How to become a hacker _ security related

Source: Internet
Author: User

Content List
Why do you have this document?
What is a hacker?
The attitude the hacker should have
Basic skills of hackers
Status in the hacker culture
The link between hackers and nerds (Nerd)
The meaning of style
Other resources
FAQ (Frequently asked questions answered)
As an editor of Jargon File and some of the other famous authors of similar articles, I often get emails from enthusiastic internet novices (and indeed so on) "How can I be a good hacker?" "It's very strange that there seems to be no FAQ or Web form of documentation to illustrate this very important issue, so I wrote a copy."

If you are currently reading an offline copy of this document, please note that the current version (English version) is available in http://www.tuxedo.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html.

Note: At the end of this document there are FAQs (frequently asked questions answered). Please read it two times before you ask me any questions about this document.

There are many translated versions of this document: Bulgarian, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Danish, Dutch, French, German, Hungarian, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian and Swedish. Note that these translations may have varying degrees of obsolescence due to revisions to this document.


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What is a hacker?
Jargon File contains a lot of definitions of the word "hacker", most of which are related to technical excellence and passion to solve problems and transcend limits. But if you only want to know how to be a hacker, then only two things are really relevant.

This can be traced back to the birth of the first time-sharing computer a few decades ago, the ARPAnet experiment, when there was a cultural community of shared characteristics made up of program design experts and Internet celebrities. The members of this culture created the term "hacker". Hackers set up the Internet. Hackers have invented the UNIX operating system they are using. Hackers made Usenet work and hackers made the WWW run. If you are part of this culture and if you contribute to this culture and the other members of the community know you and call you hacker, then you are a hacker.

The hacker spirit is not only confined to the hacker culture of the software. Some people use a hacker attitude towards other things, such as electronics and music--in fact, you can find it at any of the highest levels of scientific and artistic activity. Software-savvy hackers admire these same people in other fields and call them hackers-some claim that the hacker nature is absolutely independent of the specific areas in which they work. But in this document, we focus on the technology and attitudes of software hackers, and on the creation of a "hacker" that is characterized by shared cultural traditions.

A group of people shouted at themselves as hackers, but they were not. They are (mostly youth-young) people who deliberately sabotage the computer and telephone systems. The real hackers call these people "hackers" (cracker) and disdain to associate with them. Most real hackers think that hackers are lazy and irresponsible and don't have much of a knack. A specific act that destroys the safety of others does not make you a hacker, just as using a wire to steal a car does not make you a car engineer. Unfortunately, many journalists and writers tend to mistake "hackers" for hackers, a practice that annoys real hackers.

The fundamental difference is that hackers engage in construction and hackers sabotage.

If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a hacker, read the alt.2600 newsgroup and go to jail five or 10 times when you realize you're not as smart as you think you are. I just want to say so much about hackers.


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The attitude the hacker should have
Hackers solve problems, build things, and they advocate both free and selfless two-way help. To be recognized by others as a hacker, you act as if you have the attitude in general. And if you want to do it as if you have such an attitude, you have to stick to it.

But if you think that developing a hacker attitude is just a way to be recognized in a hacker's culture, that's a big mistake. Being the person who has these qualities is important to yourself-to help you learn and to provide you with a steady stream of motivation. As with all creative art, the most effective way to become a master is to imitate the spirit of the master-not only intellectually, but also emotionally.

Perhaps, the following modern Zen poem is a good way to illustrate this meaning:

To follow the path: (along such a path:)
Looks to the master, (looking for the master,)
Follow the master, (follow the master,)
Walk with the master, (pass with Masters,)
Through the master, (Insight Master,)
Become the master. (Become a master.) )

Well, if you want to be a hacker, read the following things over and over again until you believe them:


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1. The world is full of fascinating issues to be resolved.
It takes a lot of fun to be a hacker, but it costs a lot of energy. These efforts require motivation. Successful athletes are motivated by the pleasure of exercising and exceeding their own limits. Also, to be a hacker, you have to be able to get the basic pleasure out of solving problems, honing skills and exercising intelligence.

