Referring to the North American War of Independence, the first reaction in most people's minds was the words "Washington", "the Gunfire of Lexington" and "The Victory of York", and what we are going to say today is the "York victory", known as the war after the North American Revolution.
What is there to talk about in this battle? Is it that Washington led the high-spirited army to sweep the fallen leaves and beat Britain? Yes, but this is a formal statement after the American media has controlled world opinion.
And the real history, we need from the non-mainstream secluded corner, from the boring data and records of their own analysis.
(1) The surrender book signed by Fort Cornwallis
First, let's take a look at the long-Jockton the British have signed the surrender document, signed by the British in the British Army will count Fort Cornwallis and the British Royal Navy, York River Small fleet commander Symonds. The United States and France "coalition" side there are three people, one is not a knighthood, the so-called "United States and France commander in chief" of Washington, the other two are the French Royal Army Army will count Rochambeau and the Admiral Glacet.
Is it strange? Among the signatories to the most decisive showdown in the American War of Independence, there was only one "American" who signed the document on behalf of the victorious party, while the French had two. More surprisingly, the two were led by the French regulars rather than the "volunteers" we had known in the past.
One might say that, although there are two Frenchmen, there is only one American, but this American is the famous Washington, "Commander-in-Chief of United States-French forces"
Let us not consider this "United States-France coalition force" as the Real "coalition", where the United States and France is a temporary patchwork, the "commander in chief" is not so much as the commander of the power of the British to see a vase, in the back of this article we will see that Washington has not commanded the French.
In fact, the launch of the Battle of York itself was the decision of the French commander himself, and the decision-making process was simply not in the hands of Washington. The decision of the French commander forced Washington to "act decisively" to lead the ministry south to the war and eventually become a joint operation of the French and American main forces. So the story of Washington's "visionary" decision-making campaign, described in most historical books today, is simply farting.
(2) Background of the campaign
In the spring of 1881, the Battle of the North American continent remained deadlocked, as determined by the British commander's established strategy of Clinton. At this time the British Navy occupies absolute sea power, so the British have almost complete control of the trade-based 13 states of North America all port one-this is tantamount to control the North American 13 states of pulse. Now that we have control over each other's pulse, why do you bleed so much? Clinton made the final victory through the blockade, with the least amount of bloodshed. We have to point out that if it weren't for the sudden advent of the French Navy, it would be a very smart and successful strategy.
It is in this strategy under the guidance of the South to conquer by the 6,000 U.S. troops to adhere to the Charleston, slaughter more than 5,000 have surrendered the U.S. troops, and then successive defeat of the U.S. military, Clinton led die young more than 13,000 people back to New York "Rest", only sent Fort Cornwallis with thousands of people to stay in the south sweep. For the British Army at that time, to leave a alone in the place away from the main, as long as the Navy can get support, there is no great danger. A few years ago, when the British alone in the Battle of Saratoga broke away from the fleet, they would not do it again.
At this time of the North American continent, the British regular opponents have two, one is Washington led by the Continental Army, a Rochambeau led by the French Special Expeditionary Force, they are waiting for the arrival of French sea and land reinforcements. But in May of 1871 years, Rochambeau's son brought news that the second batch of 5,000 French ground troops had been lifted to North America because of the risk of shipping, and the French king authorized Rochambeau himself to "excision". So Rochambeau had to talk to Washington to discuss the next action plan. Washington's military command is nowhere near as high as his fame, and his military mind is dominated by the occupation of the city, which he has been trying to recapture for several years now, and he still insists. In a later meeting, Washington repeatedly insisted that New York was "the only viable target in the current situation," and Rochambeau reluctantly agreed to Washington's battle plan.
In early July 1781, in accordance with the established battle plan, France and the United States troops in the "White Plains" to prepare to launch the New York campaign. But the situation of the Continental Army was clearly a surprise to the Frenchman, as described in a French artillery lieutenant's record as follows: "I was shocked when I first saw this army ... They had no uniforms, most of them tattered, and most of them bare their feet. They have different forms, even children less than 14 years old!!! ”
The big Army, brought by Washington, was not only poorly equipped and grooming, but more importantly, Rochambeau in a report to the French authorities after the Franco-American army joined forces, "we have less than 4,000 allies."
