A Free Trial That Lets You Build Big!
Start building with 50+ products and up to 12 months usage for Elastic Compute Service
two kinds of important enterprise development platform
The improvement of Web service-side development technology makes it possible to develop complex web applications. In the tide of E-commerce, in order to meet the needs of enterprise application development, in order to provide more reliable and perfect information service for end users, The two most important enterprise development platforms,--J2EE and. NET, were born in the Java and Windows camps before and after 2000, and they immediately began a life-and-death endeavor in the enterprise Web development arena. The platform contention has made the Web world a restless one in recent years, but in a sense it is this confrontational rivalry that has spurred web development technology to rise and leap at an unprecedented pace.
Java EE is a pure java-based solution. In 1998, Sun released the EJB 1.0 standard. EJB provides a good technical basis for the necessary data encapsulation, transaction processing and transaction control in enterprise application. So far, the three key technologies of Java EE Platform servlet, JSP and EJB have been published successively. In 1999, Sun officially released the first version of Java EE. Next, follow the Java EE Standard, for enterprise-class applications to provide support platform for all kinds of application services software scrambling to emerge out. IBM's WebSphere, Bea's WebLogic are the most successful commercial software platforms in the field. With the rise of the open source movement, the open source world of JBoss and other application services rookie also attracted a lot of users attention. By 2003, Sun's Java version had been upgraded to release 1.4, with three key components evolving to servlet 2.4, JSP 2.0, and EJB 2.1. To this end, the Java EE system and related software products has become a Web server development of a strong supporting environment.
Unlike Java EE, Microsoft's. NET platform is a common operating environment that emphasizes interaction between multiple languages. Although. NET designers try to use the. NET platform as the preferred operating environment for most Windows applications, but. NET first attracts the attention of web developers. In 2001, ECMA passed the C # language and CLI standards submitted by Microsoft, which constitute the two technical standards. NET platform, they also became ISO international standards in 2003. Microsoft officially released the. NET framework and Visual Studio in 2002. NET development environment. Early in. NET release, there are already many Windows platform Web developers who can't wait to develop web apps with a beta version. This is probably because,. NET Platform and related development environment not only provides a common platform for Web server application, but also introduces a new Web development technology such as asp.net. Asp. NET beyond the limitations of the ASP, you can use vb.net, C # and other compiled languages, support Web Form,. NET Server control, ADO. NET and other advanced features. Objectively speaking,. NET platform, especially. NET platform asp.net is indeed a web development technology on the Windows platform as a synthesizer.
XML language and related technologies
If the HTML language gives the Web world infinite vitality, then the emergence of XML language can be counted as a new life of the Web. According to Tim Berners-lee, the Web is an "information space." The HTML language has the strong expressive force, but also has the weakness which the structure is too flexible, the grammar is not standard. When information appears in the HTML language, the information space of the web is disorganized and disorderly. In order for all the information in the Web world to be rule-based, we need a more standardized language that embodies the characteristics of information.
In the 1996, the consortium presented the draft XML (extensible Markup Language) language based on the SGML language. 1998, the consortium officially released the XML 1.0 standard. The XML language has made the maximum specification to the information format and the expression method, the application software can process all XML information in a unified way. As a result, information can be shared and exchanged throughout the web world with technical guarantees. HTML language is concerned with the manifestation of information, while XML language is concerned with the format and data content of the information itself. In this sense, the XML language can not only improve the client's information display technology to a new level, but also significantly improve the server's information acquisition, generation, publishing and sharing capabilities. In 1999, the Consortium developed XSLT standards in order to transform XML information into different forms of information, such as HTML. In the same year, IE 5.0 added support for XML and XSLT.
Now, Web site developers can use the XML language to publish information directly. A number of specialized XML specifications have been developed for different application areas. For example, the SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) 1.0 standard published by the 2001 consortium is an entirely new two-dimensional vector graphics format expressed in XML language. Developers can describe most existing flash animations in SVG format. In contrast to the Flash format, SVG formats that conform to XML standards are clearly more conducive to information exchange and sharing.
The web itself is one of the largest distributed application systems. XML technology is also useful for distributed development. The obvious fact is that if distributed applications can exchange information in XML format, then the problem of information exchange that spans the distributed architecture will be solved. 1999, the Consortium and related Enterprises began to discuss the design of xml-based communication protocols, and in 2000, the consortium published version 1.1 of the soap (simple Object Access Protocol) protocol. The distributed application model that uses the SOAP protocol to transfer XML information is called Web Service. In 2001, the consortium published version 1.1 of the WSDL (Web Services Description Language) protocol. The SOAP protocol and the WSDL protocol together form the basis of the Web service. Subsequently, Java EE and. NET, the two enterprise-level development platforms have implemented Web Service, as a core function of the platform.
The important thing about Web service for Web developers is that when we need to transfer information between different server, different clients, different application types, different computing devices, the previous distributed development technology is either because of adaptability or because of insufficient scalability, are difficult to meet the needs of modern web development, and Web service fills this void.
Web Development Framework and Application Model
Since the 2000, as Web applications have become increasingly complex, people have come to realize that relying on a single technology is mostly not the best way to achieve rapid development, rapid validation, and rapid deployment. The researchers began to attempt to synthesize the existing web development technologies to form a complete development framework or application model to meet a variety of complex application requirements.
