Solar and solar system planetary data

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The sun, the central celestial body of the solar system, is the source of light and heat of the planet. It is an ordinary star in the Milky Way. It is located about 10 thousand seconds from the silver heart, about 8 seconds north of the silver road surface, and rotates around the silver heart with other stars.

The sun is a gas ball with a diameter of about 1.4x106. due to gravity, the density and temperature of the Sun increase inward. The surface temperature is about 6000 K, and the density is extremely thin. It is impossible to have solids and liquids at such a high temperature. There are a small number of molecules in the area with the lowest temperature on the sun's surface, but most substances exist as atoms. In the center of the Sun, the temperature exceeds 1.5x107 K, the pressure is about 3.4x1012 Newton/cm 2, and the density reaches 160g/cm 3. In this high temperature, high pressure, and high density environment, A hot nuclear reaction in which hydrogen is converted into helium releases a large amount of energy, which is mainly emitted to space in the form of radiation, with the energy reaching the Earth at about 2.2 billion points, is the main source of light and heat required by life on Earth. The sun is the most closely related celestial body except the earth and the only star that can examine its surface structure in detail. Therefore, people have always attached great importance to the study of the sun. The following table lists some basic data about the sun.

Sun basic data

Average daily distance: 149598000 kilometers
Average Angular diameter 31' 59 ". 3
696000 km radius
Flat rate 0 ". 05
Quality 1.989 × 1033 grams
Average density: 1.409g/cm 3
Total radiation power: 3.83x1033 records/second
Effective temperature: 5770 KB
Rotation and convergence cycle 26.9 days (Equator) 31.1 days (polar zone)
Spectral Type g2v
Eyes, stars, etc.-26.74
Absolutely eye star, etc. 4.83
Surface gravity acceleration: 2.74x104 cm/second
Surface escape speed: 617.7 km/h
The center temperature is about 1.5x107 K.
Center density: About 160g/cm 3
Center pressure: about 3.4X1027 due to 2 cm
Age 5 × 109

What we can directly observe is the Sun's atmosphere, which can be divided into three layers from the inside to the outside: light ball, color ball, and Sun mian. In general, the sun is stable, but its atmosphere is in intense local motion. Sunday activities such as sunspots and flare are the result of this motion. The chemical composition of the Sun's atmosphere is determined by spectral analysis of the sun. The most abundant element is hydrogen, followed by helium, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon, and other metal and non-metallic elements. By quality machines, hydrogen accounts for 71%, helium accounts for 26.5%, and other elements account for 2.5%. There are about 69 elements found in the sun atmosphere, which can be found on the earth. Currently, it is not possible to directly detect the interior of the sun, but it is generally considered that the composition of the interior of the sun is not very different from that of the atmosphere of the sun. The rotation of the sun is very slow, and the cycle of rotation at different latitudes is different. On the equator, it takes 25 days for a week to rotate, and 35 days for a week to rotate near the poles.

The life cycle of the sun is estimated to be 10 billion years, and it has passed about 5 billion years. At present, the sun is a yellow dwarf star. After the hydrogen raw material is used up, the nuclear reaction of helium and other heavier elements will maintain its energy, turn it into a red star, and then turn it into a red superstar. When all the nuclear energy in the sun is exhausted, it will collapse into a high density white dwarf star, and release the gravitational potential energy. At last, the shrinking of the white dwarf star stops and becomes a non-luminous black dwarf star, and the life of the Sun stops.

Earth, one of the nine planets in the solar system, is the third in the order from the sun. It has a natural satellite, the moon, which forms a celestial system, the moon system. The earth has around 4.6 billion years of history.

I. Rotation and public Rotation

In 1543, cobaini first put forward the concept of Earth Rotation and revolution in the book "theory of celestial body operation. Since then, a large number of observations and experiments have proved that the Earth rotates from west to east, and at the same time it rotates around the sun. In 1851, French physicist Fu ke successfully carried out a famous experiment in Paris (Fu kependulum test) to prove the rotation of the Earth. When the Earth's rotation cycle is about 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds, the earth's public orbit is elliptical. The half-length of a public transit track is 149597870 km, the eccentric heart rate of the track is 0.0167, the public transit cycle is a constant star year, the average rate of public transit is 29.79 km per second, and the intersection of the yellow track and the Equator (yellow-chijiao) is 23 ° 27 ′. The combination of the Earth's rotation and revolution produces the day-and-night alternation on the earth, the Four Seasons change and the five belts (tropical, north-south temperate and north-south tropical) distinction. The earth's white rotation speed is uneven, with long-term changes, seasonal changes, and irregular changes. At the same time, due to the gravity of the day, month, and planet, as well as the various effects of the atmosphere, ocean, and material inside the Earth, the direction of the earth's self-axis in space and Earth's body must change, that is, the change of age difference and zhangdong, polar shift, and yellow-chijiao.

Ii. shape and size

The emergence of the concept that the Earth is spherical can be traced back to the fifth and sixth centuries BC. At that time, the philosophers of the bidagolas School in Greece started with the concept of the most beautiful sphere. The first scientific demonstration of the Earth as a sphere is the first scientific demonstration of the Earth as a sphere. As early as the Warring States period in China, the philosopher Hui Shi has put forward the idea that the Earth is spherical.

