Capacitor type and usage, basic knowledge
Capacitor is one of the most widely used electronic components in electronic equipment. It is widely used in the fields of direct separation, coupling, bypass, filtering, tuning loop, energy conversion, and control circuit.
Capacitance frequency characteristics: As the frequency increases, the capacitance of a general capacitor decreases.
Capacitance Model naming method: (based on GB2470-81)
Part 1: use letters to indicate the product name c
Part 2: Use letters to indicate the media of the product:
A ta electrolytic B polypropylene ethylene and other non-polar films C high frequency ceramics D aluminum electrolysis e other materials electrolytic g alloy electrolytic H paper film composite I glass uranium J metallic paper medium l polyester and other Polar Organic Films n Nb electrolytic O glass film Q paint film s, T low frequency ceramic V, X mother paper y mica Z paper. Note: When B is used to represent other capacitors except polystyrene, add a letter after B to separate the specific materials. The method is the same when l is used to represent the capacitance of other films other than polyester.
Insulation resistance of the capacitor: The DC voltage is added to the capacitor and the leakage of conductive flow is generated. The ratio of the two is called insulation resistance. when the capacitance is small, it mainly depends on the surface state of the capacitor. When the capacity is greater than 0.1uf, it mainly depends on the performance of the media.
The time constant of the capacitor: A Time Constant is introduced to properly evaluate the insulation of a large capacity capacitor, which is equal to the product of the insulation resistance and capacity of the capacitor.
Capacitor loss factor: the energy consumed by the electric field due to heat is called loss. Each type of capacitor specifies its allowable loss value within a certain frequency range. The loss of the capacitor is mainly caused by the loss of the medium, the loss of the conductivity and the resistance of all the metal parts of the capacitor.
Due to the DC electric field, capacitor losses exist in the form of leakage loss, which is generally small. Under the action of alternating electric field, capacitor losses are not only related to leakage loss, it is also related to the periodic polarization establishment process.
At present, a large number of plastic film capacitors are made of polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, PTFE, polyester (polyester), polycarbonate, composite film, etc.
1. cl21/cbb21 Metallic Film Capacitor (CL21-B/CBB21-B metallic film box type), the use of metallic polyester/polypropylene film as the media/electrode by no sense Winding Method, Epoxy Resin Encapsulated, featuring excellent electrical performance, good reliability, high temperature resistance, wide capacity range, small size, good self-healing, and long service life, it is mainly used in television sets, computer monitors, energy-saving lamps, ballasts, communication equipment, computer network equipment, electronic toys, and other DC and HVDC signal isolation, bypass and coupling/high frequency, AC, pulse, coupling the circuit is used for filtering, frequency modulation, DC isolation, and time control.
2. cbb22 (mkp91) metal polypropylene film DC capacitor. Using metallic polypropylene film as medium and electrode, one-way extraction is encapsulated with flame retardant insulation material, which has excellent electrical performance, good reliability, low loss and good self-healing performance. Purpose: This product is widely used for DC pulse, pulse, and AC pressure in instruments, instruments, televisions, radios, and household appliances. It is particularly suitable for various types of energy-saving lamps and electronic regators.
Cbb91 metal Polypropylene Capacitor features and uses: insulation out-of-band package, epoxy resin filling, axial direction. It features high insulation, low loss, good frequency characteristics, and low equivalent series resistance. It is applicable to audio divider, power amplifier, and post-compensation circuit, and dc ac and pulse circuits of electronic devices.
3. cl20 (mkt83) Metallic polyester film flat axial capacitor (metallic polyester capacitor ). Features: the metal polyester film is used as media and electrode, with flame retardant tape outsourcing and epoxy sealing, with excellent electrical performance, good reliability, high temperature resistance, small size, large capacity and good self-healing performance. Purpose: This product is applicable to AC/DC circuits of instruments, instruments, and household appliances. It is widely used in audio system frequency division circuit.