Microsoft is at the front of the technology integration side of the client. Windows 98, launched by Microsoft in 1998, integrates Web pages on the desktop, effectively combining the functionality of the Resource Manager and Web browser. 2000 years later, Microsoft has launched MSN Explorer and related MSN Online Services. This application model integrates Web browsing, video-on-demand, mail processing, online games, online chatting, and many other web functions commonly used by users in a unified interface. From the point of view of information utilization, it is indeed commendable that MSN tries to get enough information from users in one of the most comfortable environments. Another example of client-side technology integration is the Google Toolbar feature that search engine Google displayed to everyone in 2003. Although Google Toolbar has speculation and advertising suspicion, but the installation of Google Toolbar after the IE browser information browsing and information retrieval organically combined, this small function improvement is indeed to the user's thoughtfulness and help.
On the Web service side, there are several major technology fusion methods after 2000. First, an increasing number of web development environments are beginning to support the MVC design model, providing a full range of development frameworks for developers to Model-view-contorller. In fact, the Java EE and the. NET platforms themselves are typical representatives of this development framework. Second, the portal services (portals Server) and Web content Management (Management) have become key models of application integration in recent years. These two application models can directly provide developers or end users with an advanced platform for building Web applications, making Web development and information publishing work much simpler. Examples of such applications in the commercial software world include Microsoft SharePoint, IBM's WebSphere Portal, FileNet Web Content Manager, and so on. Open source projects are very active in the Web development framework and application model, and Struts, Jetspeed, Jportlet, Cocoon, Lenya, Xoops are excellent solutions for the MVC Development Framework, Portal services, and Web content management in the open source world.
Of course, technology integration is by no means a technology stack. Some Web sites and Web application developers put together fashionable technologies such as XML language, MVC framework, and so on, regardless of whether they can adapt to a specific application environment, their systems are either inefficient or functionally incomplete. On the contrary, a noteworthy fact is that, like Sina, Sohu or netease, such as portals, in their information publishing page (such as news page), although the information content at all times in the refresh, but the Web server is always stored on the static HTML page. The advantage of this "backward technology" is that, in the case of a large number of concurrent accesses, the portal site is still responding fast. Deep down to the technical level, we are often surprised to find that most of these sites use a self-developed Web content management system. When content editing for a Web site submits new information, the system automatically converts the information to HTML format and publishes it to every node in the Web server cluster. In a corner of Sina, we can find the "Sina website Publishing System" research and development process:
V 1.0 (1997): Based on the document version, the implementation of the news page, body and topic release.
V 1.1 (1998/12): The use of database background, the implementation of cross-server publishing, high degree of automation.
V 2.0 (1999/3): the creation of templates and domain of the new concept, laid the series of basic design ideas.
V 2.1 (1999/9): Add peripheral modules, such as search, automatic collection.
V 3.0 (2000/1): Optimize transmission mode, add related news and comments.
V 3C (2000/6): V3.0 's compiled version, also a commercial version of the prototype.
V 3.1 (2000/7): Optimize the structure of the database, the use of memory cache significantly speed up, increased the centralized monitoring function.
V 3.1C (2000/8): Commercial test version.
V 3.2 (in production): Focus on resolving the automated switching of backup systems, implementation of the mechanism never downtime.
This interesting historical record once again confirms my basic view on Web development technology: a technology that provides users with a high level of information services is the best and most advanced technology.
the future of web development technology
Everyone is concerned about the future of the web, and everyone wants to know what the web will look like 10 years from now. To answer these questions, no one is more authoritative than the other. The web's future is a semantic web (semantic Web) that is clearly told by the consortium. Today's web can easily generate, deliver, and present a wide variety of information, but it is only a "container" of information, and it is difficult to reveal the content and characteristics of the information itself. In contrast, the future of the semantic Web is a knowledge of the content of the Web, is the real "information administrator."
From a technical point of view, XML language unifies the expression of information, but it is far from the goal of revealing the content of information. In 1998, the consortium and some research institutes began to study metadata (Metadata). Metadata is the data describing the data, can reveal the content of information characteristics. In 1999, Netscape's proposed RSS (Rich Site Summary) standard was the first attempt to describe the content of information, such as news, using meta data technology. 1999, the research Group of the consortium presented the draft standard of RDF (Resource Description Framework). Based on XML syntax, RDF prescribes the storage structure of metadata and relevant technical standards. Using the RDF language, we can reveal various features of the information itself in a unified, exchangeable format. In 2001, the consortium began to develop the owl (Owl Web Ontology Language) standard. The owl language is also a language that conforms to the XML standard, and is a step ahead of RDF to describe the content of information in more depth and detail. With the help of RDF and Owl languages, we can make information content on the Web easier to understand, easier to exchange, and share. In 2003, the consortium established the Semantic Web Service research Group (Semantic web Services Interest Group) to study issues related to the incorporation of semantic technologies into Web service. February 2004, the consortium announced that the RDF and owl standards were officially the recommended solution for the consortium, marking the groundbreaking of the Semantic Web building.
With the emergence and development of Semantic Web, Web development technology will also undergo more significant changes. Predictably, there will be many new development technologies or development platforms in the coming years. From static technology to dynamic technology, from development platform to application model, from traditional web to semantic web ... To give more people access to more valuable information services, Web developers may experience another wave of technology and face tougher technical challenges, but what does this have to do with the highest goal of information sharing?
Start building with 50+ products and up to 12 months usage for Elastic Compute Service