In the third century of BC, the ancient Greek geographer Elon stone successfully measured the meridian length between the city of Aswan and Alexander using a triangular measurement. Under the guidance of a line during the Tang dynasty in China, the surveying team led by nangu performed the first radian measurement in the plain area of the north and south of the Yellow River in Henan province, and calculated the level difference of the Arctic, it is equivalent to 80 steps (the length unit of the Tang Dynasty is 5 feet = 1 step, and the distance between the North and South is about 351 miles), so as to calculate the Earth's radius. This work was about 100 earlier than the similar work of the Arab. In the modern era, in addition to the Earth measurement method, gravity measurement can also be used to determine the balanced shape of the earth. The earth dynamics survey method has been greatly developed after the artificial earth satellite was last developed. The combined use of various methods greatly improves the accuracy of the determination of the shape and size of the Earth. In the astronomical Constant System of The International Astronomical Federation in 1976, the earth's equator radius α was 6378140 meters, and the Earth's flat factor 1/F was 298.257. The Earth is not a positive sphere, but a flat sphere, or, more like a pear-shaped revolving body. The observations of the man-made earth satellite show that the earth's equator is also an elliptic. Therefore, it can be considered that the Earth is a three-axis elliptical body. The inertia centrifugal force of the earth's self-conversion principal gradually expands the spherical earth from the polar pole to the equator, and becomes the current slightly flat rotating elliptical shape, with a half diameter shorter than the equator radius of about 21 kilometers. The non-uniformity of material distribution inside the earth further leads to irregular shape on the Earth's surface. In surveyors, the so-called Earth shape refers to the shape of the earth level, on which the gravity position is the same everywhere and is an equal plane. The gravity of the earth by day and month results in Tidal phenomena in the oceans and atmosphere of the Earth, and elastic deformation of the solid earth (to some extent an elastic mass body, this is the so-called "Solid Tide ".

Iii. Quality and gravity Acceleration

The Earth's mass is 5.976 x l027 grams, which is determined according to the law of gravitation. The determination of Earth quality provides a basis for the determination of mass of other celestial bodies. From the earth's quality, we can see that the average density of the earth is 5.52 grams/centimeter 3. Any particle on the earth is affected by the gravity of the Earth and the inertia centrifugal force. The combination of the two is gravity. The gravity decreases with the increasing height and also changes with the latitude. The acceleration of gravity on the equator is 978. A (centimeter/second 2), and the polarization is 983.2. Gravity anomalies may also occur in some places, reflecting the material distribution in the earth. Gravity anomalies are related to geological structures and deposits. Due to the influence of the daily and monthly tidal force, the Earth's gravity acceleration also has a slight periodic change, which can reach up to a maximum of a few.

Iv. Construction

The Earth can be viewed as composed of a series of concentric layers. Inside the Earth, there are nuclear, covering, and shell structures. Outside the earth, the water sphere, the atmosphere, and the magnetic layer form a coat around the solid earth. The magnetic layer and atmosphere block ultraviolet rays, X-rays, high-energy particles from the space, and a large number of meteor direct attacks on the ground.

More than seven of the earth's surface is covered by blue oceans. lakes and rivers only occupy a small part of the earth's surface waters. The Earth's surface liquid water layer, called water sphere, has been at least 3 billion years since its formation. The Earth's surface is composed of various rocks and soil. The ground is uneven, and the low-lying area is flooded into oceans and lakes. The land above the water surface contains plains and mountains. The total vertical fluctuations on the Earth's solid surface are about 20 kilometers. It is the top of Mount Everest (according to the Chinese mountaineering team's 1975 determination, the height of the Mount Everest is 8848.13 meters) the height difference between the deepest ocean depth (the Mariana Trench depth is about 11 kilometers), and it exceeds half of the average thickness of the continental crust. The ocean is not as flat and calm as the land. The ocean rock is much younger than the land. Most rocks on land are less than years old. Sediment can be found everywhere on land, indicating that these places may be oceans in ancient times. Although the earth's surface has a small number of ring-shaped mountains, it is difficult to find such a large number of ring-shaped mountains as the moon, Mars and mercury, because the earth's surface is affected by external force (water and atmosphere) and Internal Force (earthquake and volcano, results of constant weathering, erosion, and collapse.

For a long time, people think that the main manifestation of the crust movement is the elevation and subsidence of the ground, mainly vertical movement, and horizontal movement is secondary. Over the past decade, more and more scientists believe that the upper part of the Earth not only has vertical movements, but also has a larger horizontal movement. The relative position of the ocean and the continent is also changing in the geological period. In 1912, weigner proposed the continental drift hypothesis. Since then, some physicists believe that the earth had two ancient continents earlier-the okanavan ancient continent in the Southern Hemisphere and the lauya ancient continent in the northern hemisphere. However, for a long period of time, many scientists refused to acknowledge the continental drift hypothesis, because at that time it was hard to believe that there was such a great force to split the original continental blocks, so that the fragments gradually drifted to their locations today. In early 1960s, Heihe and Diz proposed the ocean bottom expansion hypothesis, believing that the global land structure is the direct result of the constant expansion of the ocean bottom. It is precisely because of the development of ocean bottom expansion hypothesis and plate movement theory that the theory of continental drift has been paid more attention.

