"Software project Management" Course Knowledge summary _ software project management

Source: Internet
Author: User

This article is combined with the "Software project Management" Curriculum knowledge of the summary, I do not know why I want to sum up this article, a lot of things do not have a reason to do, I hope to help you, especially in this class students! Sometimes also want to write this article in the end there is no use, it is not useful, But there's no way to be interested.
--I have no his, idealism to you
(By:eastmount 2014-11-25 5 o'clock in the afternoon http://blog.csdn.net/eastmount/)

A. What is Project management? Along with the software crisis (Software Crisis) brings the software cost high, difficult to control the development progress, the software quality is low, the maintenance difficulty and so on, proposed two kinds of solutions:
(1). Technical aspects through the new programming ideas, design methods and design patterns
(2). Management through Project management
This course focuses on software project management related content, recommended IBM designer Brooks "man Moon myth." Then what is the project? What is Project management?
A project is a temporary effort to create a unique product or provide a unique service, with clear objectives, timelines, one-time, cost constraints, management changes, and so on.
Project Management is a series of management actions that accompany the project to ensure that the project achieves the desired result. Project management knowledge system as defined by the American Project Management Association (PMI) (Management body of Knowledge,pmbok) Includes 9 major areas of knowledge and 5 major standardization processes.
(1). 9 Major areas of knowledge: scope management, time management, cost management, quality management, human resource management, communication management, procurement management, risk management and integrated management, as shown below.
The core areas of knowledge are:
A. Project scope management (SCOPE): Identifying and managing all the work required to successfully complete the project;
B. Project time Management (time): Estimation of the duration of the project, determination of eye-catching and timely completion;
C. Project cost management (costing): preparation and management of project budget;
D. Project Quality Management (Quality): Ensure that the project meets the needs of all parties.
(2). 5 Standardization process of PMBOK
Project 9 large areas of knowledge and 5 major standardization processes are interrelated. At the same time, in the software project management will often encounter the demand is not clear, more changes, lower workload, low team level, inadequate planning and other issues, through some management principles can be improved, such as 90/90 of the project completed 90% after 90% to do, 80/ 20 principles and so on.

Two. Integrated project management project management refers to the coordination of all other project management knowledge areas throughout the life cycle to ensure that all project sub-items are grouped together at the right time to successfully complete the project. It is the key to the success of the whole project. It is comprehensive, overall and systematic.
As can be seen from the above illustration, project Integrated management is closely related to the other eight areas of knowledge. At the same time, the comprehensive management of the project is divided into the project comprehensive management plan, the Project Integrated Management plan implementation and the comprehensive change control. The following table represents the 9 major areas of knowledge and the 5 standard processes
The planning process in general integrated management is as shown in the following illustration:

Three. Project scope management project scope management refers to the process and activities of managing and controlling the project's [scope of work] throughout the life cycle of projects to the end. Project Scope management is the most critical and important content in the field of project management knowledge, it is the programmatic document of project management, and the prerequisite of determining other factors of the project.
Project scope management includes scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope control.
Scope refers to the division of the project's main deliverables into smaller, more manageable units, i.e., the work breakdown structure (WBS) is formed.
Work breakdown Structure (wbs,work breakdown Structure) is the most valuable tool in project management, which is based on several plans such as project schedule and cost plan, and decomposes project deliverables into subprojects according to the nature of work and internal structure division, and sub projects are decomposed into smaller, A work unit or work package that is easier to manage.

Four. Project schedule Management (time) project schedule Management (time) to ensure that the project is completed on schedule to achieve the required management process, the purpose is under the given conditions, the shortest time, the lowest cost, the smallest risk, according to the quantity of quality to complete the project task.
Reasonable parallel activity arrangement is an important guarantee for the project to be completed on schedule, and the schedule problem is the main cause of the project conflict. Project schedule management content as follows:
Project Progress Management is focused on the project duration estimation algorithm:

