# Algorithm inventory, engineering, production plan, and fixed asset calculation methods involved in ERP development

Source: Internet
Author: User
ArticleDirectory
• 1. Obtain the low-order material code.
• 2. One of the differences between material demand calculation ERP and MIS is the calculation of material requirements. I used to design a system, such as MIS or inventory calculation, which is not called Erp.
• 3. Master Production Plan
• 5. Order Policy
• 6 ABC inventory control method calculate the ABC Classification of materials. The calculation method is as follows:
• 7-step mobile computing method
• 8 reconciliation account check
• 9 fixed asset depreciation Algorithm
• 10 cost accounting for finished products
• 11 Human Resource Formula Calculation
• 12. Account Balance and general ledger balance

The ERP system involves a large number of documents. Some documents only have simple calculation methods, such

Amount = Quantity * unit price

If tax is involved, the amount = Quantity * Unit Price + Tax

If discounts are involved, the amount = Quantity * Unit Price + tax-discount

The following is a summary of the more complex computing methods.

1. Obtain the low-order material code.

When the low-level code of a material is MRP, do you need to suspend the calculation of the current demand until the low-level code is met, so as to meet the material requirements at the lowest level first. For example, the low-level code of the d material is 2.

The MRP operation starts from the smallest low-level code and starts from the material and semi-finished products with the highest low-level code.

2. One of the differences between material demand calculation ERP and MIS is the calculation of material requirements. I used to design a system, such as MIS or inventory calculation, which is not called Erp.

The requirement for gross requirement wool is the result of running the BOM.

Net requirement net demand = gross demand + safety stock-(available inventory PAB + Calculation of shipping Pr)

The ordering method function of the planned output amount in the net demand of planned order receipt. In this way, the net demand is recalculated in order mode.

Planned order release the planned order is sent as the planned output, and the results of the preliminary calculation are considered.

3. Master Production Plan

Like MRP, the calculation object is the final product, which is usually the result of combining the sales order and Demand Forecast in ERP.

4. capacity requirement calculation capacity planning and rough capacity planning calculation rccp rough-Cut Capacity Planning

Rough capacity plan calculation only calculates the production capacity and load of key work centers, that is, the Work Center of critical resource is involved in calculation.

Computing capability requirements calculates all work centers

5. Order Policy

Batch-to-BatchThe number of planned orders is equal to the net demand. For example, if the net demand is 100, the number of planned orders is also 100;

When the minimum order quantity is set, if the net demand is smaller than the minimum order quantity, the planned order is equal to the minimum order quantity. For example, if the demand is 100 and the minimum order quantity is 500, the planned order is 500;

When the maximum order quantity is set, if the net demand is greater than the maximum order quantity, the planned order is equal to the maximum order quantity. For example, if the demand is 100,000 and the minimum order quantity is 50,000, the planned order is 50,000;

Fixed Number of multiplesThe order quantity is a multiple of the standard order quantity, so the quantity is greater than or equal to the net demand. For example, the net demand is 160, the standard order quantity is 100, and the MRP provides the order quantity is 200; when the net demand is 210, the MRP provides the corresponding order quantity should be 300.

Periodic demand/fixed quantity per periodThe total demand in a period is used as the order quantity to meet the requirements in this demand period.

, With four periods as the unit, the demand for period 1-4 is 90, and the demand for period 5-8 is also 90, then an order is made during the first period of the demand period, meet the material requirements within this demand period.

ReorderWhen the inventory quantity and order quantity are lower than the order quantity, the planned order quantity is equal to the order quantity. For example, if the reorder point is 500, the reorder quantity is 5,000, and the current supply quantity is less than 500 during the MRP operation, the planned order quantity generated by the MRP will be 5, 0003002.

6 ABC inventory control method calculate the ABC Classification of materials. The calculation method is as follows:

1) Calculate the annual usage of each item

2) Multiply the unit price to get the annual amount.