In this case, although Washington is still full of expectations for launching the New York campaign, Rochambeau, a professional soldier who has participated in 14 siege battles, flatly refuses to attack New York after observing the city defense work in New York. The alternative to military action was economic action---------Rochambeau lent to Washington a half of his own cash--120,000 miles--to pay his salary.
The money is very crucial. Just a few months ago, more than 1300 troops in Pennsylvania (one-tenth per cent of the total of the Continental Army) launched a mutiny and advanced to Philadelphia, the Continental Conference seat. The reason is simple, although the big Army also pay, but they get the currency of the mainland currency note is equal to zero. It is no exaggeration to say that the hard currency provided by the French has played a key role in raising the morale of the Continental Army in the Battle of York.
While the army's soldiers cheered for a strong French silver coin, Rochambeau decided to abandon the New York campaign and instead Fort Cornwallis to attack the south with the main force. Without waiting for Washington's stance, he wrote directly to the French admiral, Glacet, and strongly advised that "there are two offensive locations to the enemy: Chesapeake Bay and New York." The southwest wind direction and Virginia's critical situation will probably make you choose Chesapeake Bay, where we think you can make the most contribution. ”
August 14, the exact message to the headquarters in Washington-the GLACET fleet will go directly to the Chesapeake Bay and will be there to unload 3,000 French army. So, according to American officials, Washington "decisively decided" to "lead the United States and France" to March south, attacking York's Concordia British Army.
In this way, the Battle of York was kicked off. It was clear that Washington was forced by the French army to take part in the Battle of the Yorkshire 90%, and that until then, all his efforts were centred around launching the New York campaign.
(3) Comparison of the strength of the two sides
To understand a battle, first to know the number of combatants on both sides, after a period of search, we found several different data, in order to express the trust of the American people, I have the largest number of U.S. troops in the record translated as follows. This data comes from the authoritative version of the "Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionaries" on page 1248th.
Number of combatants:
Infantry, 7290, artillery, 514 cavalry, 176 men.
Total, the Army 7980 people (the author by: I collected the other information in the minimum value of this number is 5645 people)
Militia 3153 People
Total Staff 11133
of which the loss of combat effectiveness of personnel (disease) 1700 People total effective force (take integer) 9500 people
Rochambeau Force 400 people
Saint-Simon Army 3000 people
1000 sailors who went ashore to fight the war.
Total 8800 people
In addition, about 15,000 French fleet officers and soldiers were involved in the Battle of the Sea.
In total, the coalition forces are 18300.
The number of troops reported at the beginning of the battle
including German mercenaries: 8885 people
It is estimated that the number of naval officers directly in the war is 840 (the numbers of naval officers here are based on the list of British soldiers who surrendered to Glacet)
In this way the British Army estimated the number of troops at the start of the campaign of 9725 people:
Estimated number of patients: 1500 people
8225 actual effective forces in the UK.
We also see that the total number of the French royal army in the war with the Continental Army in Washington was flat, while the number of French sailors in the war actually reached the combined number of the Franco-American cattle army.
In the following we will see that the Battle of York is mainly composed of naval warfare and fire fight, and the victory of the battle ultimately determines the outcome of the Battle of York, so I am very surprised that most of the overseas materials and almost hundred domestic data on the battle of the two sides of the war on the comparison of the forces of the French Navy of the number of combatants ( Even the authoritative encyclopedia, which mentions the number of French naval combatants, apparently did not join the French Navy when it came to counting the total strength of the coalition.
Of course, there are even more, some from the United States in the publication of French and American forces to sift into the U.S. military, or better-point, the French special expeditionary Force called "volunteers", "patriots", I really do not know if Louis 16 personally assigned and carry siege artillery into the special Expeditionary Force is "volunteer" words, What about the French who really volunteered or hired to come to North America before the French war? Is it a "ghost corps"?