1. Critical Path Algorithm (CPM Critical path method): Including exhaustive method to seek CP, positive and reverse push
According to the logical relationship between activities in the Activity Network Diagram, the earliest and the late start and completion time of each activity are calculated and the floating time is computed, the longest path (critical path) in the network diagram is counted, and the project completion time is determined. The basic concepts are as follows:
Earliest start time (Early start)
Latest Start time (Late start)
Earliest completion time (Early finish)
Late Finish (Late finish)
Free float Time: The time that this activity can be delayed without affecting the earliest start time of the post activity.
Total float time: The time that this activity can be delayed without affecting the earliest project completion time. Tf=ls-es=lf-ef.
Critical path (Critical path): The longest path in a network diagram (exhaustive), a path consisting of activities with a time float of 0 (positive inversion derivation, key activity), CP determines the project completion time, and CP may be more than one. In the examination of the problem, it should be noted that the use of exhaustive method to judge the critical path is the maximum length of the path for CP.
The project's PDM Network Diagram, as shown in the following figure, is the No. 0 day of the project's earliest commencement date, the estimated duration of the activity is given, and the values and critical paths are calculated.

1. First determine the use of forward-push process from left to right to compute the ES and EF (upper layer data), when a back activity occurs multiple predecessor activities, select the largest EF as the back activity of the ES, such as task C Select Task B and Task e ef=12 maximum value. (Multi >1)
2). And then using the reverse-push process, the LF of the last activity of the project is calculated, the LF and LS (ls=lf-activity estimated duration) of each activity is computed from right to left, and when a predecessor activity has multiple back activities, the smallest LS is selected as the "LF" of the predecessor activity. If task E chooses Task C and task The lower LS value in F is =12 as LF. (1< more)
3). The final critical path CP is a floating time of 0 path, TF (f) is lf-ef=24-20 (or ls-es) in task F, and FF (f) is the ES minus task G for the EF value of tasks E.

2. Time compression method: Rush (Crash)
Without changing the scope of the project to shorten the project duration of the mathematical analysis method, the main measure is to rush, generally choose to compress critical path of key activities on the duration.
Compression project schedule and cost is not a direct proportional relationship, at the same time unit compression costs as shown below, such as activity a normal progress 7 weeks, cost 50,000, compress 5 weeks cost 62,000, then unit compression cost = (6.2-5)/(7-5) = 6000 yuan/week.
The following example will compress the duration to 17 weeks, 16 weeks, 15 weeks, the activities and the final cost should be compressed?
First of all, calculate the unit compression cost of a-d, then judge the compressible duration, a+b activity 16 weeks, c+d activity 18 weeks can compress, select the compression cost low C to compress. Compress to 17 weeks as shown below:
The same compression to 16, 15 week display results are as follows: (15 weeks to select Compressible not too clear)

3. Plan review Technology (PERT, Pitt Chart)
The plan is made in the form of Network Diagram, and the optimal plan is obtained. Suitable estimates are applicable to new projects and complex projects that are more unpredictable and have never been done before. PERT estimates the completion time of each project activity by three different scenarios:
Optimistic (optimistic time): Everything is done successfully and the working time is completed
Most likely (Most likely time): normal time to complete work
Pessimistic (Pessimistic time): The most unfavorable time to complete the work
Where activity expected time te= (O+4M+P)/6 standard deviation δ= (p-o)/6 variance = standard deviation squared

The Progress management tool is used to make progress plans, and its tools include
1. Network Map
Arrow method (ADM) uses arrows to indicate activity, nodes represent events, and lead graph method (PDM) uses nodes to represent activities, and arrows represent activity relationships.
2. Gantt Chart
Used to indicate the start and end times of each activity, and define the duration and schedule of activities.
3. Milestone Map