3) The annual amount is sorted from high to low.

4) Identify ABC categories

ABC uses the 80-20 rule to process materials. The same method can also be used to calculate supplier ABC management and customer ABC management.

7-step mobile computing method

1) sequential movement: this movement method is the simplest method. It refers to the transfer of a batch of workpieces to the next process after being processed in one process. This processing method has the longest processing cycle. The calculation of the processing cycle is also very simple, that is, the processing time of each process is directly added.

2) Parallel Processing: this movement method is the shortest time. This movement mode transfers an workpiece to the next process immediately after the previous process completes processing. This mode features that multiple processes work at the same time, so the processing cycle is the shortest.

3) Parallel sequential movement: This is a combination of sequential movement and line movement. If a batch of parts have not been completely processed in one process, the processed parts are transferred to the next process for processing, the moving method is based on the condition that the next process can complete the whole batch of parts continuously.

T smooth = (the complete processing time of a complete process) + (N-1) * [(the sum of the maximum processing time compared with adjacent processes) -(the sum of the minimum processing time for comparison between adjacent processes)]

(1) When the single-room operation time of the current process is less than or equal to the single-room operation time of the latter process, each part completed in the former process should be transferred to the latter process for processing immediately, that is, a single piece is transported in parallel movement mode.

(2) When the time of a single job in the current process is greater than the time of a single job in the latter process, the parts completed in the former process are not transferred to the latter process for processing immediately, instead, it will wait until the moment that the subsequent process can be processed continuously to transfer all the finished parts to the subsequent process, so as to avoid intermittent equipment stop time in the subsequent process, and the scattered stop time is used together.

For example, an enterprise produces four n products in batches. After four processes, the work hours of a single product are T1 = 10 minutes, T2 = 5 minutes, and t3 = 20 minutes, t4 = 10 points, try to find the production cycle of this batch of products?

8 reconciliation account check

When manual intervention is performed on the material journal and general ledger data, the general ledger is inconsistent with the general ledger, and you need to re-calculate the data. There are four types of accounting

Reconcile account balance account Accounting

Reconcile customer ledger customer account Accounting

Reconcile item balance material accounting

Reconcile vendor ledger supplier Accounting

Manual intervention material journals. After posting a direct entry, the journals are written into the general ledger (ledger), and the balances are written into the ledger (balance ), the data values of the three items should be consistent. This idea is worth learning from the MIS/invoicing design.

9. Depreciation of fixed assets Algorithm

1) year average method
The year average method, also known as the straight-line method, is a method to balance the accrued depreciation amount of fixed assets to the estimated service life of fixed assets. The depreciation amount of the cycle calculated using this method is equal. The calculation formula is as follows:
Annual depreciation rate = (1-estimated net residual rate)/estimated service life (year)
Monthly depreciation rate = annual depreciation rate/12
Monthly depreciation = original fixed asset price * monthly depreciation rate

The workload method is a method for accrued depreciation of fixed assets based on the actual workload. The calculation formula is as follows:
Depreciation of unit workload = original fixed asset price * (1-estimated net residual value)/estimated total workload
Monthly depreciation of a fixed asset = current month's workload of the fixed asset * depreciation of the Unit's workload

3) Increment and subtract the double balance
The "Double balance progressive subtraction" method is used to calculate the depreciation amount of fixed assets based on the net asset value at the beginning of each year and the double straight-line depreciation rate without considering the estimated net residual value of fixed assets. When this method is used to calculate the depreciation amount, because the net worth of fixed assets at the beginning of each year does not deduct the estimated net residual value, the depreciation amount of fixed assets should be calculated within two years prior to the expiration of its depreciation period, average amortization of the balance after deducting the estimated net residual value from the net worth of fixed assets. The formula is as follows: annual depreciation rate = 2/estimated service life

4) sum of years

The sum of years method, also known as the sum of years method, is the balance after the original price of fixed assets minus the estimated net residual value, multiplied by a fixed asset still usable life as the molecule, the annual depreciation is calculated based on the sum of the predicted service life and the decreasing score of the denominator year by year. The calculation formula is as follows:
Annual depreciation rate = remaining service life/total years of estimated service life
Monthly depreciation rate = annual depreciation rate/12
Monthly depreciation = (original fixed asset price-estimated net residual value) * monthly depreciation rate

10 cost accounting for finished products

When I was in college, my accounting teacher taught me how to read materials directly, directly manually, make the costs, and read them several times.