(4) Fire comparison between the parties
After discussing the human data of the campaign, let's take a look at the firepower data of the war Ten Coalition forces. First of all, we have to make it clear that the Battle of Yorktown is mainly fire fight, in the entire battle process, in addition to the October 14 coalition forces to obtain a better artillery position and a 800-person charge and the October 16 British Army to try to break out and launch a 350-person charge, the double force is completely with gunfire for "dialogue" , so the artillery fire determines the outcome of the battle on land.
In a map of the Battle of York, you can find in the figure, there are seven artillery markings on the position of the French army, there are only two artillery markings on the U.S. position, we can be sensitive to know two points, one is the French artillery at least many times more than the U.S. military, the second is the position of the French artillery is clearly more than the position of the U.S. artillery, more critical.
Then we will examine the specific data. According to statistics. In the Battle of York, the coalition forces used the size of artillery on land at more than 375 (including some French navies removed from the ship and manipulated by themselves, the total number of naval guns of the Glacet fleet nearly 2000), of which the total number of U.S. artillery we have known is 514 people, then a standard gun group is 16 people, So the U.S. artillery should have no more than 32 guns, and they use mainly from the British hand to seize the miscellaneous artillery. The French did not, France at that time artillery casting level world first, its artillery power is the world's most powerful. Coupled with the powerful siege artillery, the French army to combat artillery to reach more than 343, Rochambeau France Special Expeditionary Force has just been strengthened by the full siege of heavy artillery units, the force has 43 powerful siege artillery--15 door 24 pounds cannon and 28 16-pound cannon,
In this way, we calculated that the number of U.S. artillery accounted for 8.54% of the total number of Allied artillery, and because the key role of the large siege artillery force hundred percent of the French composition, so the U.S. artillery unit of fire accounted for the lower percentage.
People with a little bit of military knowledge know that in the fortress battle, a powerful siege artillery is more useful than a few ordinary artillery, combined with the difference between the number of artillery and the tactical literacy of the artillery, I think about the role of Americans in this critical fire fight, and the insignificant role that You don't have to say anything more.
After understanding the above data, the author introduces the real situation of this campaign will not make people too surprised.
(5) Comparison of losses by Parties
After comparing the number of combatants, we will compare the casualties between the two sides. Cloth in the same book, recorded such data on ground combat operations casualty figures:
USA: Killed 23, wounded 65, total 125.
France: Killed 60, wounded 193, total 253.
UK: Killed 156, wounded 326, total 552!
British surrender (including non-combatants): 7241; Another 840 naval personnel surrendered to Glacet (commander of the French fleet).
German mercenaries are dead and wounded.
So, is this all about the fight? Obviously not, the author here again reminded, there are maritime aspects.
The battle between the British and French naval blockade and the anti-blockade campaign around York was an ongoing process, with several skirmishes, which made it difficult to count the total number of war casualties, and a larger firefight, as I found it, in a firefight of September 5, 1781, in which the British had killed 336 people, And there are 230 casualties in France, but this is clearly not the total loss of both sides of the sea war. The most complete information I can find is the list of the French soldiers who were inscribed on the war memorial in the Battle of York, with a total of about 600 names. If the data were reliable, it would mean that the French had killed more than 500 per cent in the Battle of York's naval operations, and that the total number of casualties in the French Navy should exceed 2000, according to a general casualty ratio.
In this way, there should be at least 2000-2500 casualties between French troops and sea and land in the course of the Battle of York. This figure is 20 times times the number of casualties in the U.S. Army during the Battle of York.
(6) The outcome of the campaign
France and the United States Allied forces in 1781 October 6 formally encirclement York, 9th began the official shelling, from then until 17th Fort Cornwallis demand negotiations, only in the middle of the Coalition on the 14th launched a small-scale charge and the British Army in 16th launched a breakout can be regarded as the two sides of the war. At other times the two sides were completely fire fight, and the fire fight ended with the inability of the British Army to fight the Allied artillery (mainly the powerful siege artillery that could not be fought against the French army).