On the top of the earth, a circle of about dozens of kilometers thick is a very powerful titanium. The layer of several hundred kilometers thick is soft, with little strength, under long-term stress, this layer of material is plasticity. The tiens float in the soft cylinder. When the Earth's internal energy (original heat and emission heat) is released, the temperature and density in the earth are unevenly distributed, causing convection of the earth's resources. The convection material moves along the cracks on the middle ridge of the ocean bottom to both sides, forming a new ocean bottom. In addition, the old ocean bottom is expanding outward. When they are close to the continental border, they are inserted under the continental crust under the action of the downward drag of the mantle convection, resulting in a series of structural movements in the north. This kind of convection makes the entire ocean bottom updated around 0.3 billion years. The titanium is separated by some active structural belts and divided into several discontinuous units, called continental plates. Lebixiong divides the global region into six major plates: The Eurasian plate, the American plate, the African Plate, the Pacific plate, the Australian plate, and the Antarctic plate. The expansion of the seabed leads to the movement of continental plates. The combination of plates has resulted in a huge mountain system. This is the case where the Alps pass through Turkey and the white cross, and finally the mountain series to the Himalayas. In some places, the rocks of the two plates sink at the same time, in addition, the movement of plates also caused fires and earthquakes. The theory of plate movement is still evolving, and there are also many controversial questions.

V. Origin and Evolution

A systematic scientific study of the origins and evolution of the Earth began in the middle of the 18th century and has been made in many ways. The popular view is that the Earth, as a planet, originated 4.6 billion years ago from the original solar nebula. Like other planets, it has undergone some common physical evolution processes such as accumulation and collision. At the beginning of the formation of the earth's tires, the temperature was low and there was no stratified structure. the Earth's temperature gradually increased due to the bombing of the meteorite material, heat caused by radioactive decay and gravity shrinkage of the original earth. With the increase of temperature, the earth's internal substances become more and more plastic, and there is a local melt phenomenon. At this time, under the Action of gravity, the material differentiation began, the earth's external heavy substances gradually sink, the earth's lighter substances gradually increased, some heavy elements (such as liquid iron) sink to the earth's center, form a high-density earth core (seismic wave observation shows that the Earth's outer core is liquid ). The mass convection is accompanied by a large-scale chemical separation. At last, the Earth gradually forms today's layers of the Earth's crust, the Earth's crust, and the Earth's core.

In the early stages of Earth evolution, the original atmosphere escaped. With the re-combination and differentiation of matter, the various gases originally in the earth rose to the Earth's surface to become the second generation of atmosphere. Later, due to the photosynthesis of green plants, they were further developed into the modern atmosphere. On the other hand, the earth's internal temperature increases, causing the inner crystallization water to evaporate. As the surface temperature gradually drops, the gas water goes through condensation and rainfall falls onto the ground to form a water circle. About three or 4 billion years ago, single-cell life began to emerge on the earth, and then gradually evolved into a variety of creatures until advanced creatures such as humans constitute a biosphere.

Orbital long radius (astronomical distance unit) 1.000
Orbital long radius (10 million km) 149.6
Stellar cycle in public rotation (day) 365.26
Public Transfer meeting cycle (day )-
Orbital eccentric heart rate 0.017
Orbital inclination (degree) 0.0
Elevation of intersection yellow longitude (degree) 0.0
Yellow longitude (degree) 102.3 in recent days
Average orbital speed (km) 29.79
Equator radius (Km) 6378
Flat Rate 0.0034
Quality (Earth Quality = 1) 1.000
Density (grams/cubic centimeter) 5.52
Equatorial gravity (Earth = 1) 1.00
Escape speed (km/sec) 11.2
Rotation cycle (day) 0.9973
Huang chijiao (degree) 23.44
Mirroring rate 0.40
Mercury, the planet closest to the sun. In ancient China, it was called Chen Xing. In the brightest time, the eyes and stars are like-1.9, which is not more than 28 ° from the angle of the sun. Because it is very close to the Sun, it is often drowned in the light of the sun and can be observed only before and after the distance. No satellites have been found. Mercury's orbital inclination is 7 °, which is the planet with the largest orbital inclination except Pluto. The average speed of Public rotation is 47.89 km/second. It is the fastest moving planet in the solar system, with a half-length orbit of about 57.9 million km, with a large Centrifugal rate of 0.206, second only to Pluto. The public rotation cycle is 87.969 days, the meeting cycle is 115.86 days, and the rotation cycle is 58.646 days, which is 2/3 days. In the middle of the 19th century, we found that the recent daily inching of mercury was 5601 "every hundred years. With classic mechanics, we could only explain 5558", and the other 43 "could not explain, that is," The recent-day inching of Mercury ". It was suggested that it was caused by an undiscovered "in-water planet" and the orbit of the "in-water planet" was calculated. However, it was not found many times during observation using Apsara stack. It was not until 1915 that Einstein had established the general theory of relativity. The equator radius of mercury is about 2440 km, which is 38.3% of the earth's size. The mass is 5.6% × 3.33 grams, which is also 1026 of the earth's size. The average density is 5.6% grams/cm. 3, second only to the earth, the acceleration of surface gravity is 373 cm/second 2. The inversion rate is 0.06, and the color index is + 0.91, which is slightly smaller than that of the moon. The surface of mercury is very similar to the moon, with many different sizes of crater and plains, troughs, and basins. Mercury has a very thin atmosphere with a pressure less than 2x10-9 KPa. It is composed of helium, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, argon, neon, xenon, and other elements. Because the atmosphere is very thin, the temperature difference between day and night is very large. The daytime temperature is as high as 700 K, and the night temperature can be reduced to 100 K. Mercury has a dipolar magnetic field. The intensity of the magnetic field on the equator is 4x10-7 Tesla, and the polarization is 7x10-7 Tesla.