If you are not a natural person and want to be a hacker, you have to try to be such a person. Otherwise you will find that your hacker enthusiasm will be swallowed up by other distractions--money, sex, and social fame.

(Again, you have to build confidence in your ability to learn – believe that even when you're almost ignorant of a problem, if you experiment and learn at 1.1, you will eventually master and solve it.) )


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2. A problem should not be solved two times.
A smart head is a precious limited resource. When the world is filled with so many interesting new problems to be solved, they should not be wasted on reinventing the wheel.

As a hacker, you have to believe that other hackers ' thinking times are valuable-so sharing information, solving problems, and releasing results to other hackers is almost a moral, so that others can solve new problems rather than constantly grappling with old ones.

(You don't have to think you're going to have to publish all your inventions, but hackers are the ones who win the utmost respect.) Selling some money to feed your family, renting a computer, or even getting rich and hacking values is compatible, as long as you don't forget that you're still a hacker. )


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3. Boring and tedious work is evil.
Hackers (generally speaking creative people) should never be bothered by stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they are not doing the things that only they can do-solving new problems. Such a waste hurts everyone. Therefore, boring and boring work is not only uncomfortable, but also a sin.

As a hacker, you have to believe this and automate as many tedious tasks as possible, not just for yourself, but for others (especially hackers).

(There is an obvious exception to this.) Hackers sometimes do things that seem repetitive or boring to others as "brain rest," or to acquire a particular skill or gain some special experience that is not available. But it's voluntary-people with brains shouldn't be forced to do boring jobs. )


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4. Long live freedom.
Hackers are inherently anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can force you to stop solving the problem that fascinates you, and at the same time, according to the dictator's general idea, he usually gives some reasons for extreme ignorance. So wherever it is, any authoritarian approach, as long as it oppresses you and other hackers, you have to fight it to the end.

(This is not a challenge to all authorities.) Children need guardianship and criminals to be guarded. A hacker can agree to accept some form of authority if it is more time-saving to follow orders to get something than to get it in other ways. But this is a limited, intentional transaction; the kind of personal obedience that authority wants is not something you should agree to give. )

Authority likes censorship and secrecy. They do not trust voluntary cooperation and the sharing of information-they only like the so-called "cooperation" they control. Therefore, as a hacker, you have an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of force or deception to oppress a competent person. At the same time you must have the will to fight for this belief.


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5. Attitude cannot substitute for ability.
As a hacker, you have to develop these attitudes. But having these attitudes doesn't make you a hacker or a rock star. Becoming a hacker requires intelligence, practice, dedication and hard work.

Therefore, you must learn to doubt and respect all kinds of abilities. Hackers don't waste time on people who pretend to be a model, but they respect their abilities--especially the ability to work with hackers--but any ability is always good. It's especially good to have those aspects that few people can have, and it's certainly best to be able to relate to brainpower, skill and concentration.

Respect your abilities, and you will enjoy the pleasure of improving your abilities-hard work and dedication will become a highly entertaining rather than a chore. It is important to be a hacker.


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Basic skills of hackers
The hacker attitude is important, but the technology is more important. Attitude cannot replace technology, there are some basic techniques you must master before you are called a hacker by another hacker.

These basic technologies are slowly changing over time with the advent of new technologies and the obsolescence of old technologies. For example, past content includes programming in machine language, and has only recently been included in HTML. In general, the following technologies are mainly included:


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1. Learn how to program.
This is, of course, the most basic hacker skill. If you don't have any programming language, I suggest you start with Python. It has a clear design, complete documentation, suitable for beginners to get started. It's a good introductory language and not just a toy; it's very powerful, flexible, and also suitable for large projects. I have a python review detailing this. Good tutorials are available on the Python web site. (Translator: The better Chinese python site may be http://pythonrecord.51.net.) )

Java is also a good starter language. It's much harder than Python, but the code generated is much faster. It is also a good computer language, not just for getting started.

