OpenStack is a free software and open source project, developed and launched by NASA and Rackspace, in collaboration with the Apache license.
OpenStack is an open source cloud computing management Platform project, composed of several major components to accomplish specific tasks. OpenStack supports almost all types of cloud environments, and the project aims to provide a simple, scalable, rich, standard, unified cloud management platform. OpenStack provides an infrastructure, a service (IaaS) solution through a variety of complementary services, each providing an API for integration.
OpenStack is an open source project designed to provide software for the construction and management of public and private clouds. Its community has more than 130 enterprises and 1350 developers, and these organizations and individuals have OpenStack as the common front-end for Infrastructure, service (IaaS) resources. The first task of the OpenStack project is to simplify and bring good scalability to the cloud deployment process. This article hopes to help you use the OpenStack front-end to set up and manage your own public cloud or private cloud by providing the necessary guidance information.
OpenStack Cloud computing platform to help service providers and businesses implement cloud infrastructure services similar to Amazon EC2 and S3 (infrastructure as a service, IaaS). The OpenStack contains two main modules: Nova and Swift, a virtual server deployment and Business Computing module developed by NASA, and a distributed cloud storage module developed by Rackspace, which can be used together or separately. In addition to the strong support of Rackspace and NASA, the OpenStack, including Dell, Citrix, Cisco, canonical and other heavyweight companies, has developed very quickly, replacing another industry-leading Open-source cloud platform Eucalyptus of the situation.
Scope of application
OpenStack is an IAAS (infrastructure, service) component that allows anyone to build and deliver cloud computing services on their own.
In addition, OpenStack is also used to create a "private cloud" within a firewall (private Cloud) that provides the resources shared by organizations or departments within the enterprise.
Written in Python programming language
Integrated Tornado Web server, Nebula computing platform
Using the Twisted Software framework
Follow the Open virtualization Format, AMQP, SQLAlchemy and other standards
Virtual machine Software support includes: KVM, Xen, VirtualBox, QEMU, LXC and so on.
American National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Nebula computing platform.
American National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Nebula computing platform.
American National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Nebula computing platform.
Large hardware vendors that now support the OpenStack project include IBM, AMD, Intel and Dell.
In October 2010, Microsoft expressed support for OpenStack integration with Windows Server 2008 R2.
February 2011, Cisco System formally joined the OpenStack project, focusing on the development of OpenStack network services.
Ubuntu Future Cloud networking solution in the stack.
April 2012, IBM announced its participation in the OpenStack project and as the main sponsor.
October 2012, Viacloud interconnected cloud platform to join the OpenStack project, the development of OpenStack public cloud platform and private cloud platform.
IBM's IBM Pulse conference in 2013 announced that it would provide private cloud services based on OpenStack and related applications .
OpenStack covers networks, virtualization, operating systems, servers, and more. It is a developing cloud computing platform project that is broken down into core projects, incubation projects, and support projects and related projects, depending on the maturity and degree of importance. Each project has its own committee and Project technical directors, and each project is not static, and the incubation project can be transformed into a core project based on the maturity and importance of development. As of the Icehouse version, 10 core projects (i.e. OpenStack Services) are listed below.
Calculation (Compute): Nova. A set of controllers that provide virtual services for a single user or group to manage the entire lifecycle of a virtual machine instance, depending on the needs of the user. Responsible for virtual machine creation, power-on, shutdown, suspend, suspend, adjust, migrate, restart, destroy and other operations, configure CPU, memory and other information specifications. Integrated into the project from the Austin version.
Object Storage (Storage): Swift. A set of systems for implementing object storage in large-scale scalable systems with built-in redundancy and high fault-tolerant mechanisms, allowing storage or retrieval of files. Provides mirrored storage for glance, and provides volume backup services for cinder. Integrated into the project from the Austin version
Mirror Services (Image Service): glance. A set of virtual machine image lookup and retrieval system, support a variety of virtual machine image format (AKI, AMI, ARI, ISO, QCOW2, Raw, VDI, VHD, VMDK), have the ability to create upload mirror, delete mirror, edit mirror basic information. Integrated into the project from the Bexar version.
Identity service: Keystone. Provides authentication, service rules, and service token functions for OpenStack Other services, managing domains, Projects, Users, Groups, Roles. Integrated into the project from the Essex version.
Network & Address Management (Network): Neutron. Provides network virtualization technology for cloud computing, providing network connectivity services for OpenStack other services. To provide users with interfaces, you can define network, Subnet, Router, configure DHCP, DNS, load Balancing, L3 services, network support GRE, VLAN. The plug-in architecture supports many major network manufacturers and technologies, such as Openvswitch. Integrated into the project from the Folsom version.
Chunk Storage (Block Storage): Cinder. Provides a stable block storage service for running instances, and its plug-in-driven architecture facilitates the creation and management of blocks, such as creating volumes, deleting volumes, and mounting and unloading volumes on instances. Integrated into the project from the Folsom version.