Orbital long radius (astronomical distance unit) 0.387
Orbital long radius (10 million km) 57.9
Stellar cycle in public rotation (day) 87.70
Public Transfer meeting cycle (day) 116
Orbital eccentric heart rate 0.206
Orbital inclination (degree) 7.0
Elevation of intersection yellow longitude (degree) 47.9
Yellow longitude (degree) 76.8 in recent days
Average orbital speed (km) 47.89
Equator radius (Km) 2439
Flat Rate 0.0
Quality (Earth Quality = 1) 0.0553
Density (grams/cubic centimeter) 5.43
Equatorial gravity (Earth = 1) 0.38
Escape speed (km/sec) 4.3
Rotation cycle (day) 58.65
Mirroring rate 0.06
Maximum brightness-1.9
No number of satellites (confirmed)

Venus, one of the nine planets in the solar system, ranks second from far to near the sun. In ancient China, the "White Star" is the brightest star of the day and month, and the brightest star reaches-4.4. Because Venus is on the inside of the Earth's orbit, it always appears near the sun. The angle between Venus and the sun is no greater than 48 °. It is a morning star when it is located in the west of the sun and a faint star when it is located in the east of the sun, the ancient people named them separately, called the Morning Star "Qi Ming" and the faint star as "Chang Geng ". So far, Venus has not been found to have satellites. Venus's orbital revolution is an elliptic very close to the positive circle, with a centrifugal rate of only 0.007 and an orbital angle of 3.4 °. The average distance from the sun is 0.723 astronomical units, the average orbital speed is about 35 kilometers/second, and the public rotation cycle is 224.7 days. The distance between Venus and the Earth is quite large. The recent time was only 4 × 107 km, and the apparent diameter was 61 ". The shortest time was 2.57 × 108 km, with a diameter of 10 ″. Venus is the only planet that reversely rotates in the solar system. That is to say, on Venus, the sun rises and falls in the east. Venus's rotation is very slow and its cycle is 243 days, longer than its cycle of Public rotation. A day or night on Venus is equivalent to 117 Earth days. The size, mass, and density of Venus are very close to that of the earth. The radius is about 6050 km, which is 95% of the earth's equator radius. The mass is 4.87 × 1027 grams, which is 81.5% of the Earth; the average density is about 95% of the Earth's. Venus has a very thick atmosphere with a surface pressure of 90 times that of the earth, mainly composed of carbon dioxide, accounting for more than 97%, in addition to a small amount of nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, water vapor, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. Frequent discharge still exists in the atmosphere of Venus. Thanks to its dense atmospheric protection, Venus's surface is relatively flat, and the number of ring-shaped mountains is very small. There are not very high mountains or mountains. Venus does not have any liquid water on its surface. Due to its harsh natural conditions, it is impossible to have life. Venus does not have a magnetic field and a radiant belt. solar wind, ultraviolet rays, and X-rays can grow straight into the depths of the atmosphere, forming a thin electron around the surface.

Since carbon dioxide and water vapor in the planetary atmosphere allow smooth passage of visible light and ultraviolet light, they are not transparent to infrared rays. Visible Light and ultraviolet rays from the sun can pass through them to heat the surface of the planet. The heat energy emitted from the planet (mainly infrared rays) is absorbed and blocked, and eventually returned to the surface of the planet, the surface temperature of the planet increases constantly, and heat balance can be reached at a high temperature. Venus is very atmospheric, and more than 97% is carbon dioxide, so the greenhouse effect is very strong, the surface temperature is about 480 ℃, and basically no regional, day and night season difference.

Orbital long radius (astronomical distance unit) 0.723
Orbital long radius (10 million km) 108.2
Stellar cycle in public rotation (day) 224.70
Public Transfer meeting cycle (day) 586
Orbital eccentric heart rate 0.007
Orbital inclination (degree) 3.4
Elevation of intersection yellow longitude (degree) 76.3
Yellow longitude (degree) 131.0 in recent days
Average orbital speed (km) 35.03
Equator radius (Km) 6052
Flat Rate 0.0
Quality (Earth Quality = 1) 0.8150
Density (grams/cubic centimeter) 5.24
Equatorial gravity (Earth = 1) 0.91
Escape speed (km/sec) 10.4
Rotation cycle (day) (reverse) 243.01
Huang chijiao (degree) 177.8
Mirroring rate 0.85
Maximum brightness-4.4
Satellite unavailable