But note that if you only have one or two languages, you will not be able to achieve the level of skill required by hackers or even a programmer-you need to learn how to think about programming problems in an abstract way, independent of any language. To be a real hacker, you need to learn to use a few manuals in a few days, combining what you now know to quickly master a new language. This means you should learn a few different languages.

If you want to do some important programming work, you will have to learn the C language, Unix's core language. C + + is very similar to c. if you know one of them, it is not difficult to learn another. Neither of these is suitable for beginners in programming. And in fact, the more you avoid programming with C, the higher your productivity.

c very efficient, save your machine resources. Unfortunately, C's efficiency is achieved by manually doing many of the underlying management (such as memory). The underlying code is complex and prone to bugs, which can cause you to spend a great amount of time debugging. Today's machines are so fast, which is usually not worth the candle-it's wiser to use a language that runs slower, less efficient, but saves you a significant bit of time. So, choose Python.

Other languages that are more important to hackers include Perl and LISP. Perl is useful and worthwhile to learn; it is widely used in dynamic Web pages and system management, so even if you never write a program in Perl, you should at least learn to read it. Many people use Perl for the same reason that I suggest you use Python to avoid using C to do work that does not require C efficiency. You'll need to understand the code for those jobs.

Lisp is worth studying for a different reason--you'll get a lot of inspiration and experience when you finally master it. These experiences will make you a better programmer for the rest of your life, even if you rarely use Lisp itself.

Of course, in fact you'd better have five kinds of python,java,c/c++,perl and Lisp. In addition to being the most important hacker language, they also represent different programming ideas and methods, each of which will benefit you.

Here I can't give you complete guidance on how to program-it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and classes are not available (the best hackers have many, perhaps almost all self-taught). You can learn the characteristics of language from books-just some fur, but to make written knowledge your own skill can only be learned by practice and modesty. So do (i) Read code and (ii) write code.

Learning how to program is like learning to write in a beautiful natural language. The best way is to read some of the masterpieces of the master, try to write something on their own, read some more, write a point, read some, and then write a point ... So reciprocating until your article reaches the simplicity and strength of the model you have come to realize.

It's hard to find good code for reading in the past, because there are few source code for a large program that allows novice practicing. The situation has changed dramatically; Open source software, programming tools and operating systems (all written by hackers) are now everywhere. Let's continue our discussion on the next topic ...


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2. Get an open source Unix and learn to use and run it.
I assume that you already have or can use a personal computer (today's children are so happy:-) )。 One of the basic steps beginners can take to learn hacker skills is to get a Linux or Bsd-unix, install it on a personal computer, and run it.

Yes, there are other operating systems in the world in addition to UNIX. But they are all published in binary form-you can't read its source code, and it's impossible to modify it. Trying to learn hacker technology on a machine running DOS or Windows or MacOS is like learning to dance with fetters.

In addition, UNIX is the operating system of the Internet. You can learn to surf the internet without knowing Unix, but you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding UNIX. As a result, today's hacker culture is largely Unix-centric. (This is not always true, and some early hackers have been very unhappy about it, but the connection between UNIX and the Internet is so strong that even Microsoft has no alternative.) )

So, install a set of unix--I personally love Linux but there are other kinds (yes, you can install Linux and dos/windows on the same computer at the same time). Learn it, use it, configure it. Use it to surf the internet. Read its source code. Modify its source code. You will get better programming tools (including C,lisp,python and Perl) than on the Microsoft operating system. You will have a lot of fun and learn more about what you don't realize before you become a master.

Want to know more about learning about UNIX, visit the Loginataka.

Want to know how to get a copy of Linux, access where I can get Linux. (Translator: For Chinese readers, the simplest way is not to go too far to the nearby D version/genuine CD shop.) )

You can find the BSD Unix help and other resources in www.bsd.org.

I have an introductory article on the Basics of UNIX and the Internet.