In fact, most books on the war in the course of the Battle of the Sea of the neglect or a stroke of difference. From the point of view of the whole campaign, the outcome of the Battle of York was precisely determined in the naval warfare. Because it is a coastal city, the British who are "besieged" during the period of time when they have the right to make the sea can freely obtain supplies from the sea or even maneuver the army, so the so-called "siege" is only self-deceiving if it is not made.
This previous history also amply illustrates this point, since the sea was completely controlled by the British, before the Allied attacks on similar coastal cities have not been defeated. In the light of this historical empiricism, after the news that the Coalition is about to attack York, the British Army of Hao Fort Cornwallis to the Jockton to wait for the Allied forces to attack.
In contrast, in New York, the British coach, Clinton, is not worried about the French-American coalition to Jockton, so did not send reinforcements. Behold the offensive of the Allied forces, the naval maneuver of the French Navy in this battle could be said to be one of the finest naval maneuvers of the Western fleet in the sailing era, The result of the maneuver was that the British fleet, which was chasing the French fleet, had finally been given the chance to battle the French fleet, only to find that its 18 battleships were facing the French 32 battleships, so the British fleet had to return to New York to move reinforcements.
In the period of time when the British lost the Chesapeake Bay Sea Power, the French army moved the siege artillery from the West Indies to just 1829 metres from the Concordia command, and violently shelled the British positions, destroying all the city defense fortifications of the British Army. At this time, Kang Wah Lee just feel bad, but have no time, in by 350 British Army execution of a tentative breakthrough was defeated by the French Army, Fort Cornwallis chose surrender.
History is often full of black humor, the day before the surrender of Fort Cornwallis, a reinforcements of 25 battleships and 7,000 British ground troops, led by Clinton personally, have departed from New York Harbor ...
As for the outcome of this battle, we have to clarify a rumor that many of today's books have interpreted the famous English surrender of the Yorkshire Army as "the British surrender to Washington." As everyone knows, at that time, British commander Fort Cornwallis simply ignored the United States commander Washington.
At the beginning of the negotiations, Fort Cornwallis wanted to surrender to the French commander Rochambeau, which was not surprising, except that the French army was a regular army (the British had not considered the North American army to be the regular army until the two Anglo-American War in 1812), and the after all two were the count. And at that time, the British did not recognize the independence of the United States, so Washington in the eyes of Fort Cornwallis is similar to the Chinese Peasant war "thief" concept, the British Royal army in the admiral, the Count of the people, how can the "Thief" surrender?
But Rochambeau intended to humiliate Kang Lihua, who refused to accept Fort Cornwallis's surrender as a nominally commander-in-chief of the French-American coalition in Washington to surrender. So Fort Cornwallis "sick", until the end of the surrender ceremony has not taken a step of the York. The British surrender ceremony was presided over by his deputy, Mr. O ' Hara, and Washington made a natural response-a ceremony by Washington's deputy, Lincoln.
After the Battle of Yorktown, the army returned to the Hudson River Camp, while the French army remained in the Jockton and Williamsburg areas, and in addition to dealing with the British Army's counter-offensive, Chinese readers must note that the prevailing European army was still remnants of the victors ' occupation of the battlefield. So this is, in a sense, a affirmation of the French as a real battle force (and certainly a deep-layered consideration – only the French can deal with the possible backlash from the British).
Fort Cornwallis surrendered seven days later, the British cattle reinforcements appeared in the sea outside of the city of York, but at this time they are faced with a powerful French navy. In this case, the British cannot even land safely. In the end, Clinton opted to retreat. ‘
In this way, the final decisive battle for the North American War of Independence was over.
It is now clear to us that the so-called Washington-led U.S.-French coalition victory over the Battle of York is a deliberate lie that Americans have deliberately fabricated, and that the Battle of York, in any direction, should be a masterpiece of the French Army.