Mars, one of the nine planets in the solar system, ranks fourth from near to far from the Sun. It was called confusing in ancient China. The appearance of Mars is highlighted in red, and the brightness changes significantly. The visual stars are between + 1.5 and-2.9. The two satellites were discovered by hoot during the Mars dash in 1877. The elliptical orbit of Mars, the intersection of the orbital plane and the yellow track plane is 1.9 °, the half-length of the orbit is about 1.524 astronomical units, and the orbital centrifugation rate is 0.093. Due to the large Centrifugal rate, the distance between Mars and the Earth is 42 million kilometers away recently, so the distance between Mars and the Earth is greatly changed during the day. The public Revolution Period of Mars is 686.980 days, and the average orbital speed is 24.13 km/second. The rotation period of Mars is 24 hours, 37 minutes, 22.6 seconds, and the intersection of the red track and the Public orbit is 23 ° 59' (slightly larger than that of the earth). Therefore, there are significant four-season changes on Mars. The equator radius of Mars is 3395 km, 53% of the earth, 15% of the earth's size, 6.42x1026 grams of mass, 10.8% of the earth's size, and an average density of 3.96 grams/cm 3, the acceleration of gravity on the surface is 38% of that on the earth. The atmosphere of Mars is much thinner than that of the earth. The main components are carbon dioxide (95%), nitrogen (3%), argon (1-2%), and the content of water vapor and oxygen is very small. The atmospheric pressure on the surface of Mars is 7.5 Mbit/s, equivalent to the atmospheric pressure at 30-40 km high altitude on the earth. Growth is a unique phenomenon in the atmosphere of Mars, and small-scale growth often occurs. Every year, Mars will see a major event sweeping the world. Most areas of the Mars surface are covered by Red silicate, iron oxides such as iron and other metal compounds, thus highlighted in orange red. The temperature on the surface of Mars is more than 30 ℃ lower than that on the earth, and the temperature difference between day and night often exceeds 100 ℃. Near the equator of Mars, the highest temperature is about 20 ℃, and the lowest temperature in the polar region can reach-139 ℃. There are numerous crater, Huoshan, and canyon on the surface of Mars. The northern hemisphere is dominated by the vast volcanic melting rocks plain and dead volcano. The southern hemisphere is not smooth, and it is surrounded by stars. There is no liquid water on Mars, but there are thousands of dry river beds, the longest about 1500 kilometers, 60 kilometers wide, which indicates that there may have been a large amount of liquid water on Mars before. The Mars polar region is covered by a white polar crown. The polar crown is the most significant sign on the surface of Mars. Its size varies with the season, and it is not within the range of the hemisphere polar crown in summer, while the hemisphere polar crown in winter can extend to the latitude of 60 °. The polar crown is composed of ice and solid carbon dioxide (dry ice). The temperature ranges from-70 ℃ to-139 ℃. Due to the constant gasification and condensation of carbon dioxide with temperature changes, the size of the polar crown is constantly changing. In the polar crown, about 20% of carbon dioxide is stored in the atmosphere, and the water content is much higher than that in the atmosphere. If all the ice in the polar crown melts into liquid water, a 10-meter thick water layer can be formed on the Mars surface. The title was found in the 17th century by Hui, a Dutch physicist. In many aspects, Mars is similar to the earth. It has a solid surface surrounded by the atmosphere, Four Seasons of interaction, and seasonal changes. Its Polar crown decreases in summer and expands in winter, like the ablation and freezing of ice and snow, the color of the surface of Mars also changes with the season, like the growth and fading of plants. At the end of the 19th century, it was observed that there was a "canal" on Mars ". Therefore, whether there is life on Mars, or even high-level life like humans, has become a matter of great interest. In 1960s, data sent from the Mars Rover proved that the so-called "Mars canal" was produced by the illusion of human eyes, and they actually did not exist. The color of the surface of Mars changes with the season as a pure meteorological phenomenon. The surface of Mars is a very desolate world without liquid water. The atmosphere is extremely thin and very cold, is not suitable for life. In 1976, the "pirate" No. 1 and No. 2 detectors had a soft landing in the most promising area on Mars. They collected soil samples and some changes occurred during the experiment, however, it cannot be determined whether this change is caused by microbial metabolism or the result of a chemical process in the soil. Therefore, the possibility of low-level creatures on Mars cannot be completely ruled out.

Orbital long radius (astronomical distance unit) 1.524
Orbital long radius (10 million km) 227.9
Stellar cycle in public rotation (day) 686.98
Public Transfer meeting cycle (day) 779.87
Orbital eccentric heart rate 0.093
Orbital inclination (degree) 1.8
Elevation of intersection yellow longitude (degree) 49.2
Yellow longitude (degree) 335.3 in recent days
Average orbital speed (km) 24.13
Equator radius (Km) 3398
Flat Rate 0.0059
Quality (Earth Quality = 1) 0.1074
Density (grams/cubic centimeter) 3.94
Equatorial gravity (Earth = 1) 0.38
Escape speed (km/sec) 5.0
Rotation cycle (day) 1.0260
Huang chijiao (degree) 23.98
Mirroring rate 0.15
Maximum brightness-2.8
Number of satellites (confirmed) 2