(Note: If you are a novice, I do not recommend myself to install Linux or BSD independently.) If you are installing Linux, seek help from a local Linux user group, or contact Open Projects Network. LISC maintains a number of IRC channels where you can get help. )


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3. Learn how to use www and write HTML
Most of the stuff that hacker culture builds is working in places you can't see, helping factories, offices and universities to function properly, and it's hard to see how it affects the lives of ordinary people who are not hackers. The web is a big exception. Even politicians agree that this huge, dazzling hacker toy is changing the world. For this reason alone (and many others), you need to learn to master the Web.

This doesn't just mean how to use the browser (who will), but to learn how to write HTML, the markup language of the Web. If you can't program, writing HTML will teach you some thinking habits that help you learn. So, finish a home page first. (There are a lot of good tutorials on the web; )

But just owning a homepage doesn't make you a hacker. The web is full of pages. Most of it is meaningless, 0 of information rubbish--interface to the fashionable rubbish, note that the level of garbage is similar (more information to visit the HTML Hell Page).

To be valuable, your Web page must have content-it must be fun or helpful to other hackers. This is the next topic ...


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4. If you do not understand the practical English, study it.
As an American and an English-speaking person, I was reluctant to mention this before, lest I should become a cultural imperialism. But quite a few other native speakers have been urging me to point out that English is a hacker culture and the working language of the Internet, and you need to understand to work well in a hacker community.

This is true. About 1991 years ago, I learned that many hackers use English in technical discussions, even when their mother tongue is the same, English is only a second language for them; As far as I know, the current English language is much richer than other languages, so it is a very good tool for work. For similar reasons, the translation of English technical books is often unsatisfactory (if there are translations).

Linus Torvalds, a Finnish man, commented on his code in English (obviously not a coincidence for him). His fluent English has become an important factor in his ability to manage the global Linux developer community. This is an example worth learning.


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Status in the hacker culture
Like most cultures that do not involve money, the hacker Kingdom operates on its reputation. You try to solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, how good your solution is, is to be judged by those who have the same skill level as you or who are more powerful than you.

Accordingly, when you are playing a hacker game, you have to realize that your score is largely dependent on other hackers ' evaluation of your technology (which is why you are a hacker only when other hackers call you a hacker). This fact is often weakened by the impression that hackers are a lonely job, and weakened by the taboo of another hacker culture (now weakening but still strong): Refusing to admit that the ego or external assessment is related to one's motivation.

In particular, the hacker kingdom is called a culture of devotion by anthropologists. Here you do not build status and fame by virtue of your domination of others, nor by beauty, or by having what other people want, but by your devotion. Especially dedicate your time, your creations and your technical achievements.

To get the respect of other hackers, there are basically five things you can do:


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1. Write Open source software
The first (and most concentrated and traditional) is to write programs that are considered interesting or useful by other hackers, and to provide the source code for the entire hacker culture to use.

(We used to call it "free software", but that confused many people who didn't know the exact meaning of freedom.) Now a lot of us, based on the Search engine page content analysis at least 2:1 of the ratio, the use of "Open-source" software (open source software) the word.

The most revered idols in the hacker kingdom are those who write large, easy-to-use, widely used software and publish them so that everyone is using his software.


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2. Help test and debug open source software
Hackers also respect those who use and test open source software. In this imperfect world, we inevitably spend most of our development time in the debugging phase. That's why any author with a brain open source will tell the good beta testers (who know how to clearly describe the symptoms, locate the bug well, tolerate bugs in the quick release, and are willing to use some simple diagnostic tools) as precious as Ruby. Even one of them can determine which test phase is prolonged, which is an exhausting nightmare, and which is just a good little problem.

If you're a beginner, try to find a program that you're interested in developing and be a good beta tester. You will naturally help with the test, progress to help catch bugs, and finally help to change the program. You'll learn a lot from it, and you'll be able to make friendships with the people who will help you in the future.


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3. Publication of Useful information
Another good thing is to collect and organize useful and interesting information into Web pages or documents such as FAQ lists, and make them easy to access.

The defenders of the main technical FAQ are as much respected as the authors of almost any other open source code.