The data of the Battle of York let us discover the truth of the battle, and similarly, in order to understand the truth of the North American War of independence, we need to find the macro data about the war.
(1) Myths compiled by the United States
The U.S. official and mainstream society claims:
The American War of Independence, the first large-scale colonial people's Liberation Wars for national independence and free democracy in the history of the world, was the first and greatest real liberation war in human history, and the American Revolution of Independence put the free philosophical thought of European enlightenment into practice on a large scale. Embodies a new progressive political spirit and value concept. It is the most outstanding war case in the history of human war with small victories, inferior victories and Yiruoshengqiang. Under the distinguished leadership of the American sages, the 8-year-old North American military and civilian struggle, with only more than 2 million people in North America 13 states, eventually defeated the world's first industrial nation of nearly 30 million people the British Empire.
The victory of the War of Independence, broke the shackles of British colonial rule, realized the independence of the North American colony, liberated the people of North America, set a shining example for the cause of human freedom and democracy, and put into practice the free philosophical thought of the European Enlightenment for the first time in the American War of Independence. Embodies a new progressive political spirit and value concept. For the rapid development of modern human civilization has opened up a broad road.
According to "a version of the first book of World History" (The lesson plan was almost completely instilled in the American position of the political interpretation of the North American War of Independence), in order to prove that Americans are "Yiruoshengqiang" and the form provided by the author is a little laughing.
The form is as follows:
Comparison of Anglo-American forces during the American War of Independence
Country United Kingdom United States
The old colonial Countries of the economy, young countries
Population native 6 million or 7 million (together with colony 30 million) less than 3 million
The military establishment has a powerful fleet without naval
Shortage of adequate supplies of armaments
Non-Justice Justice of nature
What a great thing ah, a young material shortage, no naval country, the population only one-second to One-tenth of each other, can defeat the old colonial country, really "just win"
"Just win"? Smile. Imagine, if the author is just an ordinary middle school students, facing the teacher so provide data and guidance, in addition to the American "justice" + "bad" idea can produce any other ideas?
Obviously not. Myth, that is, "grabbed from childhood", a step-by-step production.
(2) The real situation of the great army
To make the data as reliable as possible, we use the data presented in the report of the 1789 U.S. War Affairs Minister, General Knox, on the national Army's strength. In this report, the total troop strength of the Continental Army is stated as follows:
The data was very surprising. According to this data, throughout the period of the War of independence, in addition to the 1775-1776 and 1781-1782, the total strength of the army-straight is in a declining state. In the same year as the "Battle of Yorktown" in North America's last war, the army's total strength decreased by about One-third.
If the light look at the numbers, how can not see the "gangbusters" posture. This is clearly the same as what we normally know about the great army at least in 1777, "Saratoga Jie" (The nature of the anti-piracy victory, rather than the strategic counter-offensive) is a victory attached to a victory, from the victory to victory after a great discrepancy.
We are more interested in exploring the changes in the strength of our opponents-the British army-after discovering that the number of people in the mainland is obviously different from the knowledge we are usually learning to hold.
(3) British forces
In a 1964 version of the war for America, we found such data.
Area 1775.4 1777.8 1778.10 1780.3 1782.3
South UK 10612 13868 53465 61402 64274
West Indies 1983 3315 1751 9290 87564
"United States" 6991 2 3694 39637 32149 34463
Total number of United Kingdom Army 27063 57637 112239 142386 150310
* 1777 this figure excludes German mercenaries in the Hesse and other land
According to the data, there were only more than 6,000 British troops in 13 states in North America that year when the war broke out. The total troop strength of the Continental Army is 380 more than the total strength of the entire United Kingdom in the same period. Americans are proud of the Bunker Hill fight that took place this year, and if you look at the battle process, you really think Americans are beat.
