share resources with each other. Its main feature is the combination of network hardware to complete the network communication tasks.

⑤ distributed operating system. It is the operating system configured for the distributed computing system. It differs greatly from other operating systems in terms of resource management, communication control and the structure of the operating system. Because the distributed computer system resources are distributed on different computer systems, the resource requirements of the operating system for the user can not be as simple as the general operating system waiting for the allocation of resources directly, but to search the system on each computer, find the required resources to be allocated. For some resources, such as files with multiple replicas, you must also consider consistency. The so-called consistency refers to a number of users of the same file read at the same time the data is consistent. In order to ensure consistency, the operating system must control the file read, write, operation, so that multiple users can read a file at the same time, at any time at most one user can modify the file. The communication function of the distributed operating system is similar to the network operating system. Because the distributed computer system is not widely distributed, and the distributed operating system also supports parallel processing, it provides different communication mechanism and network operating system, which requires high communication speed. Distributed operating system structure is also different from other operating systems, it is distributed in the system of the various computers, can be parallel to the user's various needs, has a strong fault-tolerant ability.

⑥ Intelligent Operating System

3. Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of several common operating systems

1. Microsoft provides the Windows operating system, currently the most widely used, by Windows XP and Windows 72, of course, there are other earlier versions 95, 98 and so on, server operating system Windows Nt,windows 2003 server and so on. Its greatest advantage or advantage is the use of extremely broad, simple operation, intuitive, application software is extremely rich, application surface is very extensive. But its operation efficiency, the security is weak.

2. Unix and Unix-based Linux, which are mainly used in server-side, and some network interactive devices, such as routers, firewalls (hardware firewall) and so on. Its greatest advantage is its security, but its disadvantage is also obvious is that the operation and configuration is more complex and professional than Windows, so the application surface and the corresponding application software is relatively narrow and less.

3. Apple's Mac OS operating system, because it is a relatively closed operating system, can only be applied to Apple's own production equipment, so the application surface is narrower. But because of the good sales performance of ipad and Apple's notebooks now, the use of the crowd also has a considerable scale. Its operation is very convenient, the user experience is quite perfect, but its application surface is much narrower.

What type of operating system does iOS and Android belong to?

Both belong to the mobile phone operating system;

Mainstream smartphones include Google Android and Apple's iOS. Both smartphones and non-smartphones support Java, and the difference between smart and non-intelligent machines depends on the ability to expand the system platform, non-Java application platforms, and support multitasking.

Mobile operating systems are generally used only on smartphones. At present, in the smart phone market, the Chinese market is still based on personal information management phone-based, with more manufacturers to join the overall market competition has begun to show a decentralized situation. From the market capacity, competition status and application status, the whole market is still in the starting stage. The main operating systems currently used on mobile phones are Android (Google), IOS (apple), Windows Phone (Microsoft), Symbian (Nokia), BlackBerry OS (BlackBerry), Windows Mobile (Microsoft), etc.

Operating System Experiment 0

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