UI Interface (Dashboard): Horizon. A Web management portal for various services in the OpenStack that simplifies user operations on services such as starting an instance, assigning an IP address, configuring access control, and so on. Integrated into the project from the Essex version.
Measurement (metering): Ceilometer. Like a funnel, it collects almost all the events that occur within the OpenStack, and then provides data support for billing and monitoring and other services. Integrated into the project from the Havana version.
Deployment Choreography (Orchestration): Heat. Provides an automated deployment of cloud infrastructure software running environments (computing, storage, and network resources) by means of a template-defined collaborative deployment. Integrated into the project from the Havana version.
Database service: Trove. Provides scalable and reliable relational and non relational database engine services for users in a OpenStack environment. Integrated into the project from the Icehouse version.
Load balancing: atlas-lb (Rackspace)
Message Queuing: Burrow (piston)
Cloud Management tools: Clanavi (Drupal)
Automatic deployment: Crowbar (Dell)
Service Deployment: JuJu (Ubuntu)
Relational database: Reddwarf (Rackspace)
Rackspace's private cloud business, based on OpenStack, has a revenue of $700 million a year, at a growth rate of more than 20%.
OpenStack Although some aspects are not very mature, but it has a large number of global organization support, a large number of developers involved, rapid development. There are already many public cloud, private cloud, mixed cloud, such as: Rackspacecloud, HP Cloud, MercadoLibre IT Infrastructure cloud, at&t Cloudarchitec, Dell's OpenStack solution, and so on. And in the domestic OpenStack heat is also gradually heating up, Hua Sheng Tiancheng, the gold map, Beijing-east, Alibaba, Baidu and other OpenStack have a strong interest and participate in it. Since its inception in 2010, 10 editions have been issued. The Icehouse version has 120 organizations, 1202 code contributors, and the latest is the Juno version. OpenStack is likely to lead the way in future infrastructure, service (IaaS) resource management, as a "cloud operating system" standard for public, private, and hybrid cloud management
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The Dair (Digital Accelerator for Innovation and Research) project of the Canadian Quasi-government agency Canarie Network provides a study and development cloud computing environment for universities and small and medium-sized enterprises Dair users can quickly establish a network topology as needed.
HP Cloud (using Ubuntu Linux)
MercadoLibre's IT Infrastructure cloud, now manages more than 6000 virtual machines with OpenStack.
At&t's "Cloud Architect" will provide cloud services outside Dallas, San Diego and New Jersey in the United States.
Creating a virtual machine (VM) requires the interaction and coordination of various services. The following illustration shows the typical environment architecture of OpenStack, the interactions and functions between services.
OpenStack Open, because of the flexible components, because of inclusiveness and broad. There are computing, network, object storage, block storage, identity, mirroring services, portals, measurement, deployment choreography, database services, and so on components, some components can choose to install as needed, the network structure is flexible and diverse. Enabling access to a variety of mainstream virtual machine software: KVM, LXC, QEMU, Hyper-V, VMware, XenServer, you can also develop plug-ins to access other virtualization software.
OpenStack Compute (Nova) is a set of controllers that enable you to start a virtual machine instance for a single user or using a group. It can also be used to set up a network for a specific project that contains multiple instances. OpenStack compute is comparable to Amazon EC2 in public cloud processing and is no less of a private cloud than a VMware product. In a public cloud, this set of management mechanisms will provide a prefabricated mirror or provide a storage mechanism for the mirrors created by the user, so that the user can start the mirror in the form of a virtual machine.
OpenStack Object Storage (Swift) is a set of systems for implementing object storage through built-in redundancy and fault-tolerant mechanisms in large-scale scalable systems. These objects can be recovered through a rest API or a client that can butt the object storage API like Cyberduck.
OpenStack Mirroring Service (glance) is a set of virtual machine image lookup and retrieval systems. It can be configured in three forms: using the OpenStack object storage mechanism to store mirroring, storing information directly using Amazon's simple storage solution (S3), or combining S3 storage with object storage as S3 access connectors. The OpenStack mirroring service supports a variety of virtual machine mirroring formats, including VMware (VMDK), Amazon mirrors (AKI, ARI, AMI), and various disk formats supported by VirtualBox. The container format for mirrored metadata includes Amazon's Aki, Ari, and AMI information, standard OVF format, and binary large data.
The OpenStack development cycle is a fixed release of two new releases each year, and the developer and project technology leaders are already planning the next release of the details for each release of the software. These developers come from more than 70 organizations worldwide, more than 1600 people. They use advanced tools and development methods, code review, continuous integration, testing and development architecture, so that the version of the rapid growth of the same time to ensure stability. 