4. non-inductive structure of cl20/cbb20 axial metallic film capacitor, with excellent electrical performance, good reliability, high temperature resistance, small size, large capacity, low high-frequency loss, strong overcurrent ability, suitable for large current, high insulation resistance, good self-healing, long service life, stable temperature characteristics, widely used in AC/DC circuits, frequency conversion, frequency division, and other large pulse circuits of instruments, instruments, and household appliances, particularly High Fidelity Audio divider circuit.
5. cl19 (mkt82) Metallic polyester film axial capacitor. Features: the metal polyester film is used as media and electrode, with flame retardant tape outsourcing and epoxy sealing, with excellent electrical performance, good reliability, high temperature resistance, small size, large capacity and good self-healing performance. Purpose: This product is applicable to AC/DC circuits of instruments, instruments, and household appliances. It is widely used in audio system frequency division circuit.
6. cbbx2 (MPX mkp41) metal polypropylene film anti-interference capacitor. Using Metallic Zinc-aluminum polypropylene film as medium and electrode, encapsulated with high temperature resistant, flame retardant plastic shell, epoxy resin, one-way lead-out structure, the product has a high resistance to external electrical interference performance, high reliability, low loss, and good self-healing features provide better security protection. This product is widely used in color TV, power tools, wireless connectors, cross-power supply lines, electromagnetic interference filters, power switches and high-power electronic converters.
7. cbb13 unsense capacitor. Applicable to: energy-saving Lamp, ballast, color TV and electronic machine, electronic instrument high frequency, DC, AC and large current pulse circuit.
8. cl233x ultra-small capacitor (calibration capacitor) adopts imported ultra-small metallic polyester film as media/electrode and adopts the non-inductive winding mode, it is mainly applicable to DC and HVDC signal circuits and bypass circuits, such as televisions, computer monitors, energy-saving lamps, ballasts, program-controlled switches, computer network equipment, VCD/DVDs, precision electronic instruments, etc, coupling and filtering. Pressure Resistance: 50/63 V series, V series. Capacity: 103-105.
Cl21s super small metallic polyester film correction capacitor using imports of super small metallic polyester film for the Media/electrode using no sense winding mode, cp welding lead, powder Epoxy Resin Encapsulated, it has the characteristics of small size, light weight, wide capacity range, good precision, large capacity, good self-healing, and long service life, it is mainly applicable to DC and HVDC signal circuits and bypass circuits, such as televisions, computer monitors, energy-saving lamps, ballasts, program-controlled switches, computer network equipment, VCD/DVDs, precision electronic instruments, etc, coupling and filtering.
Porcelain capacitor can be divided into low-voltage low-power and high-voltage high-power. In low-voltage low-power, it can be divided into I type (CC type) and II type (CT type ).
I type (CC type) is characterized by small size, low loss, high capacitance frequency, high temperature stability, and is often used in high-frequency circuits.
Type II (CT type) is characterized by small size, high loss, low temperature frequency and Stability of capacitance, and is often used in low frequency circuits.
1. High Frequency disc porcelain dielectric capacitor (CC): Electric Capacity: 1 -- 6800 P; rated voltage: 63--500v; Main Features: Low Loss of high frequency, good stability. Application: high frequency circuit. Low Frequency porcelain dielectric capacitor (CT ). Capacity: 10p-4.7u. Rated voltage: 50v--100v. Major Features: small size, low price, high loss, and poor stability. Application: Low-requirement Low-Frequency Circuit
Class 1 porcelain dielectric capacitor of Type 0-1. Purpose: High Q value and stable capacity of CCI type 1 porcelain capacitor. It is used in resonant circuits and circuits that require temperature compensation. 63-500 V.
