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Page One: the Principles of Beauty

What is Beauty? What conditions should beauty have?

According to the common sense of human beauty, we can set 10 principles of beauty: continuity, gradation, symmetry, contrast, proportion, balance, harmony, rhythm, unity and completeness.

Before we discuss the principles of beauty, we must first understand the meaning of "unit shape". The unit shape is the most basic unit element in the same or similar image combination. Unit shape can be repeatedly arranged, or composed of "unit-shaped combination", and then "unit-shaped combination" as the basis for regular repeated arrangement. The following illustration shows a "unit-shaped" configuration consisting of eight "unit-shaped combinations."

A "unit-shaped" configuration makes up eight "unit-shape" legends

Each "unit-shaped combination" can be repeated in line-like ﹝ also known as the two-square continuous ﹞, surface-like ﹝ also known as the quartet continuous ﹞, annular, radial, mirror-type way to develop into a complex and interesting plane composition. The following figure is a planar composition with a circular development.

A plane composition formed by annular development

Here is an overview of the 10 Principles of beauty:

﹝ a ﹞ continuous

"Continuous" is a kind of rigorous order without beginning, no ending, no edge, it is only a special case of repetition, so regular repetition does not necessarily produce continuous. "Continuous" is infinitely expanded, and it can transcend any frame limit. "Continuous" includes "two square continuous" and "quartet continuous".

"Two-square continuous" is the unit-shaped to the left or right or up and down for repeated regular arrangement. It can be used as a straight direction, zigzag, wavy direction extension.

"Quartet Continuous" is the unit-shaped to the left and right to extend the phenomenon, can produce quartet continuous graphics. The line of two-side continuous lines plus left and right up and down, is one of the ways to create continuous graphics.

﹝ two ﹞ gradient

"Gradient" is a gradual change, it has a certain order and law. gradients, in addition to shape gradients, have "size gradients," "color gradients," "position gradients," and "orientation gradients," and so on, that can be used individually or in combination.

Any gradient of constituent elements has its beginning and end, or begins with one side, and reverts to the original cyclic phenomenon by gradient. For example, a shape gradient can start with a shape, gradually change to another shape, or a shape that is gradually reverted to another shape. Both the beginning and the end of the design can become the focus of design, and in the beginning and end of the whole process of repetition, will create a sense of rhythm.

The form of gradual formation can be from the top down, from left to right, or from the central launch, or for diversification of the development.

The forms of the gradient include:

﹝1﹞ natural image of the gradient, ﹝2﹞ shape of the gradient, ﹝3﹞ size of the gradient, ﹝4﹞ position of the gradient,

﹝5﹞ the gradient of the direction, the gradient of the ﹝6﹞ color.

﹝ three ﹞ symmetry

Visually, a form that looks equal to a point or a line, up or down, is called symmetry. "Symmetry" has the meaning of proportionality, homogeneity and rounding. The symmetrical shape of the left and right has always been considered stable and functional.

The manifestations of "symmetry" include:

﹝1﹞ line symmetry, ﹝2﹞ point symmetry, ﹝3﹞ sense symmetry.

Usually symmetric graphics have simple and simple aesthetic sense, as well as static stability, but easy to flow in monotonous, inflexible. Generally speaking, the simple symmetrical figure has the generous, the strong character, the fine symmetrical graph can increase the work the fullness feeling. Many commodity designs are designed to use this feature.

﹝ Four ﹞ contrast

The relative elements are configured together to compare each other in order to form two kinds of tension states of resistance, called "contrast". This is a factor that creates a relatively repulsive nature, namely the so-called "contrasting elements".

The "Contrast factor" contains a wide range of shapes, colours, textures, orientations, and areas. Round, triangular, square is a form of contrast, such as red brick, the Brics have the same shape, and its texture due to the obvious difference, with the nature of contrast.

Whether the contrast phenomenon is strong or not depends on the configuration relationship of the contrast factor. In general, the combination of different elements, stimulate each other, will produce a contrast phenomenon, so that the strong stronger, weaker, larger, bigger and smaller. That is, by contrasting the relationship can enhance the characteristics of individual elements.

The expressions of "contrast" include:

Contrast of ﹝1﹞ line, contrast of ﹝2﹞ shape, Comparison of ﹝3﹞ weight, comparison of ﹝4﹞ lightness,

Contrast of ﹝5﹞ color, contrast of ﹝6﹞ hue, contrast of ﹝7﹞ texture, ﹝8﹞ dynamic contrast,

Comparison of ﹝9﹞ positions, ﹝10﹞ other comparisons.

