Principle of material coding

Source: Internet
Author: User
Coding Principles

Description: The principle of encoding is explained by the code of material, but the coding principle is also applicable to the U8 system's customer code, supplier code, foreign code, employee Code, Department code, Unit code, warehouse code, various kinds of coding and any other items that need coding.

The meaning of the material coding in the first section

Material coding is a management tool that represents materials, names, specifications or categories, and other related matters in short words, symbols or numbers, numbers. In the material is extremely simple, the material type very few factory perhaps has the material code all does not matter, but in the material to hundreds of kinds or thousands of, more than tens of thousands of kinds of factories, the material code is extremely important. At this time, the material of the collar, acceptance, please purchase, with reminders, inventory, storage and other work is extremely frequent, and by the material code, so that various departments to improve efficiency, all kinds of material data transmission quickly, the idea of communication easier. The function of the material code is as follows:

? Enhance the correctness of material materials
Material code can be checked for all material activities such as lead, acceptance, purchase, follow up, inventory, storage, record and so on, so material data is more correct. As for more than one thing, the phenomenon of the disorder of a multiple object or title does not occur.
? Improve the efficiency of material management
The material has the arrangement of the system, the material code replaces the description of the word, the material management is simple and convenient, and the efficiency is improved.
? Facilitate the management of computers
Material management in the implementation of the material code thoroughly, before the further use of computer for more effective processing, to achieve the effect of material management.
? Reduce material inventory and reduce costs
Material code is conducive to the control of material inventory, at the same time conducive to the prevention of materials, and improve the efficiency of material management, so can reduce the backlog of funds, reduce costs.
? Prevent the occurrence of material fraud events
Once the material is encoded, the material is recorded correctly and quickly, and the material is stored in an orderly fashion, which can reduce the occurrence of fraud.
? Easy to use the material
The stock material has the correct uniform name and the specification to encode. It is very convenient to use the materials department and the material warehouse's hair material.

Section II Principle of material coding

The material code must conform to the principle of material coding, and reasonable material coding must possess the following basic principles:
? of simplicity
? Classification extensibility
? Integrity
? Single Sex
? Consistency
? Scalability
? Organizational
? Adapt to Computer Management
? Adequacy of
? Easy memory

First, the simplicity of
The purpose of coding is to simplify the material, to facilitate the management of materials, if the coding is too complex, it violates the purpose of coding. This material encoding should be used for simplicity and clarity in the application of text symbols or numbers, thus saving time and formalities for reading, filling, transcribing, and reducing the chance of error.
The material is quite simple, as long as the material simple classification for several items can be, material classification items are many, it seems very inconvenient. If the material is quite complex, it is necessary to subdivide the large classification, which is also called multilevel classification.

Second, the classification of the expansion of
The material is complex, and the material code is divided into large categories, if the use of Arabic numeral decimal, then each paragraph can only be broken down by 10 items, if the use of English letters, then each paragraph has 26 subdivision items, but too many subdivision items, it is difficult to find, and the breakdown of items too little, the classification spread too slow, Category breakdown items are usually better than five to nine. For example, when you use the Arabic numeral decimal, there are 18 items that can be sorted out by using the following methods.

Need to classify
The first category of the project
Methods The third kind of division method of the second kind
1 1 11 0 01 01
2 12 02 02
3 13 03 03
4 14 1 1 04
5 15 2 21 05
6 16 22 06
7 2 21 23 07
8 22 3 3 08
9 23 4 41 09
10 24 42 10
11 25 43 11
12 26 5 5 12
13 3 31 6 61 13
14 32 62 14
15 33 63 15
16 34 7 7 16
17 35 8 8 17
18 36 9 9 18

(Table i)
Third, integrity
When the item is encoded, all the items should have an item code to be returned so that the material code can be complete. If some materials cannot find the assigned item code, it is obvious that the material code lacks integrity.
The production of new products and materials can easily destroy the integrity of the material code. Therefore, whenever a new material is produced, a new material encoding should be given, and the provision of new materials are not encoded, the procurement department may not be engaged in procurement, even if there is no material code of new materials procurement came in, the warehouse department or the accounting department found that the material purchase order is missing material code, that is, the procurement Department should be requested to fill in the material code, otherwise not This ensures the integrity of the item code.

Iv. the unitary nature
The singularity of an item's encoding means that an item code can represent only one item, the same item can only find one item encoding, and none of the items have several item codes, or an item is encoded with several items, generally, as long as the physical or chemical properties of the material change, as long as the material is stored in the warehouse, You must specify a code, for example, such as a part to be stamped, drilling, painting three processes to complete. If the material of the three processes are completed in the same workshop, do not replace the processing units, that is, punching immediately after the drilling, followed by spray painting, the middle of no warehousing, out of the library processing, the material is preferable to a code. If the three process of the material is not completed in the same workshop, the order is stamping, warehousing, picking, drilling, warehousing, picking, painting, warehousing, in order to distinguish the material in the inventory management of the three States, must take a different material code. Example: 3000a,3000b,3000c three encodings represent three different processing state items respectively.