Jupiter, the largest of the nine planets in the solar system, is the fifth in the descending order of the sun. In ancient China, it was recognized that Jupiter was running for about 12 years, and the week was divided into 12 parts, which are called twelve times. Jupiter traveled once a year, and the stars where Jupiter was located were used for years, therefore, Jupiter is called a New Year's star. It is the third bright star in the sky, reaching the brightest-2.4, and so on. Only Venus is brighter than Mars at the time of Sunday. Jupiter has many satellites. As of 1990, 16 have been found. In 1979, the StarCraft detector "traveler" 1 found that Jupiter had a dark halo. Jupiter operates around the sun in an elliptical orbit, with a half-length orbit of 5.205 astronomical units and a centrifugal rate of 0.048. The distance between Jupiter and the sun in recent days is about 0.5 astronomical units. The angle between the orbital plane and the yellow plane of Jupiter is very small, with a length of 1.3 °. The cycle of Jupiter's revolution around the sun is 4332.589 days, about 11.86 years, and the average orbital speed is 13.06 km/second. Jupiter is the fastest rotating planet in the solar system. The rotation cycle on the equator is only 9 hours, 50 minutes, 30 seconds, and the rotation in the polar regions is a little slow. Because of its high-speed rotation, the flattening rate reaches 0.0648. The self-rotating shaft of Jupiter is almost perpendicular to the public transition path, and the intersection of the two is up to 86 ° 55 ′. The equator radius of Jupiter is 71400 km, which is 11.2 times that of the earth and 1316 times that of the earth. The mass is 1.9 × 1030 grams, which is more than 300 times higher than the mass of the Earth, it is 2.5 times of the total mass of the other eight planets. The average density is only 1.33g/cm 3, the gravity acceleration on the equator is 27.07 m/second 2, and the polarization is 23.22 m/second 2. Jupiter has a thick atmosphere, mainly composed of hydrogen and helium, but also contains a small amount of ammonia, methane and water. By observing Jupiter with a telescope, we can see that there are a series of clouds in the atmosphere that are parallel to the equator, and the shape of the clouds changes with time. This indicates that intense movements exist in the atmosphere of Jupiter. The surface temperature of Jupiter is very low. According to theoretical calculations, the effective surface temperature should be 105 KB. However, the results of ground observation and row-based interstellar detector are higher than the theoretical values, the heat emitted by Jupiter is twice the solar heat it receives, which indicates that there is a heat source inside Jupiter. Jupiter also has more magnetic layers and radiation belts than the Earth. The Jupiter magnetic layer is 100 times larger than the Earth's magnetic layer. It can be divided into three areas. Inner zone (within the range of 20 Jupiter radius from the surface of Jupiter) has a strong radiation belt similar to the Earth's radiation belt; Intermediary zone (from 20 Jupiter radius to 100 Jupiter radius) the magnetic line is distorted by the centrifugal force. Both the inner and intermediary zones rotate according to the rotation cycle of about 10 hours. The magnetic field in the outer zone (within the radius of 60-90 Jupiter) is very weak, and it has become zero at the boundary of the magnetic layer. Apart from those close to the surface of Jupiter, Jupiter's magnetic field is a dipolar field, but the field direction is opposite to that of the geomagnetic field, that is, the compass pointing north on the earth to Jupiter becomes a guide. The angle between the magnetic axis of Jupiter and the Self-axis is 10.8 °. The magnetic field within the three radius of Jupiter is 4 or 8 pole, and the field strength is 3-11 × 10-4 Tesla. The great erythema on the surface of Jupiter is located on the south side of the equator. It is more than 20 thousand kilometers long and about 11 thousand kilometers wide. It is slightly shaped by eggs. It was found that in 1660, although its color and brightness were constantly changing for more than 300 years, its shape and size were almost unchanged. The erythema was rotated around the center in a counterclockwise direction, and there was a drifting movement in the longitude direction, therefore, it is certainly not a solid surface feature. It is thought to be a large vortex, or a fiercely rising air flow. The vortex or airflow contains red phosphorus compounds, and the color of erythema may be generated. It is not clear why erythema DA can exist for a long time.

Orbital long radius (astronomical distance unit) 5.203
Orbital long radius (10 million km) 778.3
Stellar cycle in public rotation (day) 4332.71
Public Transfer meeting cycle (day) 399
Orbital eccentric heart rate 0.048
Orbital inclination (degree) 1.3
Elevation of intersection yellow longitude (degree) 100.0
Yellow longitude (degree) 13.7 in recent days
Average orbital speed (km) 13.6
Equator radius (Km) 71398
Flat Rate 0.0637
Quality (Earth Quality = 1) 317.833
Density (grams/cubic centimeter) 1.33
Equatorial gravity (Earth = 1) 2.54
Escape speed (km/sec) 59.6
Rotation cycle (day) 0.410
Huang chijiao (degree) 3.08
Mirroring rate 0.58
Maximum brightness-2.5
Number of satellites (confirmed) 61