Five. Project cost management project cost refers to the cost of the resources consumed to achieve the project objectives, project cost management refers to the approved budget conditions to ensure that the project is completed on schedule. The content of cost management includes: resource planning, cost estimation, cost budgeting and cost control.
Cost estimation methods are:
(1). Top-down estimation method (analogy estimation method): This method is used to estimate the actual cost of similar projects in terms of the initial or insufficient information.
(2). The bottom of the estimation method (Quantity list): The existence of the management game process, the first estimate of individual activity costs, the lower level may overstate their own estimates, so the upper management generally do not believe the results of the estimate.
(3). Parametric model method: the use of code line technology and functional point technology estimates.
Project cost budget is the foundation of Project cost control, the key factor of project success, it is based on cost estimation. The central task is to estimate the resource requirements for each activity of the project and to allocate the cost budget to the activities of the project.
Project cost control needs and scope management, progress control, quality control coordination, can not be separated from the technical progress, to be in the cost, technology, cost balance between the three. The paper mainly adopts the earned value method to control the project schedule and cost comprehensively. Its 3 basic parameters and 4 evaluation indicators are as follows:
BCWS (Budget PV): Budgeted costs for planned workloads
ACWP (Cost AC): Actual cost of completed work
BCWP (revenue EV): Budgeted cost of completed work
CV (Cost deviation) =bcwp-acwp= revenue-Cost
Positive budget savings, high productivity, negative budget overruns, poor performance
SV (Progress Deviation) =bcwp-bcws= revenue-budget
Positive progress, negative progress delay, 0 actual progress in line with planned progress
CPI (cost performance indicator) =bcwp/acwp= Revenue/cost
Cpi>1 savings, cpi<1 overruns, cpi=1 cost commensurate with budget
SPI (Progress performance indicator) =bcwp/bcws= Revenue/Budget
Spi>1 advance, spi<1 delay, spi=1 progress is the same
Example: A project consists of four activities, the time and cost of each activity as shown in the following table, the total work 4 weeks, the total cost of 10,000 yuan, the following is the status of the 3rd weekend. Ask CV, SV, CPI, SPI, this indicator explains what.

Solution: bcws=2000+2000+3000=7000 yuan
acwp=2000+2500+2200=6700 yuan
bcwp=2000+2000+1500=5500 yuan
cv=bcwp-acwp=5500-6700=-1200 yuan
sv=bcwp-bcws=5500-7000=-1500 yuan
Sv<0,cv<0 the work efficiency is low, the progress is slow, the input postpone, the proposal increases the backbone and the high efficiency personnel.
The following figure is a method of morphological 1 in the comprehensive analysis of three earned value parameters:

Six. Project quality management What kind of project is good? Meet the following requirements: to meet the requirements of the specification, to achieve the project objectives, to meet user requirements, customer satisfaction. Project quality includes product quality, process quality and system quality. The core of software project Quality Management is to build quality system (Quality system), which mainly describes CMM software quality management model.
CMM (Capability Maturity Model for Software, Capability Maturity models): the effectiveness of a software process that is clearly defined, managed, measured, and controlled is a strategy that helps software development organizations improve software processes. It's Carnegie. The Software Engineering Institute of the University of Mellon proposed.
The CMM consists of 5 maturity levels, each of which consists of several key process domains (KPA):
I-level initial level
II-level REPEATABLE level
Level III Determined
Level IV Management level
V-Level optimization level

The key process domain of CMM is as follows: The initial level is unordered state.

Another software quality management model, including the development of quality planning, technical review, software testing, process inspection and software improvement. Software testing includes black box test, white box test, Code Test (unit test), integration test, System test and acceptance test.
Finally need to know--quality assurance (Sofeware Quality ASSURANCE,SQA): Quality Management is committed to ensure that products meet quality requirements and provide trust, quality assurance!= Quality Assurance, quality assurance is the task of quality control, Quality assurance is to ensure quality as the goal of further providing trust, quality assurance emphasizes the quality of the implementation process.
Seven. Project risk management Project risk refers to the uncertainty of the environment and conditions in which the project is in which the final result of the project deviates from the expectations of the stakeholders and the likelihood of loss to the stakeholders. The project risk is mainly caused by the project uncertainty. The main process of risk management is shown in the following illustration:
Software project risk is mainly embodied in four aspects: demand, technology, cost and progress. This chapter focuses on decision tree method to assess risk.
The decision tree method is used to represent the scenarios of profit and loss expectations in a probability tree, simulating the growth of trees, branching out from the starting point to represent the various development possibilities of the analyzed problems, and taking the maximum of the profit and loss expectations of each branch as the basis of choice. The following illustration shows:

Here is an example of a decision tree method.

The decision tree is established as shown in the following illustration:
state Node 1 = 1.8 million Yuan *60%+ (-100) million *40%=68 million
state Node 2 = 2 million Yuan *60%+ (-140) million *40%=64 million
Decision node 0=MAX{68-55,64-60}=13 million, so invest in a product.
The project risk coping methods include: avoiding the risk, transferring the risk, reducing the risk and accepting the risk.
This article concludes, there are communication management, procurement management and human resources management is not the focus, not in the narrative, I hope to help you!

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