CS1 Type 3 porcelain capacitor. Purpose: ultra-high frequency, wide-band bypass capacitors, coupled capacitors, or circuits with low requirements for loss tangent and insulation resistance. 25 V-50 V
Ct71 type 2 AC ceramic capacitor. Purpose: all kinds of electronic and electrical equipment, used for Antenna Coupling, switching circuit and cross-connection power cord. 250vac
Ct81 type 2 High Voltage porcelain capacitor. Purpose: Applicable to 1 ~ 3kv DC high-voltage bypass and coupling circuit. The buffer circuit of the switch power supply.
2. Special Characteristics of Dushi (Multi-Layer Ceramic) capacitors: large capacity, small size, high reliability, stable electrical capacity, high temperature and humidity resistance, etc. Application Scope: widely used in electronic precision instruments. Various small electronic devices are used for resonance, coupling, filtering, and bypass. Capacity range: 0.5pf -- 1 UF. Voltage: twice the rated voltage. Dushi is also called multilayer porcelain dielectric capacitor. It can be divided into two types. The type 1 has good performance, but the capacity is small, generally less than 0. 2u, the other type is II. It has a large capacity, but its performance is average. The biggest drawback of the Dushi capacitor is that the temperature coefficient is very high, and the stable drift of the oscillator is unbearable. In terms of temperature drift: The Dushi has a positive temperature ratio of more than 130, and CBB has a negative temperature coefficient of-230. It can be used in parallel with appropriate proportions to minimize the temperature drift.
Mica capacitor is one of the high-frequency capacitors with excellent performance. It is widely used in applications with high stability and reliability requirements.
Mica capacitor (CY): electrical capacity: 10p-0.1u. Rated voltage: 100 V -- 7kv. Features: High stability, high reliability, and low temperature coefficient. Applications: high-frequency oscillation, pulse, and other high-requirement circuits.
Due to its large ratio capacitance, Wide capacitance range, high operating voltage, and low cost, Paper Capacitor is widely used. Its disadvantage is poor stability and high loss. It can only be used in low-frequency or DC circuits, at present, it has been replaced by the synthetic film capacitor, but there is still a place in the high-voltage paper capacitor.
1. cz52 capacity: 0.1-0.25 UF rated operating voltage: 110-250 V. Insulation Performance: 0.1uf is 10000 monh 0.25 UF is 8000 mohm. Loss tangent: (under normal climate conditions) <0.01 2. metallic Paper Capacitor: His electrode is made of a metal film deposited on the capacitor paper by vacuum evaporation, which is much smaller than the paper capacitor. Its main feature is self-healing. When a local breakdown occurs in the media, its electrical performance can be immediately restored to the State before the breakdown. Although the metallic paper dielectric capacitor has overcome some shortcomings of the paper dielectric capacitor, it still cannot leave the paper, and their chemical stability is poor. As the loss increases sharply, it is not suitable for high-frequency circuits.
Cj10 capacity: 0.01-1 UF rated operating voltage: 160-400 V. Loss tangent: (under normal climate conditions) <0.015.
1. CD71 non-polar aluminum electrolytic capacitor. This product has the characteristics of small size, large capacity, low loss, non-polar and high temperature resistance. This product is suitable for Polarity switching or polarity switching lines of instruments and electronic devices, especially for Audio Frequency Division networks.