The actual cost of materials is composed of the purchase price and the indirect cost. However, the billing method of the material price is different, so the calculation method is different.

1. first-in-first-out materials are delivered to the warehouse according to the order of the warehouse receiving time. At this time, the price of the consumed materials is the price of the materials first imported into the warehouse.

2. After warehouse receiving, first warehouse receiving and receiving materials is obtained first. The price of materials is the price at warehouse receiving.

3. Weighted average (weighted average) is generally used to calculate the price of materials at the end of the accounting period: weighted average price = total warehouse receiving amount during the period/total warehouse receiving amount during the period

4. The moving weighted average principle is similar to the weighted average. Instead of calculating the price at the end of the period, the average price is calculated after each batch of purchased materials. The formula is as follows:

Moving Average price = (current warehouse receiving amount + last deposit settlement amount)/(current warehouse receiving quantity + last deposit settlement amount)

5. the final price of materials is the final price (I .e., the latest purchase.

Labor fees are multiplied by labor hours by the labor rate. For example, if an office employee works for 21.5 days per month, his/her daily salary is divided by the total salary by 21.5, and the daily salary is multiplied by the actual number of days at work, the labor cost can be calculated.

Calculation of working hours

Business Day: 365-104 days (Rest Day)-11 days (statutory holidays) = 250 days

Business days: 250 days, 4 seasons = 62.5 days/quarter/

Working days: 250 days, April 1, December = 20.83 days/month

Calculation of the number of hours: multiply by the number of working days of the month, quarter, and year by the number of 8 hours per day

Conversion of daily and hourly wages

According to article 51st of the labor law, employers shall pay wages on statutory holidays in accordance with the law, that is, the 11-Day statutory holidays stipulated by the state shall not be excluded when converting daily wages or hourly wages. Accordingly, the daily and hourly wages are converted:

Daily salary: monthly wage income (monthly wage calculation days)

Hourly salary: monthly salary (the number of days of monthly salary x 8 hours ).

Monthly pay-as-you-go days = (365-104 days) April 1, December = 21.75 days

For the type of employees in ERP, production personnel is calculated as direct labor costs, and office personnel (procurement, engineering design, finance, and sales) are calculated as management costs.

11 Human Resource Formula Calculation

These formulas are often used in reports to calculate wages and costs.

1. recruitment rate: Number of successful applicants (total number of applicants × 100%.

2. Average monthly number of students: (number of students at the beginning of the month + number of students at the end of the month) limit 2

3. monthly employee resignation rate: Total number of employees leaving the job for the whole month × average monthly number of employees × 100%

4. Monthly New Employee rate: Total number of new employees in the entire month × average number of new employees in the month × 100%

5. monthly employee retention rate: Number of employees remaining at the end of the month; number of employees at the beginning of the month × 100%

6. monthly employee Loss Rate: Total number of employees leaving the company for the whole month (number of employees at the beginning of the month × 100%)

7. monthly employee entry/exit rate: Total number of new employees in the entire month × Total number of new employees in the whole month × 100%

12. Account Balance and general ledger balance

The account is calculated based on the current subpoena (voucher in Chinese), and the month and year are calculated based on the period.

Account ending balance = opening balance + amount of current-current credit amount

Month-end balance = month-end balance + month debit amount-month credit amount

General Ledger ending balance = balance at the beginning of the year + debit amount for the current year-credit amount for the current year

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