After the reform and opening-up, because of the rapid development of private companies, wide-spread scope, involving many industries, difficult to handle, and a small number of private companies, the company's main law awareness is not strong, some companies do not know the laws and regulations of special equipment, or the particularity of special equipment and its potential dangers. I think that if I am engaged in company operations, I only need to pay taxes according to the regulations. I need to re-operate my jobs, so that I am safe and environmentally friendly, and my legal concepts are indifferent.
As a special equipment under pressure, a pressure vessel has the risk of cracking, leakage, and personal injury. In addition, once it is cracked or leaked, it is usually prone to fire, poisoning, and other catastrophic events. As a result, developed countries in the world have formulated special laws and regulations on pressure vessels, and have established sound regulations and systems for standard and disposal. Units that require the production and use of special equipment should establish and improve the safety and energy-saving treatment rules for special equipment and the duty principles for post safety and energy-saving. The principal person in charge of the production and use of special equipment shall take full responsibility for the safety and energy-saving of special equipment of the unit. Inspection and inspection organizations for the production, use, and special equipment of special equipment shall be responsible for the safety supervision and handling of special equipment in accordance with the law. During viewing, it was found that a proper number of private companies did not set up a special equipment security disposal organization according to the rules. They were equipped with full-time security disposal personnel, and the handling of Pressure Vessel archival materials was chaotic. Many companies do not set up pressure container archives according to rules, and the contents of these files are incomplete. Many companies only need a picture or a registration card. Sound Pressure Container files should include equipment planning, production, equipment, application, repair and transformation, annual inspection, regular inspection, regular inspection statement, use of registration certificates, and security appraisal materials. Almost no organization launches annual and monthly inspection of pressure containers. Some companies do not develop operation procedures for pressure containers.
The State implements administrative approval rules for planning, production, equipment, repair, transformation, inspection, and viewing of pressure vessels. It is necessary for the units and personnel engaged in the relevant operations to obtain the appropriate qualifications for access. It is necessary for the handling personnel and operators of pressure containers of the application unit to be certified for employment. However, I found that some equipment disposal personnel in some companies do not know the special nature of the pressure vessel, and treat it like the normal mechanical equipment, do not know that the pressure vessel equipment should be carried out by a tianzi Equipment Unit; Before the equipment should go to the local Quality Supervision and some disposal equipment to inform the procedures, pressure vessel transformation should be handled in accordance with the rules reported to the supervision procedures, the pressure vessel application unit may be put into use before the pressure vessel may be put into use within 30 days according to the needs of the municipalities directly under the Central Government or the quality supervision of the city may set up some one-by-one Disposal using registration procedures, after the pressure container is put into use, it usually performs the first full check when it is 3 years old. -[Maoming oil tank] the company needs to perform annual inspection on pressure containers and self-inspection on a monthly basis each year. Together, the company will conduct regular inspection on Special Equipment Based on the security level of pressure containers. Security levels are 1 and 2, usually every 6 years. security levels are 3, usually 3 ~ Once every six years; if the security level is 4, it shall be monitored and used. The inspection period shall be determined by the inspection organization. The cumulative monitoring usage time shall not exceed three years; if the security level is 5, the fault should be disposed of; otherwise, the fault cannot be used continuously. For pressure containers whose service life has reached the expected service life, they may be used for more than 20 years. If they need to be used continuously, the application organization shall entrust qualified special equipment inspection and inspection organization to inspect it (if necessary, conduct joint application evaluation), and shall, after being approved by the principal person in charge of the application unit, continue to use it. Such rules not only clarify the security responsibilities of the company, but also avoid unexpected use of events and give full play to the potential of devices.
Currently, a large number of private companies do not pay attention to regular inspection of pressure containers. Some security supervisors do not check or report for inspection, and annual inspections and monthly inspections are basically not conducted. The reason is that many companies do not have full-time Pressure Vessel engineering skills and handling personnel in accordance with the rules, or the relevant personnel do not know the pressure vessel, and they are unable to undertake this operation, the safe operation of pressure containers poses a major security risk.
In the view, we found that many private companies cannot promptly handle the registration procedures for using pressure containers. The first reason is that the country's rules for handling registration procedures are unclear; the second reason is whether some equipment is attributed to a pressure container, leaving a dead end, for example, it is found that some companies do not know how to classify the Papermaking cylinder, refrigeration equipment, and the evaporator in the central air-conditioning system into the pressure vessel; third, the registration procedures for shift equipment (for example, some private companies move pressure containers from one internal base of the group to another) are not handled in accordance with the rules; fourth, the registration and change procedures of purchased second-hand equipment are not handled in a timely manner.
The overpressure protection equipment of special equipment, such as relief valve, pressure vessel, and pressure pipe, is discharged to the outside of the system to avoid the pressure of the equipment or the media in the pipeline exceeding the rule value. The relief valve belongs to the active valve. Its common types include heavy hammer, lever heavy hammer, spring, pulse, and so on. In the meantime, the most widely used direct Load Tension-spring relief valve is divided into full-open and micro-open type according to the open height.
In the view, it is often found that the company does not pay attention to the regular adjustment of the relief valve on the pressure vessel, and cannot adjust regularly according to the rules. The first reason is that the safety valve needs to be adjusted regularly; the second is that some equipment is not easy to disassemble due to the location of the safety valve equipment (such as vertical containers, the safety valve equipment on the top of the container, but the container has no escalator, difficult to disassemble the safety valve), and thus cannot be adjusted in time. -[Maoming oil tank] It is also often found that the company has an incorrect type of safety valve selection, such as selecting the all-open type and selecting the micro-open type; should choose fully closed, and wrong choose semi-closed, etc.