Building a private cloud
The first step is to set up the correct hardware and network environment. Although OpenStack allows everything to be deployed on a single flat network, it is not secure from a security standpoint. Depending on the management program you use and the virtual network interface, it will allow the guest virtual machine to sniff management traffic. It is recommended to use at least two networks: one to manage traffic, and one to engage in a conversation between virtual machines. This means that you need two network adapters (one running instance) and the Internet administrator in all cloud computing nodes. These should run in a different IP range. Networks that compute nodes and instances also need to support VLAN tagging because this is the mechanism used to isolate traffic between projects. An item is equivalent to your Amazon EC2 account, except that you can't create and distribute the number you want. Each project has its own administrators and users, and all instances of the established project can communicate with each other. Executed by assigning each project its own VLAN and an internal and external IP address pool.
Once the hardware and network are set up, the next step is to determine where all the OpenStack components are deployed. Standard deployments should have a controller and a series of compute nodes. The controller runs the message server, the database, and other components to orchestrate the cloud while computing the node run instance. But you can also decompose the controller as a geographic part to improve performance, like putting MySQL in a different physical box. For security, the key is to ensure that every part is installed on a secure host, and you just need to attach it to the network and let the cloud run.
Only two parts need to be exposed to the outside world (even if it's just your corporate network): API Server/web Console (if open) and network manager. These servers need to be strong, and you can even use a Third-party network interface to isolate the traffic generated by the backend management user connections.
If you follow the default installation instructions, these parts may not be as secure as they should be. Here are some specific changes:
* MySQL server uses the specified user account, not the root MySQL admin account. This account and password will be exposed to every cloud node, even with certificate-based authentication, so all nodes need access to the database server.
* In the MySQL configuration file, restrict access to the server, OpenStack user account is the only authorized IP address.
* Remove any unwanted OS components and make sure that the server you set up only supports a key-based login via SSH.
* Default MySQL and RABBITMQ (message server) traffic is not encrypted. If you isolate the management network and the rugged mainframe, this should not be a bad risk. If your cloud network is easy to sniff (for example, it shares a network with other servers), you need to encrypt traffic. You can use OpenSSL for MySQL and rabbitmq processing. (I haven't tested it personally, so the configuration may be a bit difficult.) ）
Next, remember that if you support the Web Management console, SSL is not available by default.
China OpenStack Service Center
June 18, 2013, held in Nanjing, "China's cloud computing Industry Promotion Conference and China OpenStack Service Center Conference", Hua Sheng Tiancheng in the conference officially announced the launch of China's first OpenStack service center. OpenStack is an open source project that global developers are involved in, designed to implement "cloud operating systems", a platform with the ability to deploy and manage public, private, and mixed cloud infrastructures.
1, the construction and operation of China's first may also be the only OpenStack Support Center.
2, for OpenStack researchers, developers and users to provide a wealth of online and on-site professional support services and consulting services to eliminate customers use open source software to worry about.
3, improve the number and quality of domestic cloud computing practitioners, the popularization of Open-source software spirit and technology.
4, break the monopoly of cloud computing construction, greatly reduce the cloud computing platform construction and operating costs, and promote and ensure the development of domestic cloud computing platform. 
800 Telephone Support Center (100 seats)
Web Online support Platform (100 seats)
Service Electronic Sales Platform
Professional Consulting Team (10 people)
Professional on-site Technical Support team (50 people)
Professional Customer development Team (100 people)
Professional operation and Maintenance management team (300 people)
Global Lab-level support Team (2 International top core Code laboratories) 
Provide complete L1,L2 and L3 Lab-level online and onsite service
24*7 Telephone Consulting/support Services, Web online consulting services/Support Services
Release and upgrade Services
Onsite installation, upgrade/tuning Service
Custom development Services
Repository Sharing Services
Operation and Maintenance services
Electronic transactions 
1, customers can 24 hours through the telephone or network in Support Center for help, including cloud technical advice, information acquisition, purchase service packs.
2, the charging service package is divided into levels (example)
Basic Service Pack (5*8 Phone Support Service)
Standard Service Pack (7*24 Telephone Support Service + onsite service)
Advanced Service Pack (7*24*6 Platform repair Guarantee)
3, Professional Services options (example)
System Integration Services
System Tuning Service
System Migration Services
Operational and Maintenance Management services
Emergency Response Services
Training Services 
1. Users and potential users of open source cloud computing
Provides a channel to obtain knowledge, guidance and technical support to solve the embarrassing situation where the application of open source cloud technology can not find the technical backing.
Provide a high level of technical team for users to install, configure, develop, optimize, operation services, so that the cloud computing platform can be properly deployed and used, the real benefits.
2, for the OpenStack industry chain
To promote the roots of OpenStack in China, bear fruit. Solve the OpenStack of the embarrassment of the smoke and mirrors.
3, for the Support Center itself
Obtain a large number of customer information and project opportunities to obtain a high profit service business. Polymerization of a large number of technical resources in the industry to form a pool of technical resources, and through the polymerization of the industrial chain to grow together.
4. To the Social
greatly facilitates the pace of cloud construction, lowers it operational costs, improves business agility, conserves energy and reduces emissions, and promotes industrial upgrading. 
China Open source Cloud Alliance [a]