﹝ Five ﹞ proportion

The so-called "proportions" in modelling refers to a ratio between a measure, such as length or area, that describes a part or part, or the relationship between a part and the whole.

In the History of mankind, "proportion" has been used in architecture, furniture, crafts and painting. In particular, the "proportion" of buildings in Greece and Rome is regarded as a representation of beauty. In addition to the construction, there are several ideal proportions, the ancient scholars to formulate it, and as the basic principle of design, in order to achieve unity and change.   One of the most basic and important proportions is the "golden ratio". The ancient Greeks considered the "golden ratio" to be the perfect proportion while living in the modelling. Its basic method is to divide a line into size two, and the length ratio of the small segment to the large segment is equal to the length ratio of the large segment to the whole segment. This method of proportional segmentation is the "golden ratio".

﹝ Six ﹞ Balance

"Balance" refers to the two forces of each other to maintain the meaning, that is, two or more of the constituent elements, each other evenly distributed on the fulcrum of a foundation, in order to maintain the balance of mechanics and achieve a stable state.

In the form of order, "balance" is a very important item. Because the shape of the work is not really pay attention to the actual weight of the relationship, so the word "balance" in the plane shape of the world, should belong to the visual balance.   This is not the same as the balance of mechanics, the balance of mathematics, and the "average" spoken in other disciplines. For "balance", there is a symmetrical and asymmetrical balance. In the "balance" practice, the focus is on how to achieve visual stability and psychological balance. For example, shape, color, material in the screen with the weight, size, light and shade, color, strength, texture ... And so on, must maintain the balance, only then can produce the feeling of stability.

﹝ Seven ﹞ Hedang the two constituent elements exist together, if the gap is too large, that is to cause "contrast". If the two constituent elements are similar, the contrast stimulation becomes smaller and can produce a common order to make the two achieve a harmonious state. such as black and white is a strong contrast of color, and the gray in the meantime is the "harmony" between the two.

"Harmony" in the visual can make us produce beauty. Therefore, the principle of harmony has always been a topic of concern to people, especially the color or shape is a problem to be constantly discussed. However, in order to achieve "harmony", the unity between the elements is still necessary, such as hue of the match, the tone of the match and the degree of coordination, can produce "harmony." The shape of the line in the thickness and shape of the size will affect, but as long as the shape can be consistent, can also produce a sense of harmony.

In addition to the color and shape of the "harmonic" elements, texture is also a very important factor. If the same material as a building or garden design materials, but also to obtain "harmony" one of the methods.

﹝ Eight ﹞ Law movement

Any regular or irregular recurrence and arrangement, or a cyclical, gradual phenomenon, are "rhythm". It gives people with a cadence and a sense of unity of the movement phenomenon.

Generally speaking, the relationship between the rhythm and the time is close, because in other time Art field, can express the beauty of the law, such as music, dance, film, drama, poetry and so on. In music, the use of time interval will make the sound of the strength or height of the rhythm of the United States, and show the change in cadence. In our living environment, the change of four seasons, the growth of plants, the movement of animals and all kinds of physiological reactions exist the phenomenon of rhythm. In addition to the nature of the waves, sand dunes, wheat, smoke, Hova and other images, also has a continuous development of the repeated, and presents a visual rhythm of the United States.

﹝ Nine ﹞ Unified

Combined with the common elements, the same or similar form, color, texture elements for order or draw one of the organization, collation, so that the orderly and mutually connected or common role, is "unity."

"Unification" is a good fundamental order. Generally speaking, unification can express the emotion of noble authority, and can also achieve the aesthetic sense of balance and harmony. However, the excessive unification, will be lost vivid and flow in inflexible. For example, the size of the form, color is exactly the same, and for equidistant arrangement, it will produce a monotonous feeling.

So when we pay attention to unification, we need to notice the problem of change. "Change" is also one of the forms of beauty, the so-called "change" in the heterogeneous elements of the change. In other words, that is, the different shape, size, hue, lightness, color, direction, texture as the organic organization to make it lively, lively and not flow in disorder, is the appropriate change.