Saturn, one of the nine planets in the solar system, is the sixth in the descending order of the sun. In ancient China, it was called a star or town star. Before the discovery of Uranus in 1871, Saturn was considered the farthest planet from the sun. Saturn has many satellites and 23 have been found as of 1990. It also has an easy-to-see halo. The orbit in which Saturn rotates around the sun is an elliptic with a centrifugal rate of 0.055, and the half-length of the orbit is 9.576 astronomical units, that is, about 1.4 billion kilometers, the distance between the sun and the sun is about 1 astronomical unit. The intersection angle between the public-to-track plane and the yellow track plane is 2.5 °. The public transfer cycle is 10759.2 days, that is, about 29.5 years. The average orbital speed is 9.64 kilometers per second, and the rotation speed is fast. The self-rotation speed changes with the latitude. The rotation cycle on the equator is 10 hours and 14 minutes, And the latitude is 60 degrees and 10 hours and 40 minutes, the high-speed rotation of Saturn is obviously flat spherical, the polar radius is only 91.2% of the equator radius, and the intersection of Saturn's track and track is 26 ° 44 ′. Saturn's equator radius is 60000 km, 9.41 times that of the earth, and 745 times that of the Earth. The mass is 5.688 × 1029 grams, 95.18 times that of the Earth. Among the nine planets, Saturn ranks second in size and quality after Jupiter. The average density is only 0.70g/cm 3, which is lower than that of water. Due to Saturn's large radius and low density, the gravity acceleration on its surface is similar to that on the Earth's surface. Saturn's atmosphere is dominated by hydrogen and helium and contains methane and other gases. Clouds in the atmosphere are composed of dense ammonia crystals with colored bright bands and dark lines, but they are more like clouds in the atmosphere of Jupiter. The Saturn surface temperature is about-140 ℃, and the cloud top temperature is-170 ℃. The planet detector "pioneer" found on November 11 that Saturn had an ionic consisting of ionic hydrogen, and the temperature of the electron was about 977 ℃. Saturn also has magnetic and radiation bands. The magnetic field ranges thousands of times larger than that of the earth, but smaller than that of Jupiter. Saturn's magnetic axis does not deviate from its axis of rotation. The radiation belt is far less powerful than the Earth's radiation belt.

Orbital long radius (astronomical distance unit) 9.539
Orbital long radius (10 million km) 1427.0
Stellar cycle in public rotation (day) 10759.5
Public Transfer meeting cycle (day) 378
Orbital eccentric heart rate 0.056
Orbital inclination (degree) 2.5
Elevation of intersection yellow longitude (degree) 113.3
Yellow longitude (degree) 92.3 in recent days
Average orbital speed (km) 9.64
Equator radius (Km) 60330
Flat Rate 0.102
Quality (Earth Quality = 1) 95.159
Density (grams/cubic centimeter) 0.70
Equatorial gravity (Earth = 1) 1.08
Escape speed (km/sec) 35.6
Rotation cycle (day) 0.426
Huang chijiao (degree) 26.73
Mirroring rate 0.57
Maximum brightness-0.4
Number of satellites (confirmed) 31

Uranus, one of the nine planets in the solar system, ranks seventh in the order of proximity to the sun. In 1781, it was discovered by British astronomy Herman. From the earth's perspective, Uranus can reach a maximum brightness of 5.7. It is a small blue-green spot in the telescope, which cannot identify details. On October 16, January 24, 1986, the travelers' planet 2 Rover flew near Uranus, sending back a lot of information about Uranus. The half-diameter of the orbit in which Uranus rotates around the sun is about 2.9 × 109 km, and the orbital centrifugation rate is about 0.05. The orbital inclination is only 0.8 °. The average speed of the revolution around the sun is 6.81 km/h, and the cycle of the revolution is 84.01 years. The tilt angle of the track surface and the Public Transit Plane is 97 ° 55', which is almost "lying", making the Four Seasons change and day-and-night alternation unique. In the summer of a hemisphere, its Poles almost direct to the sun, while the other hemisphere is completely in the dark winter. The rotation cycle of Uranus measured by travelers on November 2 is 17.24 hours. Uranus has an equator radius of about 25400 kilometers, and is second only to Jupiter and Saturn among the nine planets. The density is small, only 1.19g/cm 3. The surface is covered with a strong atmosphere. Because it is far away from the sun and receives little solar radiation, the surface temperature is very low, in the upper atmosphere of Uranus, the atmospheric pressure is equivalent to the atmospheric pressure of 0.4 Earth, and the temperature is only-214 ℃. Uranus is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. Under the atmosphere is a sea with a temperature of more than 8000 kilometers up to thousands of degrees. Due to the huge atmospheric pressure, the sea is not boiling. Uranus also has a magnetic field and a magnetic layer. The magnetic layer extends at least 590000 kilometers to the sun side, and the magnetic tail length is about 6 million kilometers. In the magnetic layer, the plasma is mainly composed of the proton and electrons. The magnetic intensity of Uranus is about 1/10 of that of the earth, about 0.05x10-4 Tesla, the angle between the magnetic axis and the Self-rotating shaft is as high as 55 °. As of June 1991, 15 Uranus satellites were found, and Uranus had a complex halo consisting of at least 20 bright rings with many dark rings.

Orbital long radius (astronomical distance unit) 19.267
Orbital long radius (10 million km) 2882.3
Stellar cycle in public rotation (day) 30685
Public Transfer meeting cycle (day) 370
Orbital eccentric heart rate 0.046
Orbital inclination (degree) 0.8
Elevation of intersection yellow longitude (degree) 73.8
Yellow longitude (degree) 170.0 in recent days
Average orbital speed (km) 6.81
Equator radius (Km) 25400
Flat Rate 0.024
Quality (Earth Quality = 1) 14.500
Density (grams/cubic centimeter) 1.30
Equatorial gravity (Earth = 1) 0.91
Escape speed (km/sec) 21.3
Rotation cycle (day) 0.646
Huang chijiao (degree) 97.92
Mirroring rate 0.80
Maximum Brightness + 5.6
Number of satellites (confirmed) 21