In addition, pressure gauges and thermometers are not adjusted in a timely manner, and pressure tests are performed on the level gauge without regular repair.
In order to strengthen the safe disposal of pressure containers, developed countries in the world have formulated special laws and regulations on special equipment such as pressure containers, and established a sound regulation system for standards and disposal. Since the beginning of the 1980 s, China has successively issued a series of skills and skills standards for pressure containers. These standards and standards have been published for more than 20 years. They have effectively promoted and strengthened the safe disposal of pressure containers in various places, significantly reducing the event-based attack rate of pressure containers, it can be used to reduce and manipulate the recurrence of vicious and similar events.
China's Special Equipment laws and regulations system mainly includes the following levels: Laws and Regulations? Regulations? Some rules? Skill standards (including national standards, industry standards, and company standards.
Common regulations and standards for pressure containers currently include: special equipment safety supervision regulations, fixed Pressure Vessel Safety Skill supervision rules, boiler pressure vessel pressure pipe special equipment emergency handling rules, and non-destructive Special equipment measures for supervision and handling of units, administrative penalty rules for safety supervision of special equipment of Boiler Pressure Vessel and pressure pipe, conditions for Boiler Pressure Vessel production, and measures for supervision and handling of Boiler Pressure Vessel Production "Boiler Pressure Vessel production promise Operation Procedures", "Boiler Pressure Vessel commodity Safety Performance Supervision and Inspection Rules", "Boiler Pressure Vessel Supervision and handling measures for Import and Export", and "Boiler Pressure Vessel Inspection Unit supervision "inspection methods, boiler pressure vessel pressure pipes and special equipment inspection personnel qualification inspection rules, special equipment quality supervision and safety supervision rules, and special equipment registration and application handling rules "," State Council's rules on the investigation of administrative responsibilities for serious security incidents "," Administrative Penalty rules for safety supervision of special equipment for Boiler and Pressure Vessels and pressure vessels ", and non-destructive inspection of special equipment for pressure pipelines of Boiler and Pressure Vessels unit qualification view implementation strategy trial, boiler pressure vessel pressure pipe welders examination and handling rules Moment.
In order to ensure the safety of pressure containers, quality supervision personnel at all levels should regularly train persons serving as pressure containers and operation personnel of pressure containers in accordance with relevant regulations, standards and standards to improve the quality of relevant personnel. On the other hand, the company's main security responsibilities should be implemented. the legal person of the pressure vessel application unit should strengthen the company's establishment of regulations and establish perfect handling rules and operating procedures based on the characteristics of special equipment disposal, clear responsibilities of special equipment handling personnel at all levels. An Equipment Specialist (and) Security disposal personnel should establish and improve rules and guidelines centered on the job responsibility system, operating procedures, regular inspection, maintenance and incident emergency measures, and rescue plans, perform routine security check of special equipment carefully.
Together, we will strengthen the construction of dynamic supervision systems and standards for special equipment to prevent various incidents of special equipment, such as boilers, pressure vessels, elevators, and cranes.
For the special characteristics of pressure containers, when purchasing new pressure containers, the relevant handling personnel should participate in skills recognition operations, plan and prepare tianzi inspection and process quality control operations for pressure containers, ensure import customs clearance. Together, we will strengthen the assignment and inspection of newly purchased pressure containers. If possible, please have tianzi third-party inspection organizations to participate in Quality Inspection of newly purchased pressure containers, and issues a complete and fair quality inspection statement. In the equipment phase, we should strengthen the inspection of the equipment's daily resources, and promptly request the construction unit to handle the installation procedures before the construction of the equipment. It is best to carry out a pre-service inspection before the pressure vessel is put into use, detect and eliminate the inherent defects of the equipment in time, and promptly go to the equipment registration authority to handle registration procedures. In the process of repair and application, pay attention to the collection of relevant operation and protection materials, and establish and improve the relevant files. Strengthen annual inspection, routine inspections, and regular inspection of equipment, and organize the investigation and registration of the company's pressure containers by inductive inspection to find out the bottom of the company's pressure containers, and establish a complete set of special equipment archives, timely reporting and regular inspection according to rules.
Because the safety accessories of the pressure vessel have the safety production protection effect, the application unit should adjust the safety valve, pressure gauge, thermometer and level gauge regularly in accordance with the rules in the safety Safety Skill inspection procedure, select an accurate relief valve type as planned. For parts such as explosive fragments, the company should formulate regular replacement rules based on the characteristics of the media and the actual situation of the company.
Archive is an important part of Pressure Vessel Disposal. The complete archive of pressure vessels includes planning, production, equipment, application, protection, annual viewing, regular inspection, and regular inspection, such as the repair map, equipment inspection materials, the use of repair materials, the use of registration cards, inspection statements, and so on. It provides relevant skills and materials for the use and disposal of pressure containers, repair and transformation, and regular inspection. The application unit should set up the archive materials of pressure containers per unit. -[Maoming tank]
This article from: http://www.jmwanfu.com/
This article is from the "9478004" blog, please be sure to keep this source http://9488004.blog.51cto.com/9478004/1567305
Solutions to tank container management and hidden dangers