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4. Help maintain the operation of the infrastructure
Hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for that matter) is run by volunteers. To make the Internet work, a lot of tedious work has to be done-managing mail lists, newsgroups, maintaining large software libraries, developing RFCs and other technical standards, and so on.

People who do this sort of thing get a lot of respect because everyone knows that these things take time and are not as fun as programming. It takes dedication to do these things.


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5. Serve the hacker culture itself
Finally, you can advertise for the culture itself (for example, like me, write a positive tutorial on "How to be a hacker":-) Translator: I wonder if Barret turned it into Chinese? )。 This does not have to be in the circle you have been in this group for a long time, because of the above four points in the famous, have a certain reputation to do.

Hacker culture has no leader. To be precise, it is true that there are cultural heroes, tribal elders, historians and speakers. If you stay in this circle long enough, you may become one of them. Remember: Hackers do not believe in the boast of their tribal elders, so it is dangerous to pursue such a reputation aggressively. Instead of striving for it, it is better to put yourself in your place and wait for it to be in your hands-then be humble and elegant.


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The link between hackers and nerds (Nerd)
Contrary to popular myth, being a hacker does not necessarily mean that you are a nerd. But it does help, and many hackers are actually nerds. Being a reclusive person helps you focus on things that are important, such as thinking and programming.

As a result, many hackers are willing to accept the nickname "Nerd", and are more likely to use the word "geek" and be proud of it-a way of declaring them independent of mainstream society. Visit the Geek Page to participate in more discussions.

It would be nice if you could focus enough energy on hacking to work at the same time and have a normal life. It's much easier to do this now than when I was a beginner in the 1970 's; now the mainstream culture is much friendlier to technical geeks. Even more and more people are aware that hackers are usually good for lovers and spouses of materials.

If you're obsessed with hacking because you don't have a good life, that's fine--at least you're not distracted. Maybe you'll find your other half later.


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The meaning of style
Again, as a hacker, you have to get into the hacker spirit. When you are not on the computer, you still have a lot of work to do to help the hacker to do. They don't replace real programming (nothing), but many hackers do it and feel that there are some basic links to the nature of hackers.


Learn to write fluently in your native language. While it is quite common for programmers to fail to write good articles, the surprising number of hackers (including all the best I know) are good writers.

Read science fiction. Attend science fiction seminars. (A good way to run into hackers and would-be hackers in the future)

Learn Zen, and/or practise martial arts. (spiritual cultivation seems to be strikingly similar.) )

To be able to analyze the sound of music, learn to appreciate special music. Learn to play some kind of musical instrument, or sing.

Improve the ability to appreciate puns and word games.

The more you do these things, the more you are born to be the hacker material. As for why these things happen, the reason is not entirely clear, but they all involve the use of the left-right brain capacity of the synthesis, which seems to be the key (hackers need both clear logical thinking, and sometimes need to deviate from the logic of the appearance of the problem).

Finally, there are some things that you don't want to do.


Don't use stupid, grandstanding IDs or nicknames.

Don't get involved in Usenet (or other local forums).

Don't call yourself "cyberpunk", and don't waste time dealing with those people.

Don't let your email or posted posts fill up with incorrect spelling and messy grammar.

Doing all these things will only provoke ridicule. Hackers have a memory--you'll need years to get them to forget the mistakes you've made.

The problem of net name is worth pondering. Concealing identities behind false names is a childish and foolish behavior of hackers, declassified, D00DZ and other lower-life creatures. Hackers do not do these things, they are proud of what they do, and they are happy that people associate their works with their real names. So if you use a pseudonym now, give it up. It will make you fail in the hacker culture.


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Other resources
Peter Seebach maintains a very good Hacker FAQ, designed for managers who don't know how to deal with hackers. If Peter's site is inaccessible, the following excite search should have a copy.

I also have a brief history of hacker culture.

I have written a cathedral and a bazaar with a detailed explanation of the Linux and open source culture phenomenon. I am also on this topic to further elaborate on the outcome of the cause-to explore the field of wisdom.

Rick Moen wrote a very good document on how to run a Linux user group.