In the next two years, British forces in 13 states in North America grew rapidly, as the notoriously victory of Saratoga took place in 1777, but we found that 1777-1778 British Regular Army troops dispatched to 13 states in North America increased by 67%. It is clear that the Saratoga is at least militarily not the "turning point" of the North American War of Independence that is usually preached. It is not surprising that the victory over anti-raids is still a big fight against the fighting. It is clearly inappropriate to take the victory of a counter-sweep operation as a "turning point" in a large-scale war.
The numbers after 1778 are even more surprising. According to the usual statement, this is the U.S. "victory" process, but why the United Kingdom did not "crazy repression", sent to 13 states in North America has not reached the strength of the 1778 so much? Is the British soldiers recruited to keep up with the attrition? Obviously not, we see clearly, The total number of British Army troops surged from 27,000 to 150,000 since the outbreak of the war, more than 5 times times the number of British Army forces before the battle.
As an example of the figures before and after the Battle of Yorktown described in our article, there were more than 30,000 North American British troops when the Battle of York was erupted, although the British Army lost 8,000 people in the Battle of York, but it was far from the usual claim of "main annihilation". More importantly, the Continental Army has plummeted from 21,000 to 13,000 people this year. A few months later, when British forces returned to more than 34,000 people in North America, the army returned only 14,000-a disparity larger than before the 1781 campaign.
(4) What has happened so that the British have to agree to North American independence?
The answer is enough to find out the numbers, careful friends should have found that in the 11,780 years of 1778, Britain's total strength in the North American continent showed a downward trend, while its total strength in the West Indies in the same period showed abnormal growth.
First look at the real demographic data of both sides during the war of Independence.
"The United States" 2 million (including pro-British, Indian and black slaves)
United Kingdom 11 million
France 12 million
Spain 28 million
It is clear that the French population alone is similar to that of Britain, not to mention the subsequent participation of Spain.
Then look at the military power of the French during the War of Independence.
(5) French military forces in the 1778
Infantry 109 Regiment, Cavalry 52 Regiment, total number 255000 (Officer 35,000, soldier 220000) name. Of these, 40 infantry regiments and 4 cavalry regiments were dispatched to the North American and West Indies regions, with more than 16500 ground military forces (1000 officers and 15,000 soldiers) directly in North America's 13 states. The French Royal Navy has 72,500 sailors and 2,500 officers, of whom only more than 15000 naval officers were directly involved in the Battle of York (the figure has surpassed the total strength of the same period of the North American Continental Army).
Note that the above-mentioned teaching plan specifically lists the United Kingdom has a "strong fleet", while the United States "no navy." I would add a point to the comparative data of the main ships of the United Kingdom and hostile countries during the war.
Number of main ships:
Vintage France Spain Holland "USA" United Kingdom
1778 52 not yet in the war 0 66
1779 63 58 Not in war 0 90
1780 69 48 not in war 0 91
1781 70 54 13 0 94
1782 73 54 19 0 94
It is clear that the American myth has unintentionally concealed the fact that not only is British ground forces weaker than the traditional land-power France, but even in Britain's strength, a naval force, Britain's maritime dominance was not apparent after the French war in 1778. Britain's maritime dominance in the 1779 after the Spanish war was at least digitally turned into a disadvantage
After reading the author's supplementary form here, I wonder how many people will have doubts about the victory of the North American War of Independence.
Now there is nothing to be surprised that, 1778 years later, British troops in North America have not increased, and the strength in the West Indies has risen straight because of France's war.
In fact, the North American War of Independence is not an isolated war, it is just a battlefield in the French-British global war, the North American battlefield. This war is very large, involved in a lot of aspects, if the detailed way to really can write a book. For example, the siege of the Farsi coalition against Gibraltar lasted for a full two years. At most, the two sides concentrated more than 40,000 ground troops and 83 battleships in the war. From any point of view, Britain's strength and focus on Gibraltar is far more than it has invested in 13 states in North America.
(6) North American War of Independence Chronicle
In 1775, the war of Independence broke out: 13 state militias failed to attack Canada.