Neptune, one of the nine planets in the solar system, ranks eighth in the order from near to far from the Sun. After the discovery of uranus In 1781, we found that the movement of Uranus was slightly different from that of actual observations. Most astronomers believe that this difference is caused by the disturbance of a large planet out of the Uranus orbit. On October 16, 1846, French leweiye calculated the location of the big planet and informed the Berlin Observatory. In September 18, 1846, Galle found the new planet at a position less than 1 ° different from the forecast. The name is Neptune. The brightness of Neptune is 7.85, which can be seen through a telescope. The half-diameter of Neptune's public orbit is 30.13 astronomical units, the orbit is very close to the positive circle, the centrifugal rate is only 0.006, and the angle between the orbit and the yellow plane is 1.8 °. Its average speed on the track is 5.43 km/h, and its public transfer cycle is 164.8 years. The rotation cycle is 16 hours, 3 minutes, 16 hours, and 5 minutes. The angle between the runway and the Public orbit is about 29 °, which is slightly larger than that of the Earth. Neptune also has four seasons of change. The equator radius of Neptune is about 24765 km. Due to fast rotation, the flattening rate is also large, which is 1/58. The average density is 1.64g/cm 3. In August 25, 1989, the travelers' planet 2 probe flew near Neptune, giving us a lot of new knowledge about Neptune. There is an active atmosphere on Neptune, with three significant bright spots and two dark spots in the atmosphere. The large dark spot is called the "big black spot", which is about 12000 km long and 8000 km wide. It is very similar to the great erythema of Jupiter in many aspects and is actually a large cyclone. Neptune's atmosphere contains high concentrations of methane and hydrogen sulfide, and the atmospheric morphology changes dramatically and rapidly. The reason is unclear about how a planet like Neptune, far from the sun, gets such great energy to drive its atmosphere. Traveler 2 also found that Neptune also had a magnetic field and a magnetic layer, and the angle between the magnetic field and the Self-rotating shaft was about 50 °. The magnetic layer is a plasma consisting of electronic and hydrogen ions, helium ions, and nitrogen ions. As of 1991, Neptune had eight satellites and five auras.

Orbital long radius (astronomical distance unit) 30.240
Orbital long radius (10 million km) 4523.9
Stellar cycle in public rotation (day) 60190
Public Transfer meeting cycle (day) 367
Orbital eccentric heart rate 0.008
Orbital inclination (degree) 1.8
Elevation of intersection yellow longitude (degree) 131.3
Yellow longitude (degree) 44.3 in recent days
Average orbital speed (km) 5.43
Equator radius (Km) 24600
Flat Rate 0.027
Quality (Earth Quality = 1) 17.204
Density (grams/cubic centimeter) 1.76
Equatorial gravity (Earth = 1) 1.19
Escape speed (km/sec) 23.8
Rotation cycle (day) 0.658
Huang chijiao (degree) 28.8
Mirroring rate 0.71
Maximum Brightness + 7.9
Number of satellites (confirmed) 11

Pluto, the farthest planet from the Sun (note: the 2006 International Astronomical Society has removed it from the big star and divided it into dwarf planets ). Tang Bo, an American astronomy, discovered the problem in 1930. The half-length orbit of Pluto is 39.87 astronomical units. The orbital centrifugal rate and orbital inclination are the largest of the nine planets. The orbital centrifugation rate is 0.256. In recent days, it is only 29.8 astronomical units from the sun, closer than Neptune. The orbital angle is 17.1 °, which is much larger than other major stars. The average orbital speed is 4.74 km/second, and it takes 248 to go public for a week. Based on the variation in the brightness of Pluto's surface, it can be measured that its rotation cycle is 6 days, 9 hours, 17 minutes. The angle between the self axis and the Public axis of Pluto is greater than 60 °, so it is similar to the lateral rotation of Uranus. The quality of Pluto is 1.43 × 1025 grams, only 0.24% of the earth, smaller than the moon. Because it is too far away from the earth and the visible surface is too small, it is very difficult to accurately determine the diameter of the Earth. It was first thought that its diameter was 6400 km. Later, it was found that its diameter was 2400-km, generally km. The average density of Pluto is between 1.84-2.14 grams/cm. The surface temperature is very low. The sun surface is about K, and the back Yang surface is only 20 K. A layer of Methane ice is covered on the surface. When it runs near a recent day, the methane ice is sublimated to form a temporary Pluto atmosphere. Pluto has a natural synchronous satellite.

Orbital long radius (astronomical distance unit) 39.553
Orbital long radius (10 million km) 5917.1
Stellar cycle in public rotation (day) 90800
Public Transfer meeting cycle (day) 367
Orbital eccentric heart rate 0.250
Orbital inclination (degree) 17.1
Elevation of intersection yellow longitude (degree) 109.9
Yellow longitude (degree) 224.2 in recent days
Average orbital speed (km) 4.74
Equator radius (Km) 1500
Flat Rate?
Quality (Earth Quality = 1) 0.0026
Density (grams/cubic centimeter) 1.10
Equatorial gravity (Earth = 1) 0.05
Escape speed (km/sec) 1.2
Rotation cycle (day) 6.39
Huang chijiao (degree) ≥ 60
Mirroring rate 0.15
Maximum Brightness + 14.9
Number of satellites (confirmed) 1

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