V. Consistency
Material coding should be unified and consistent, such as the age of classification as the standard, it should always be used, in the halfway can not change the origin or surname to classify, to do so must be segmented or graded.

Vi. Scalability
Material coding should take into account the future development of new products and product specifications changes in the occurrence of material expansion or changes in the situation. reserves the flexibility of materials, and can not only on the current status of materials to the material coding arrangements, otherwise the new materials will be produced in the future, there is no number of new materials can be prepared.

VII. Organizational
The material code according to its coding system, organizes and arranges in an orderly way, in order to be able to know a material account card or the material from the material code at any time. The organization of the material coding, the material management can save unnecessary trouble.

Eight, adapt to Computer Management
Computer applications have become more popular, so when coding must consider the convenience of input, such as the code as short as possible, less use of other symbols, such as ' # ', '-', ' * ' and so on.

Ix. adequacy of
The text, notation or number used in the material code must be sufficient in order to encode the individual material to represent all the individual materials and to meet the actual requirements for future material expansion, so as to avoid the absence of any special material. Otherwise, the material system is damaged and time-consuming.
Ten, Easy memory
Without prejudice to the above nine principles, material coding should choose words, symbols or numbers that are easy to remember, or give hints and associations. However, this principle is a secondary principle, if the above nine principles are unique and lack of this principle of material coding, still good material coding.

Section III Method of material coding

At present, industrial and commercial enterprises in the use of the Department of Coding methods, mainly in the following:
1. Arabic Numerals Act
2. English Alphabet method
3. Hint method
4. Mixing method

I. Arabic numeral method
The Arabic numeral method, is uses the Arabic numeral as the material coding tool, adopts one or several Arabic numerals to represent one item. This method is easy to understand, only need to prepare material items and figures of the table, but also memory control project, so the personnel must undergo a period of training and adaptation to be used freely. Arabic numerals to do the material coding, the more common are the following:

? Continuous Digital Coding method
? Hierarchical digital Coding method
? Section Digital Coding method
? International Decimal Classification

1. Continuous Digital Coding method
Sequential digital coding is the first to arrange all the materials in a certain way, and then in order to arrange the flow number from 1th. This kind of material coding method can do one material one number, only the sequential coding in addition to the display of coding time, often with the project on behalf of the property is not associated. Because the newly purchased item cannot be inserted into the original order of the material number, for example: 1078 for the 3/8 "X3/4" six angle cap bolts, and the newly purchased six angle cap bolts for 3/8 "X1", its material code can not be inserted (because there was no inventory or the use of this material, so no code), So I had to compile the last number 8974. The two materials should be lined together, now the material code is so far apart, in material management, warehousing management is very inconvenient.

2. Hierarchical digital Coding method
The hierarchical digital coding method is to first classify the main attributes of the material into large classes and set their number. Second, the major categories are subdivided into smaller categories based on secondary attributes and their numbers are numbered, if they are continued. In the hierarchical digital coding method, there is only one item encoding for any item item.
Table Two is a class-type digital coding method with three attributes, a total of 36 (3x4x3) coding, the advantages of this method, on the one hand, shows the regularity of the Code, on the other hand, to achieve a material project only one coding target, its disadvantage is that there are too many useless empty, on the one hand appears to be wasteful, on the other hand, often lead to

(large Class) material
(Medium Class) use
(Small category)
1 = self-made 1 = non-ferrous metal 1 = Parts
2 = Outsourcing 2 = Steel 2 = Packaging materials
3 = outside processing 3 = Wood 3 = Office Supplies
4 = Chemical

(Table II)

3. The section digital coding method is between the sequential digital coding method and the hierarchical digital coding method. The use of digits is less than the level of the digital coding method, but still can achieve the purpose of material coding. For example, there are 64 items, grouped into 5 categories, which are as follows:

Category A 12 items
Class B 10 Items
Class C 17 Items
Class D 15 Items
Class E 10 items
Total 64 items

(Table III)

Such cases, such as the use of class-type digital coding method must be 3 digits, but if the section to the number of digital coding only need two digits, the situation is as follows:

Category allocation encoding remaining alternate encoding
Class A 12 items (01-20) 8
Class B 10 Items (21-37) 7
Class C 17 items (38-61) 7
Class D 15 items (62-83) 7
Class E 10 items (84-99) 6

(Table IV)