The most commonly used audio circuits are organic and inorganic media and electrolytic capacitors. Organic capacitors, also known as thin film capacitors, are commonly used in paper, polyester (Mylar), polystyrene (mks), polypropylene (mkp), and polycarbonate (MKC). Among them, paper medium, Mylar and mkp capacitors are divided into two types: Non-Metallic media. The metal media has the "self-healing" function, strong resistance to wear, and good performance. Mylar and mkp capacitors have good non-inductive performance. Inorganic capacitors are dominated by mica, porcelain media, rock, glass glaze, etc. Electrolytic Capacitors are represented by aluminum electrolysis. They are small in size and have a large capacity (dozens of micro-methods to two or 30 thousand micro-methods), but their frequency and temperature characteristics are poor, the insulation resistance is significantly lower than the Thin Film Capacitor (several hundred megabytes of Euro), the leakage resistance is large, and the dielectric loss is also large, so it is only suitable for power supply decoupling, not suitable for audio coupling and filter. The metal Polypropylene Capacitor (mkp) is a top-class fever capacitor. It is famous for brands such as sink and Tianyi in China, while Solen in France and vima in Germany are famous in foreign countries. This capacitor is of first-class quality. Its capacity error is less than 3%, its inductance is less than 50nh, and its harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 0.001%. It is very suitable for inter-stage coupling capacitor, it can also be used in parallel at both ends of the electrolytic capacitor for power supply decoupling, which can effectively suppress high-frequency interference caused by power grids. However, although the mkp capacitor has excellent performance, it is not a "omnipotent weapon" of the audio circuit. For example, the mkp capacitor should not be used in the output filter of the D/A converter, this is because its ultra-high frequency performance is not very good. If it is used, it can only be used in D/A, which is twice as low. The advanced D/A converter is better than mks, but the critical weakness of this type of capacitor is poor heat resistance, and the welding period has a good grasp of time.
The electrolytic capacitor is not suitable for audio coupling, but for some special electrolytic capacitors such as Blackgate and elna
Audio and silmic cards are also discussed. The performance of these capacitors is very good, especially for elna.
Silmic capacitor. The author has performed experiments on his lm3886 power amplifier, when using two elna silmic
Replace 22 μF/25 V with the rubycon (red-colored) Blackgate at the lm3886 input end.
22 μF/25 V. When the system starts to play the audio, it is obvious that the tone has changed. It is quite a bit of a bold color. The high and mid-tone sound are no longer ears-hunting, and there are a lot of potential low frequencies. Surprise, watch it carefully. The capacitor looks brown and is printed with elna
Silmic gold, large in size, the wiring pin is oxygen-free copper material, the dielectric loss angle Tg
& Very low (only 0.07), which is almost the same as the mkp capacitor trump card Solen. It is no wonder that it has such a good performance. Due to the poor high-frequency characteristics of electrolytic capacitors, we can also bind a thin film capacitor at both ends of the special electrolytic capacitor for audio, but its capacity should not be less than 1/3 of the electrolytic capacitor capacity, the mkp and MKT capacitors are preferred. Ta electrolytic capacitor is a dark horse that has emerged in recent years. Compared with aluminum electrolytic capacitors, it has low leakage, high voltage, good temperature characteristics, and small size. It has been widely used by enthusiasts to replace aluminum electrolytic capacitors, however, the results are not ideal, the performance of medium and high frequencies is soft and weak, and there is a lack of a clear analytical force and penetrating power. The Sound Image Positioning is not ideal, and its capacity cannot be very large and the price is relatively high, harmonic distortion (0.7% ~ 0.9%) compared with aluminum electrolysis capacitors (0.011% ~ 0.025%) larger.
I believe that enthusiasts have heard of fever supplements and capacitors! But do you know what the characteristics and sound quality of various capacitors have? This article will introduce this issue to the majority of enthusiasts:
Japan ellna supplements capacitor: superior materials, pin using oxygen-free copper, thick wire aluminum foil using ceramic particles process, the appearance of the point of volume, the most prominent performance is the loss angle TG Delta is particularly low.
Elna supplements include cerafine, duorex, Longlife, silmic, and for audio.
Cerafine (red robe) and duorex (purple robe) sound quality performance: Sound transparency, speed are moderate;
The sound quality of for audio is as sweet as that of a young girl;
Longlife and silmic sound quality: fast and powerful, suitable for modern music.
In addition, elna has a blue robe with moderate sound quality.
Black Gate F (Black Gate F): it has a mellow tone and is helpful for increasing the Music Performance of equipment. It is suitable for coupling.
Panasonic gold supplements capacitor: Tone balancing, the most outstanding performance is the loss angle TG at Hz and 1 kHz almost the same.