﹝ Ten ﹞ complete

Any works of art, regardless of the use of the principle of beauty, or through the complex process of creation, the artist to finish the moment to pursue the work of the "integrity" of the works. Completeness is divided into sensory aspects according to the different senses and needs of human beings, including various perceptual ﹞, ﹝ and functional aspects. For example, a good theatrical performance, in addition to the visual and auditory integrity of the audience, will provide the audience with the playwright to express a complete creative idea.

Two: The principle of graphic design arrangement

Multimedia viewers on the one hand from the computer screen on the visual representation of the information, to respond to, on the other hand, according to its aesthetic experience, from the computer screen pleasing visual presentation, aroused his good communication feelings. A pleasing visual presentation depends on the designer's creative ﹝idea﹞, performance skills ﹝technique﹞, choreography ﹝lay-out﹞ ability.

At present, many domestic design computer screen visual rendering is to rely on the designer's feelings to deal with, or with its many years of practical experience to complete. But "feeling" is elusive to those who want to learn multimedia design, and "experience" is even more brutal. Therefore, "the principle of beauty" applies to the layout and composition of graphic design, forming the "principle of graphic design choreography", can help beginners, even for designers, in the face of lack of "feeling" when they can create a standard work.

﹝ A comparison of the size of a ﹞

The relation of size is the most important one in the form factor, and it can almost decide the relation between image and harmony. Small difference in size, give a person's feeling is more moderate, the size of the difference is big, give people the feeling is clear, and have a strong sense.

Contrast of ﹝ two ﹞ light and shade

Yin and yang, positive and negative, day and night and so on, such a contrast statement, can make people feel the daily life of the light and dark relationship. The birth of the baby, initially only in the visual light, and cattle, dogs and other animals can be simple to identify black and white, but the color or hue is not easy to identify, so, light and dark ﹝ black and white ﹞ is the most basic element of color feeling.

Comparison of ﹝ three ﹞ thickness

The thicker the font, the richer the masculine. If the representative is fashionable and feminine, it usually behaves in fine words. If the weight of the word increase, the coarse word should be reduced, so the collocation looks more lively.

Comparison of ﹝ four ﹞ curves and lines

The curve is very soft and soothing, and straight lines are hard, sharp and masculine. In nature, the two are properly mixed. Normally we do not pay attention to this relationship, but, when the curve line or line to emphasize a shape, we have a deep impression, but also produce a corresponding emotion. So we often to deepen the impression of the curve, with some straight line to emphasize, it can be said that a small number of lines will make the curve more eye-catching.

Comparison of ﹝ five ﹞ textures

In ordinary people's daily life, perhaps rarely heard texture this sentence, but in the art, texture is very important to shape the elements. such as relaxation, smoothness, wetting and so on, are described as texture. So texture not only shows emotion, but also with this kind of emotion melts into one.

We observe the work of painters, and so on, often pay attention to its color and the composition of the surface, in fact, texture is the main factor to determine the style of work, although the color or object will change, but, as the basis of texture, is a painter with the essence of a close relationship is not easy to change If the layman is apt to overlook this point, in fact, this is the most important basic element, but also the strongest influence on emotion.

Comparison of ﹝ six ﹞ positions

Placing an object on both sides of the screen can not only emphasize but also produce contrast. The top and bottom of the picture, the left and right, and the four corners of the diagonal have a potential point of focus, and in this place, the configuration of photos, headlines or signs, signs and so on, can show the hidden power. Therefore, in the potential of the opposite position, the formation of distinct elements, can show contrast relations, and produce a compact sense of the picture. The comparison of ﹝ seven ﹞ with the master

Layout design is the same as the stage design, the protagonist and supporting role of the relationship is very clear, the audience's psychological stability. A clear indication of the master-slave approach is a very orthodox form of composition that gives people a sense of reassurance. If the relationship between the two blurred, will be confusing, on the contrary, the protagonist is too strong to lose the dynamic, become vulgar picture.

The protagonist in the play, everyone knows. If the layout can also show what is the protagonist, will make the reader more understanding of the content. So to have the master-slave relationship is the basic condition of the design configuration.

Comparison of ﹝ eight ﹞ dynamic and static

A story begins with a beginning, a description, a change, and a result. A courtyard, there are rockery, pool water, vegetation, waterfalls and so on with the cooperation. Similarly in the design configuration also has the intense dynamic and the quiet part.

The shape of diffusion or flow is "moving". The shape of horizontal or vertical reinforcement is "static". The two are configured in relation to each other, while the "moving" part occupies a large area.

