Lonely mathematicians and unlonely prime numbers

Source: Internet
Author: User

Author: Qi yagge

Transferred from: Link


This is another legend about mathematicians. On the afternoon of June 23, May 13, Zhang yitang, a lecturer at the new campur University and a Chinese mathematician, made a report on his own research and a report on prime numbers at Harvard University.

Prime number, that is, prime number, which can only be divided by one and itself. Based on experience, we believe that the distribution of prime numbers will become increasingly scarce. However, some mathematicians have pointed out that prime numbers are not so lonely-for integers greater than 1 N, there must be a prime number between N and 2n, which is the theorem of "berlan-cherbievow. The intimacy between prime numbers is not limited to that. Perhaps David Hilbert, the greatest mathematician of the last century, proposed 23 important mathematical difficulties and conjecture at the 1900 International mathematician conference, one of the problems mentioned here is that there should be an infinite number of prime number pairs with a difference of 2. Hilbert calls these prime number pairs as twin prime numbers, which are mutually dependent on each other on the number axis, this is a strange form of existence in the world. Mathematicians believe that this conjecture is true, but no one can prove it. What Zhang yitang has done is to prove that there are infinite prime number pairs, and their difference is less than 70 million. Although there is still a distance between 70 million and 2, the distance from 70 million to 2 is insignificant as the distance from infinity to 70 million, as commented by the American mathematician Dorian godphil.

On February 23, April this year, Zhang yitang submitted the topic bounded gaps between PRIMES to the annuals of mathematics magazine.Article. In May 21, the article was accepted-almost a record of this top journal of mathematics. According to the general rule, it is difficult to solve the problem to publish a document in the most admired Journal of mathematics, the article takes a long time. The longer part is the harsh and long process of the reviewer. This process usually takes years. After Zhang yitang's article was published, Henryk iwaniec, a reviewer and number theory expert, said that the conclusion had been strictly examined by himself, the Polish-American mathematician is recognized as one of the top number theory experts today, and this kind of identity-based reviewer is rare in the field of mathematics.

In May 14, nature reported Zhang's research on the pairing of the first infinite group of prime numbers, "This is a conclusion that only mathematicians love each other ". However, this conclusion has caused a great sensation in the Chinese circle because it proves that the mathematician is nearly 60 years old and only a lecturer, this is totally different from the young and intelligent mathematical talents in our tradition.

After Zhang yitang's paper was published, Mo zongjian, his mentor at the Pudu University in 1980s, wrote a long article for the student. He traced back to the seven-year doctoral program of the student, at that time, Zhang yitang chose the research topic yabi conjecture, which was well known for its difficulty and often used to produce proof of errors. On the eve of his PhD graduation in 1990s, Zhang yitang declared that he had solved the yabi conjecture. It was a proof that he was able to impact the field award. Several experts were also interested in his proof. Unfortunately, in the later review, we found that, in the proofs provided by Zhang, although a theorem came from a published result, the result was wrong. Later, Zhang yitang did not post any articles. He successfully passed the doctoral thesis and received his degree, but he could not find a faculty due to lack of articles.

"Sometimes, I regret not helping him find a job. But who knows ?" He said, perhaps the only thing that can be determined is that, as a scientist who is concerned with difficult and difficult problems and has low-yield papers, he is hard to go from trial to life, "That's not his dish ".

This magazine invited Zhang yitang's friend and Chinese-American conductor Jacob Chi to write an article about the story of the lonely mathematician. Born in Qingdao, Shandong Province, Mr. ziyag is now a lifelong professor of music at Colorado State University.

(Li Shanshan)

On October 16, May 18, an old friend sent an email informing Yi Tang of the story about cracking the twin prime number conjecture. I burst into tears.

Four days ago, on July 15, May 14, I called Yi Tang. Originally, he said that he would come to my house in the middle of the month, "closed the door" and tutoring dogs and children in mathematics. At that time, I still don't know, just the day before, in his speech at Harvard University, Yi Tang made a major breakthrough in the twin prime number, a confusing mathematical problem for more than two thousand years, and aroused hot comments from his peers. On the phone, he only told me that he had to do research. Sorry, he couldn't do it. He did not mention his great achievements in the academic community. Calm down, this is Zhang yitang.

I heard this news and immediately called him to congratulate him. Yi Tang said, "Oh, you know ." The tone is calm as usual. He told me that he broke the eight secrets in my house. It was in February July 3 last year. He was going to see me rehearsing. I said we would leave in 20 minutes. He went to our yard to smoke a cigarette and see if the deer had come again. (We often have a group of deer that we don't invite ourselves. The apricot tree in the courtyard had a lot of fruit last year and was eaten by the uninvited guests .) The key to cracking the twin prime number is that in the past 20 minutes, it was like a god revelation. He came to me that time, just to relax, without a book, no information, and no computer. This seems a miracle.

Select "lonely", but not "bitter"

I have been with Zhang yitang for more than 20 years, and he is one of the few friends. We all know that Yi Tang is a mathematical talent, but his field is too mysterious. My generation is like a mountain, and I don't know where to start when his fans start. However, I am always a lover of mine for his personality, interest, and personality.

Philosopher said: "loneliness is not a state, but a choice ." Zhang yitang is one of the few lonely people. His choice of loneliness is not his cynicism, nor his self-emotion in the ivory tower. He is a normal person, a rare good person, pure, honest, kind. He chooses to be lonely, only because he is willing and willing to talk to the everlasting God on the platform of thinking and reason.