I worked with Rick Moen to complete another article on the wisdom of asking questions that would help you get the most out of it.

If you want to know the basics of PC, UNIX, and the Internet and how it works, refer to the Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO.

When you release a software or patch it, try to howto it according to the software release convention. (Most of the articles mentioned above can be found in the Chinese version of www.aka.org.cn and Www.linuxforum.net.) )


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FAQ (Frequently asked questions answered)
Q: Can you teach me to be a hacker?
Q: So, how do I get started?
Q: When do I have to start learning? Will it be too late now?
Q: How long will it take to learn to hack the path?
Q: Is Visual basic and Delphi A good entry language?
Q: Can you help me "black" off a site? or teach me how to black it?
Q: How can I get the password of someone else's account?
Q: How do I invade/view/monitor Other people's emails?
Q: How can I steal channel op privileges in an IRC chat room?
Q: I've been hacked. Can you help me avoid being attacked again?
Q: There is a problem with my Windows software. Can you help me?
Q: Where can I find a real hacker to communicate with?
Q: Can you recommend some good books about hackers?
Q: Do I need to be good at math as a hacker?
Q: What kind of linguistics should I start with?
Q: What kind of machine configuration do I need?
Q: Do I have to hate and oppose Microsoft?
Q: But does open source software make programmers lose their jobs?
Q: How do I get started? Where is the free Unix?
Q: Can you teach me to be a hacker?

A: Since the first release of this document, I have received some requests every week, (several times a day) to "teach them to be hackers." Unfortunately, I don't have the time and energy to do this; my own hacking project, and my toiled as an open source advocate, have taken up 110% of my time.

Even if I want to teach you, hackers are still basically a self cultivation of the attitude and technology. When real hackers want to help you, if you beg them a tablespoon and a spoon to "feed" you, you will find that they will not respect you.

Go learn something first. Show that you are trying, you can learn by yourself. Then go to the hackers you encounter to ask special questions.

If you send an e-mail to a hacker to ask for his help, this is the first of two things to remember. First, the written words seem lazy and careless people are usually very lazy to think and very careless, can not become a good hacker-so pay attention to correct spelling, use the correct grammar and pronunciation, otherwise you may be ignored. Second, do not try to request a reply to an ISP account, which is different from your address. People who do this usually use a stolen account, and no one is interested in ill to help the thieves.

Q: So, how do I get started?

A: The best way for you to get started is to go to the Lug (Linux User group) party. You can find similar organizations on the LDP's Integrated Linux information page, perhaps with a close proximity to your home, and most likely linked to a university or school. If you ask, lug will probably give you a set of Linux, which will then help you install and get you started.

Q: When do I have to start learning? Will it be too late now?

A: When you have the motivation to learn, it is a good time. Most people seem to be interested in the age of 15-20, but as far as I know, there are exceptions beyond that period.

Q: How long will it take to learn to hack the path?

A: It depends on your level of cleverness and effort. Most people, as long as they focus, can learn a respectable set of skills between 18 months to 2 years. But don't think it's over; If you're a real hacker, you need to spend the rest of your life learning and perfecting your skills.

Q: Is Visual basic and Delphi A good entry language?

A: No, because they are not portable. They are not the open source implementations of those languages, so you are limited to the platforms that vendors choose to support. It is not a hacker's attitude to accept such a monopoly situation.

Visual basic is especially bad. The fact that it is Microsoft's private language is enough to make it look nothing, unlike other basic, it is a poorly designed language that teaches you bad programming habits.

One of the bad habits is that it relies on a single vendor's function library, controls, and development tools. In general, any language that does not support at least Linux or a BSD, or other third-party operating system, is a language that is not suitable for hackers to work with.

Q: Can you help me "black" off a site? or teach me how to black it?

Answer: No. Anyone who has read the FAQ and asks the question is hopelessly stupid, even if I have time to teach. Any such email sent to me will be ignored or scolded.

Q: How can I get the password of someone else's account?

A: This is hacker behavior. Get the hell out of Here, you idiot.