The "quiet" part occupies a small area and leaves appropriate white space around to emphasize its independence. This arrangement is generally used to configure the focus of the four corners of the screen. Therefore, the "static" part, although only a small area, but there is a strong sense of existence.

Comparison of ﹝ nine ﹞

There are different comparisons between curves and lines, vertical and horizontal, acute and obtuse angles. If you combine all the foregoing comparisons with these elements, you can create a varied picture.

﹝ Ten ﹞ and suffer

Layout of the whole space because of the relationship between various forces, and generate dynamic, and then dominate space. Create dynamic shapes and accept this dynamic of another shape, with each other, to make space changes more vivid.

When we want to build a rockery garden, we pay attention to the export of water, because the export of water is a dynamic starting point, the whole garden will be affected by it. When it comes to layout, the principle is the same, and the starting point and the subject will echo and coordinate with each other. The greater the distance between the two, the effect is more significant, and can use both ends of the screen, but the starting point and the point to pay special attention to balance, must have appropriate strong and weak changes just good, if one side too weak can not cause resonance.

﹝ 11 ﹞ Map and ground

When the light and dark are reversed, the relationship between the plot and the earth changes. General printing is a white print dot word, white is called the ground, black word is called picture. On the contrary, sometimes on the black paper printed on the effect of white, at this time the black bottom for the ground, the color is the picture, this is the phenomenon of black-and-whites conversion.

﹝ 12 ﹞ Balance

When you walk to a big rock, your body will fall out of balance, and naturally you will quickly reach out with a hand or foot to maintain balance. According to this natural principle, if we change the position of each part of a good original work and compare it with the original work, we can easily understand the principle of the balance.

﹝ 13 ﹞ symmetry

With a point as the starting point, to the left and right at the same time unfold the form, called the left and right symmetry, the English name is symmetry. Applying the principle of symmetry can develop the complex state of vortex shape and so on.

In daily life, there are many symmetrical things, such as the configuration of the statue of Buddha or the disposition of temples in Japanese shrines, and so on. Symmetry will show the image of high style and style.

﹝ 14 ﹞ emphasizes

In the same style of the layout, without affecting the style of the conditions, add appropriate changes, will have an emphasis on the effect. Emphasis on breaking the monotony of the layout, so that the layout has become vibrant, vivid and rich in change. For example: The layout is the text arrangement, looks uninteresting, if adds the illustration or the photograph, just like a stone throws into the calm water surface, produces a wave of ripples.

Proportion of ﹝ XV ﹞

Greek art features "gold ratio", in the design of the length of the building, width, height and the type of pillars, position, if the reference to "gold than" to deal with, can produce a unique architectural style of Greece, but also to produce a stable and moderate tension visual effects. The ratio of length ratio, width ratio, area ratio, etc., can produce the same function as other shape elements and perform excellent imagery, therefore, it is very important to use appropriate proportions.

﹝ 16 ﹞ sense of Rhythm

Shapes that have common impressions, which are arranged repeatedly, produce a sense of rhythm. You don't have to use the same shape, as long as you have a strong impression. The appearance of three times four times can produce a relaxed sense of rhythm. Sometimes, only two of times with the shape of the feature, you will have a sense of rhythm.

﹝ 17 ﹞ around the center of gravity in the sense of people, there are subtle differences. Because there is a place in the lower right corner where the attraction is particularly strong. When considering the balance, how to deal with the place becomes a key issue.

Human vision is more natural to the flow from right to left. Layout text, the lower right corner of the empty to arrange the title and illustration, will produce a very natural direction. It would be unnatural to reverse it and lose balance. This sense of balance in the left and right direction may be related to people's right-handed.

﹝ 18 ﹞ centripetal and diffusing

In our emotions, we are always conscious of the central part of things. Although I do not care to see things, but in our hearts, always want to explore its central part, as if so, have a sense of security general, which constitutes a visual centripetal. In general, the centripetal type seems gentle, but also generally like to adopt the way, but easy to flow in the ordinary. The centrifugal type of typesetting can be called a diffusion type. A modern example of the choreography of a common type of diffusion.

﹝ 19 ﹞jump Rate

In layout design, you must decide the size of the title according to the content. The ratio of the title to the size of this article is called the Jump rate. The greater the Jump rate, the more lively the layout, the smaller the Jump rate, the higher the layout style. By this measure, it is easy to judge the effect of a layout. The title and the size of the text after the decision, but also to consider the proportion of the relationship between the two sides, how to further adjust, but also considerable knowledge.