4. International Decimal Classification (U. D. C.) This method in 1876, the United States du Wei M.dewey initiative, the method is novel and original, can be unlimited to start, quite popular in the European countries. The 1895 International Library Society decided Dewey's ten-way method as the basis for further development, followed by a number of mathematical experts did investigate and develop, and finally completed the so-called International Decimal Classification (Universal Decimal classification), Many countries have now adopted national specifications.
The so-called international Decimal classification is to classify all the materials into ten categories, respectively, 0 to 9 of the number of representatives, and then each major category of materials divided into 10 classes, and then the number of 0 to 9 as the representative, so proceed according to the Pyramid pyramid shape. The situation is as follows:
6 Applied Science
62. Industrial Technology
621. Industrial Technology of machinery
621. 8 Power transmission
621. 88 Clamping Tools
621. 882. Screws, nuts
621. 882. 2 Kinds of small screws
621. 882. 21 Metal with small screws
621. 882. 215 pill Screws
621. 682. 215.3 Flat Screws

The use of the International Decimal Classification of materials, such as coding to three digits after the extension must continue to be extended, that should be "." Symbols are divided into representations, and the international Decimal classification can be expanded indefinitely, the production of any new material can be inserted into the original material coding system without confusing the original material coding system, the International Decimal classification can be used only 10 symbols (0-9), so that the code long and no hint of the role, it is a drawback.

Second, the English alphabet law
It is a material coding method using the English alphabet as the material coding tool. In English letters I, O, Q, Z and other words and Arabic numerals 1, 0, 9, 2 and so easy to confuse, so many waste not, in addition, there are still 23 letters available. If a represents a metal material, B stands for Non-wood, C stands for glass. With AA representing Iron metal, with AB representing copper metal ..., the English alphabet has been quite common in our country and is an available material coding method.

Third, the implied method
The implied coding means that the material code represents the meaning of the material, which can be associated with the encoding itself. The implied coding method can be divided into:
? Letter Hinting method
? Digital Hinting method

1. English Letter Hinting Method:
From the letter of the material, the choose important and representative one or several English letters (usually the first letter of the main text) as the coded number, so that the reading material coder can imagine the English characters, and then from the hint to know what the material.
For example:
Vc=variable Capaciter (capacitors)
Ic=integrated Circuit (integrated circuit)
Sw=switch (switch)
St=steel Tube (steel pipe)
Bt=brass Tuber (yellow steel pipe)
Ep=ear Phone (Headset)
2, the digital hint method:
If the number of the item is directly encoded by the number of the item, or if the number of the item is converted to an item-coded number according to a fixed rule, the reader of the material code may be informed of the material in the hint of the material code number.

The meaning of the material coding representative:

Case 1:xxxxxxxxxx
—— — ——— —— ——
Type of small class form length thickness

Example 2: Code for Resistance values

Coded resistor value
005 0.5ω
050 5ω
100 10ω
101 100Ω
102 1,00
103 10,000ω
104 100,000ω
105 1,000,000ω

(Table V)

Example 3: Code for the diameter of rebar

Number of rebar diameter

(table VI)

Example 4: The diameter of the steel ball bearing is encoded as the Axis warp (limited to the axis of 20mm to 200mm) mm number of the five-percent

Coded shaft diameter
Modified 30mm
Modified 35mm

(table VII)

Iv. Mixing method
The mixed-method material code department uses English letters and Arabic numerals to encode the materials, and the letters are used to represent the items or names, and then the numerals are numbered in decimal or otherwise. This method of material coding more than the use of decimal symbols, so many companies are happy to adopt this method.
For example: m= metal Material
mb= bolts, screws and caps
Mbi= with cap bolts
mbi-100= six angle bolts with cap
MBI-106-6=3/8 "x 3/4" six angle bolts with cap
MBI-106-8=3/8 "x 1" six angle bolts with cap
MBI-106-8=1/2 "x 1" six angle bolts with cap

Section Fourth examples of material coding
A company's refrigerator material classification and coding
1. Basic code Form
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Small classification in large classification

The entire code is made up of 10 digits, the same size and material code.
2. The large classification is represented by the first two digits, and 31 represents the refrigerator
3. The classification is represented by the 3rd, 4, 5-digit three-digit number

1 Plate Gold Class 2 Metal 3 plastic rubber class
01 Outer Box Assembly 01 Iron 01 extruded (shot out)
02 Inner Box 02 Copper 02 Type (vacuum and punch forming)
03 Door Components 03 Aluminum 03 Blowing in bloom
04 Evaporator Assembly 04 Zinc Alloy 04 Shear Type
05 Base Assembly 05 Other metal 05 mold heating pressure forming chip
06 Condenser Assembly 06 Rubber
07 Other Parts 07 Tube Rod class
08 Other
4 Electrician Equipment 5 Insulation Material 6 Miscellaneous class
01 Electrical Product Part 01 Fiberglass 01 paper Class
02 Wire 02 Poly Dragon 02 Tape Type
03 Other 03 Glass Class
04 Sponge Class
05 Wood Class