Q: How do I invade/view/monitor Other people's emails?

A: This is hacker behavior. Disappear in front of me, you bastard.

Q: How can I steal channel op privileges in an IRC chat room?

A: This is hacker behavior. Go to S, you stubborn bastard.

Q: I've been hacked. Can you help me avoid being attacked again?

Answer: No. So far, every time I ask this question, it's a bunch of newbies running Microsoft Windows. It is not possible to effectively protect windows from hacker attacks; too many flawed code and architecture make it nowhere near to protect windows. The only reliable precaution comes from transferring to Linux or other systems that are designed to be at least safe enough.

Q: There is a problem with my Windows software. Can you help me?

Answer: Of course. Enter the DOS mode, and then type "format C:". Any problems you encounter will disappear within a few minutes.

Q: Where can I find a real hacker to communicate with?

A: The best way is to find a UNIX or Linux user group near you to attend their party. (You can find links to user groups at the LDP site in Metalab.) )

I used to say that I couldn't find a real hacker on IRC, but I noticed that things are changing now. Apparently some of the real hacker communities are like GIMP and Perl, as well as IRC channels. )

Q: Can you recommend some good books about hackers?

A: I maintain a copy of the Linux Reading List HOWTO, perhaps you will find it useful. Loginataka is also very interesting.

For an introduction to Python, visit the introductory information on the Python site.

Q: Do I need to be good at math as a hacker?

Answer: No. Hackers rarely use conventional math or arithmetic, but you absolutely need to be able to think logically and do sophisticated reasoning.

In particular, you don't use calculus or circuit analysis (which we leave to the electronics engineers:-)). Background knowledge of some finite mathematics (including Boolean algebra, set theory, Combinatorial mathematics, and graph theory) will help.

Q: What kind of linguistics should I start with?

A: html--if you don't understand. There are a lot of beautiful covers on the market, and bad HTML books that are advertised, unfortunately few are good. My favorite is html:the definitive Guide.

But HTML is not exactly a programming language. When you're ready to start programming, I recommend starting with Python. You'll hear a large group of people recommending Perl, and Perl is still much more popular than Python, but it's a lot harder to learn and not very well designed (in my opinion).

C is really important, but it's a lot harder than Python or Perl. Don't try to learn C first.

Windows users should not be satisfied with Visual Basic. It teaches you bad habits, and it's not portable and can only run under Windows. Avoid it.

Q: What kind of machine configuration do I need?

A: In the past, PC capacity was quite inadequate and memory was small, resulting in artificial obstacles to the learning process of hackers. But that's not how it started a while ago; any configuration that is better than an Intel 486dx50 machine is capable of developing, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disk you buy now is much richer. (According to Barret, now at least Pentium 166MMX is enough.) )

The important thing to choose when choosing a machine to learn is to be aware of whether the accessories are Linux compliant (or BSD compatible if you choose to learn BSD). As mentioned earlier, most of the current machines are compliant; the only notable area is the modem and the printer; some machines with parts designed for Windows do not work on Linux.

There is a FAQ on hardware compatibility; The latest version is here.

Q: Do I have to hate and oppose Microsoft?

A: No, you don't have to. Not because Microsoft is not annoying, but because the hacker culture existed long before Microsoft appeared, and it will still exist after Microsoft becomes history. You spend a lot of your energy hating Microsoft, rather than spending it on the technology that loves you. Write code-that would be quite effective against Microsoft and will not get you to reap the retribution.

Q: But does open source software make programmers lose their jobs?

A: It seems unlikely-the Open-source software industry so far seems to have created more jobs rather than fewer jobs. If writing a program is more pure economic than not writing it, then after writing, the programmer should be paid regardless of whether the program is open source. And, no matter how "free and free" software is written, there is more demand for new, customized software. I have more discussion in this area, put it in the open source website material.

Q: How do I get started? Where is the free Unix?

A: Somewhere in this document I've mentioned where to get the most common free UNIX. To be a hacker, you need self-reliance and self-study. Let's start now ...
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