In 1776, Britain's troop surge in North America, Washington, D.C., 18,000 people defended New York was defeated by the British Army, retreated to the Delaware River when there are only more than 4,000 people, France and Spain began to provide financial assistance to the United States.
In 1777, the British Army, the occupation of the Continental Conference in Philadelphia, Washington to try to counter-attack Philadelphia, the troops unexpectedly in the fog of fire, the anti-attack failed, the U.S. military defeated the mainland to sweep a British Army, won the Battle of Saratoga Victory.
In 1778, France recognized the independence of the United States, signed the Treaty of the Franco-American Alliance, which stipulated that "France guarantees the independence of the United States and the territory determined at the end of the war with Britain". Subsequently, France declared war on Britain, the French-British navy has several naval battles, the British government learned that the French fleet sent to North America after the news ordered the British Army to return to New York, the U.S. military "regained" Philadelphia: Britain occupied several strongholds in the West Indies and India, at the end of the year, the British captured the Georgia State important city of Savannah, the
In 1779, France occupied the Saint Louis of Senegal and several islands of the West Indies; France and Spain formed a human-type combined fleet prepared to attack the British mainland, the British main focus on the defensive home: Franco multiple naval battles, France and the United States to attack the Savannah failed.
In 1780, the British captured South Carolina important city Charleston, England and France in the West Indies, several naval battles, July, Rochambeau led by the French Special Expeditionary Force landed in Newport.
In 1781, the French attack on Jersey failed (this is the island of the English Channel, the French Army landed on the British mainland), France's Glacet fleet came to North America, and the British navy launched several battles, a short period of time to obtain the Chesapeake Bay Absolute Sea Power, then, France and the United States forces in the Glacet fleet to force the surrender of the York garrison, the North American continent's large-scale battle since the end: the Spanish-French coalition forces occupy the city of Pensacola in Florida, Faying in the West Indies, Cape Verde, many outbreaks of fighting.
In 1782, the French-Spanish coalition forces occupied the western islands of Minorca, the Santa Fe Fortress of the West Indies: French occupation of several islands in the West Indian Sea and Sri Lanka's Trincomalee: French and British naval battles on the coast of India: France occupied and destroyed several British strongholds of Canada; in Gibraltar, Farsi Coalition forces 33,000 people to the British defenders launched attack, was repulsed.
1783 French and British Coudrols in India, the British defeated the sea and land tug.
September 3, 1783, Paris treaty signed, French-English truce.
(7) The role of France in the war of independence in North America
So, with the end of the Anglo-French War, the "North American War of Independence" was over. So what kind of a role is France in this war?
It is not difficult to conclude from the large number of data listed above that, if the North American War of Independence is analogous to the "Korean Liberation Wars of the Motherland", from the point of view of troop-contributing, France assumed the role of China, and from the perspective of global game and material aid, France assumed the role of the Soviet Union. That is to say, for the 13 states of the then North America, the powerful French one alone took the role of China and the Soviet two powers in the Korean War.
Obviously, this article will make a lot of beauty of the Chinese people can not accept, but I think it can not diminish the great significance of the American War of Independence
First, the American War of Independence was the fuse of the Anglo-French Wars.
Second, the great significance of the American War of Independence lies in the political rather than the military, which has established a free and democratic state, a state of constant correction, a different type of country, which has overshadowed many wars purely for land and power and slavery and conquest, even if they are much larger in size
Thirdly, the greatness of Washington lies in the fact that he has established a country that relies on institutions rather than individuals, and whether he himself has a personal genius is not important because he has established a system that brings together the wisdom and talent of the individual-and of course other founders
France has long played the first rival of the world's most aggressive nation in the history of the 30-year war, the succession of the Spanish throne, the Napoleonic Wars, and the war between the French forces.
(The truth of the American War of Independence-who is the true power to defeat the British Army)
Note: The American War of Independence was 1775-1783. There are several 18XX in the text, 100 years worse. It's probably a clerical error, because most of the back is right. 】
The truth of the American War of Independence: the North American battlefield of Anglo-French global hegemony war