Zhang yitang is not a monk, not a scientist who is blind to everything except mathematics and logic.

He has a wide range of hobbies and loves literature and art, especially for Russian literature. He once held vodka and recited the poems of pushijin in chapter. He talked about his comments and understanding of the famous books of Xiao luov, chechechef, tolistes, and dostoyski, which surprised the Russian access professors in his school. He has the ability to read the Tang poetry and Song Ci.

We have been playing martial arts for many times. His high opinion on martial arts novels is unsightly.

During his studies at Peking University, Dr. Zhang got in touch with western classical music. He could sing the second music of the violin in the D major of blems over and over again with his slightly seed tweeter. Then he said with admiration: "It's so beautiful. He (blems) how can I write such a permanent melody!" Last year, when I first heard of the Spring Festival by stravenski in my house, after the last chord popped out, he drank the Scotch whisky in the cup and shouted.

He called me one time in the middle of the night and said that he had listened n times to the musquski dmajor Violin piano play by haifiz and oistrahe. He had to talk to me about music at night. As you said, you sang on the phone. I joked to him and said, "dude is a rare music genius. When a mathematician is really awesome, like a monkey, Jack Ma Wen, a flower is inserted in the cow dung ." Long silence over the phone.

Zhang yitang Bo Wenqiang remembers that he has an extraordinary interest in history, philosophy, and politics. What is most memorable is his amazing understanding and memory. How many times before and after the lights, a glass of Bordeaux wine went down and talked about Ancient and Modern Chinese and foreign, philosophical history, current affairs and politics. It shows you the time, location, events, and figures from the cause to the result encyclopedia.

He is not interested in things short by family members. When friends gather to talk about things, he will sit quietly, as if he were a monk.

He is still a real basketball fan. He is familiar with the classic battle of NBA and NCAA. He can talk about every detail of every wonderful piece like a few treasures. He arranged in the loyal hall with Jordan, bird, Magic Johnson, dream orazuwang, smiling assassin Thomas, black horse Malone, White Horse Stockton, cold face langjun Duncan, now it's time for little emperor LeBron.

He is a loyal fan of Duke's Blue Magic team and worships the team's leading K. Whenever Duke University is the top runner, I will call to congratulate him. If this happens, I will also call to sing a lie-down song. At the crucial time of the Duke University competition, he turned off the TV as usual and watched the report the next morning.

Zhang yitang and I never talk about money. But I know that he is a rare and generous person. He helped his friends more than once. He has never been well-off in economics, but as long as he learns of the embarrassment of a friend or teacher, he can immediately help. He invited his students to have dinner, put up wine and slaughter the goat, and cook badaojiang's famous dish with Zhang Kee fried peanuts.

Pursuing knowledge without utility

Zhang yitang needs to "shut down", talk to God, be lonely, and be self-exile. My family is one of his choices.

During the summer vacation last year, I asked him to come to my house to open calculus for his son in high school. This was what he said more than a decade ago. So he called him: "old friends are fine, but children need to open the door, and there are also grapes in the House that need to be opened. By the way, the lomei-boiled wine and the sword in the Rocky Mountains will give me the annual July 4 American concert ."

He agreed without saying anything. I picked him up at Denver airport. I haven't seen him for a few years. It's still a little blue hat.

Zhang yitang's wife is Helen, and she is a lively and happy girl. They have no children, but they love children very much. He does not agree with the control of most Chinese parents on children. He believes that discipline is not an education. This old-fashioned method only destroys the curiosity and creativity of children.

A dozen years ago, an old friend's wife was born. He drove his friend and wife to the hospital, and three days later, he sent three people from the hospital to his home. Since then, every time on the eve of the child's birthday, I have received a check from Yi Tang for the child's birthday.

He is gentle in nature, and he is dedicated to working as a doctor. But he is very sensitive to human dignity. Two years ago, the Chinese Emy of Sciences invited Dr. Zhang to return to China to give lectures. The consulate official could not understand why the unknown Mathematics lecturer did not return home in 20 years. He was asked to give a written explanation. The old man who never lost his temper, let's get away!

In 1992, after he obtained his doctorate from Pudu University, his job was not smooth. He once helped his account clearly at his friend's Sai baiwei fast food restaurant. Later, he received a faculty role at the University of New York and was only a lecturer for nearly 60 years. In this impetuous and utilitarian world, such a situation is undoubtedly a failure or even a poor situation. We become friends, secretly worried for him, sigh for him. However, Yi Tang did not agree with his own opinions. He was so calm that he did not change his mind or joy.

After Yi Tang graduated, he was too late to find a faculty member. After finding a faculty member, he was too late to become a professor because he published too few papers and did not seem to have any scientific research achievements. Based on his ability, I had to find a few questions that were not very difficult to do. I published several more papers and evaluated the professor. I thought it would not be difficult, but he did not have this idea. Einstein said: "I cannot tolerate a scientist like this. He took out a piece of wood, looked for the shortest place, and drilled many holes in the easily drilled area ." Yi Tang is the kind of scientist that Einstein appreciates most. He wants to make a big problem.

He gave a speech at Harvard without a seat, and even stood in the aisle. Invitations from all over the world are sent to this shy hacker like snow.

Yi Tang became famous overnight, but he is still as low-profile and calm as in the past. "My heart is calm," he said. I don't care much about money and honors. I like to calm down and do what I want to do ."

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