Ruby (rubycon) capacitor: used for high-low coupling, better frequency response, mainly used in power supply decoupling, Ruby capacitor is the most widely used brand in Chinese power amplifier.
Japan Sanyo OS-con capacitor: This capacitor electrolyte is solid, its withstand voltage is not high, the advantages of OS-con capacitor is high-frequency performance, long life, it is incomparable to a common capacitor. Sound Quality: Sweet and natural.
Ta capacitor: Low streaming power and good stability, but it is not suitable for coupling due to its high-frequency softness and weakness, lack of penetrating power, and thus cooperative coupling. It is better to perform decoupling.
German WIMA capacitor: It features fast speed, low loss, natural balance of sound quality, and cold tone. It is suitable for a variety of listening requirements. WIMA has many capacitor varieties, preferably black box, followed by mkp and mks. Currently, most of the products on the market are split machines, and the price is not expensive. The other is the German Oracle capacitor, which features similar to WIMA.
France Solen capacitor: Strong noisy and noisy. Too hot equipment is suitable for Solen tonic, the most outstanding performance is the loss angle TG Delta is particularly low, worthy of being the world's trump card Polypropylene Capacitor!
Rifa (Australia and Sweden) capacitor: This capacitor is the most suitable for incoming divider and has a strong penetration strength at high frequencies.
Dutch Thomson mkp capacitor: natural balance of sound quality, rich in medium and high frequencies. Similar to the WIMA capacitor.
Noisy metal sensing CBB capacitor: natural balance of sound quality performance is slightly lower than that of the Dutch Thomson mkp Capacitor
Audio circuits usually include capacitors such as filtering, coupling, bypass, and frequency division. How to effectively select different types of capacitors in the circuit has a great impact on the improvement of audio quality.
The capacity of the coupling capacitor is generally between 0.1 μF-10 μF. In order to use mica, polypropylene, ceramics and other capacitor with low loss, the sound quality is better. The main brands include:
1. German WIMA capacitor: It features fast speed, low loss, natural balance of sound quality performance, cold tone, and is suitable for a variety of listening requirements. WIMA has many capacitor varieties, preferably black box, followed by mkp and mks. Currently, most of the products on the market are split machines, and the price is not expensive. The other is the German Oracle capacitor, which features similar to WIMA.
2. French Solen capacitor: Strong noisy and noisy. Too hot equipment is suitable for Solen tonic, the most outstanding performance is the loss angle TG Delta is particularly low, worthy of being the world's trump card Polypropylene Capacitor!
3. Rifa (Australia and Sweden) capacitor: This capacitor is the most suitable for incoming divider and has a strong penetration force at high frequencies.
4. Dutch Thomson mkp capacitor: the sound quality is naturally balanced, with a wide range of medium and high frequencies. Similar to the WIMA capacitor.
Front amplifier, divider, etc.
The capacitance used on the front amplifier, Audio Controller, and electronic divider is between 100pf-0.1 μF. Mica and styrene capacitors are recommended.
The speaker frequency-division LC network generally uses a capacitor with a large capacity between 1 μF and 10 μF. Currently, the mkp, mkt, and CBB capacitors are used in high-end frequency divider. The capacitor used by LC network has a large capacity and should be metallic plastic film or non-polar electrolytic capacitor. The inorganic electrolytic capacitor can obtain excellent sound quality if non-etching is used.
The electrolytic capacitor must be used after rectification because the capacity of the capacitor used for filtering is large. When the filter capacitor is used for the front amplifier, the capacity is about 1000 μF. When used for the power amplifier, the value should be more than 10000 μF.
When the power filter circuit is directly supplied to the amplifier, the larger the capacity, the better the sound quality. However, a large capacity capacitor will increase the impedance from around 10 kHz. At this time, several small capacitors should be used in parallel to a large capacitor, and several thin film capacitors should be used in parallel as high-frequency compensation to suppress the rise of High-Frequency Impedance next to the large capacitor.