(Table VIII)
4. The small classification is 5 digits (6, 7, 8, 9, 10), the first 4 is the flow number, the last table
Plate Gold Surface Treatment code.
0 for electroplating, not painting, and surface does not need to deal with the parts
1 means spray paint
2 means electroplating
3 means grinding
5. Classification code Instance
3110700012 the plywood for the decorative strip of the board

Example two: the principle of material coding in a mechanical processing plant
Considering the future development, the company takes into account the current total number of 4000 types of materials, and develops the following coding principles:
1 2 3 4 5 6

The first 5 digits are sequential numbers, divided into 20 categories, the last one to represent the part of the signature, a means that the stamping process has been completed, B said the part of the processing workshop has been completed, C said the plating workshop has been completed, D to complete the painting workshop.
such as: 00012A Cross on the support (has been stamping molding)
00012B Cross (drilled)
00012C Cross (plated)

Example three: the principle of material coding in a diesel engine production plant
All item codes are divided into four sections, in order of "material category, item signature, CIS serial number, suffix"
Item category item signature sequence number suffix (optional)
1. Item Category
The material category is represented by a digit or letter, used to differentiate products, components, raw materials, and auxiliary materials.
2. Item characteristic code
The item signature is represented by a 3-8-digit number or letter, used to represent the signature code that identifies the type of item. Each type of material is preferable to a different width of the characteristic code, such as: The product's signature can be 3 digits, used to indicate the product serial number and other features, and the parts of the signature can be 8 bits, used to indicate the part of the product number and its number. Once the number of digits used by a particular type of feature code is determined, the signature of all such items must be encoded according to the specified number of digits. The code is not sufficient to specify the number of digits that can be supplemented by other letters or numbers (usually with the letter "N" when supplemented by letters), and the code exceeds the specified number of digits for shorthand.
For signatures, can also be subdivided, such as the total length of 6-bit signature, you can use the first two to represent a message, the middle two-bit represents a message, the latter two represent a message.
3. Order number
A sequential number is used to indicate the order in which an item is encoded in such items, and is designed to differentiate between different items in the same class of items. The length of the sequence number can be determined according to the number of items in the class, but it is important to consider coding the future extension and reserving some leeway. Different categories of items can take different lengths of sequential numbers, such as: three-bit can be expressed from ' 000 ' to ' 999 ' of 1000 kinds of materials. Once the length of the order number is specified, all cis-ordinal bits of the item must be written at the specified length, with a ' 0 ' complement to the front of the insufficient length. such as: 001,002,003,090,445 is correct, can not be used ' 10 ' to represent the 10th material, but the application of ' 010 ' to express.
4. Suffix
A suffix is a letter that can be used to differentiate between the same name, specification, or figure, and parts or products, or raw materials, that are of a different quality, process, or color. In this way, you can use the same signature code and sequence number to indicate the different states of parts or products of the same number.
such as: C325002R, said the product 325002 Red
C325002G, said product 325002 Green
L3421007A, indicating that parts 3421007 have been stamped
L3421007B, indicating that parts 3421007 have been machined
L3421007C, indicating that parts 3421007 have been plated
Suffix is optional, can be used, or can not, depending on the specific circumstances.
5. Example:
For example: The coding principle of the product is set as:
One letter ' C ' four-bit signature two-bit sequence number

The product domestic machine-s195-s195 long stand-alone code can be compiled as: CS19501
Domestic machine-s195-s195 side of the code can be compiled as: CS19502
Domestic machine-s195-s19545w code can be compiled as: CS19503

The coding principles for components are:
One letter ' L ' eight-bit signature three-bit sequence number one suffix

A signature is used to denote the abbreviation of the product and the figure number, and the suffix indicates the status of the parts processing.
Example: The encoding of a private or borrowed part:
Domestic machine-s195-s19545w cylinder liner of the figure is 0101, the part order number is 03, its code can be compiled as: LS195010103 [L S195 0101 03], suffix not.
Product code for generic parts:
Generic parts because it is not specific to any one product serial number, its product signature can be defined as: TTTT or other representative characters.
If the domestic machine in the above example-s195-s19545w cylinder liner is a common part, the code is: LTTTT010103.

1. If you use letters and numbers to mix and encode, you should avoid the use of letters O, I, z and other letters, lest writing with 0, 1, 2 confused;
2. Coding in the absence of-, #, * and other meaningless symbols (just to differentiate between the coded paragraph, without any meaning), because these symbols are not convenient for computer input, and will make the code too long;
3. When determining the coding scheme, it is necessary to keep enough space to facilitate later expansion.
In order to make the coding easy to write and input the computer, the coding should be as short as possible under the requirement of satisfying certain requirements;
4. Any material that may appear in the inventory must be encoded;
5. Each item can have only one encoding, and likewise, an encoding can only be found in the inventory of an item.

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