﹝ 20 ﹞ unification and reconciliation

If the excessive emphasis on the contrast relationship, space reservation too much or add too many shape elements, it is easy to make the picture confusion.   To reconcile this phenomenon, it is best to add some common shape elements, so that the picture has a common style, with the overall unity and harmony of the feeling. Repeated use of the same shape things, can make the layout to create a sense of blending. If the same things are configured together, you can produce a continuous feeling. The combination of the two can create a unified and harmonious effect.

﹝ 21 ﹞ Wire

According to the eye or the direction the object refers to, so that the layout of the guide line, called the Wire. When designing a composition, a designer often uses a wire to make the overall picture more compelling.

The imagery of ﹝ 22 ﹞ morphology

The general arrangement form, all takes the corner type ﹝ Angle Edition ﹞ to be the standard form, other various forms all belong to the deformation. Corner version of the four corners are at right angles, giving a very regular, the feeling of less expression, the other deformation is a variety of expressions.   For example, a triangle with an acute angle has a sharp, distinct sense; a rounded shape with a gentle, weak feeling. The same curve, there are different expressions, such as the right and the instrument to draw the circle, there is hard texture, but freehand draw the circle has a soft round curve of the United States.

﹝ two or three ﹞ horizontal line

At dusk, the horizon and the sunset fuse together, and at dawn the splendid sun rises from the horizon. Horizontal lines give people a sense of stability and calm, regardless of the beginning or end of things, the horizontal line is always fixed to express static moments.

﹝ 24 ﹞ Vertical Line

Vertical line of activity, just as the horizontal line, vertical lines to express the upward stretching of the active force, with a hard and sensible image, so that the layout appears calm and clear.   If the unreasonable emphasis on verticality, it will become cold and stiff, making people difficult to approach. The vertical line and horizontal lines for contrast processing, you can make the nature of both more vivid, not only to create a compact picture, but also to avoid the cold rigidity of the situation, mutual Ching, so that the layout more complete.

﹝ 25 ﹞ Yang Daytime

From the dark caves, looking out at the bright scene, the characters in the cave are always only outlined, and the outside scenery needs to be carefully painted. This is the same time to grasp the daily situation and abnormal light and dark, showing incredible space.

Normal light and dark state, called "Yang Day", the opposite situation is "Yin Day." When composing a layout, use this sun and Yin Day of light and dark relationship, can draw the daily feeling different new image.

﹝ 26 ﹞ White Amount

The quick way of speaking is suitable for the broadcast of the night news, but it is not suitable for the ceremony of the emcee, because in each sentence, the blank amount is too little. It is also important to talk about the amount of blank space in the layout design, even if the same picture, the same sentence will be difficult to show a real image because of the amount of blank. No matter how good the balance of typesetting, the article is so beautiful, the reader a look at the blank amount of space has been given to it to score well.

﹝ 27 ﹞ Layout Rate

On the design paper, the layout area used in this paper is called the layout, and the ratio of the layout and the whole page area is called the layout rate. The amount of blank has a decisive influence on the impression of the layout. If the blank part adds more, will make the style to raise, and the stable layout, the blank is few, can make the person to have the lively feeling. If the design of a very informative magazine layout, the use of more blank, obviously not suitable.

﹝ 28 ﹞ The size of the word on the screen

Multimedia images are usually ﹝monitor﹞ on a computer image display or on a television.

According to the analysis, for visual comfort, the smallest and clearest Chinese font in a computer image display should be a pixels﹝w﹞x16 pixels﹝h﹞ lattice font. The smallest and clearest Chinese font on a TV set should be the dot-matrix font of the pixels﹝w﹞x36 Pixels﹝h﹞, because the TV set needs to be viewed from a distance. In terms of reading habits, the best way to match people's horizontal reading of Chinese is that one column should not be more than 35 words.

According to the requirements of the viewer, the resolution of the multimedia computer image display is best set to 640 pixels﹝w﹞x480 Pixels﹝h﹞. The resolution of a general TV set is fixed to 512 scan lines. The two are much smaller than the general print resolution ﹝350dpi﹞.

In general, before the multimedia visual communication design, the first decision is the size of the screen on the use of the standard, which is different from the general graphic design process.

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