Digital Camera Professional terminology solutions

Source: Internet
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Digital cameras are getting closer, and people are starting to learn more about digital cameras. Believe that every user has this feeling, buy digital camera, the face of the propaganda material on that many of the professional terminology, not much is their own understanding, and more time to listen to the sales staff of the explanation, sales staff said which is good! Moreover, a lot of users are not special research on photography, so it is more necessary to let everyone know about the camera of some of the professional terminology, in the purchase of digital cameras, let themselves do a clear consumer, choose their favorite products!

Basic knowledge:
Effective pixel number: The image sensor receives an incident light through an optical lens, and the effective pixel number is the number of pixels on the image sensor, which is directly reflected in the final output data of the still image.
Interpolation (interpolation) is a method of increasing the pixel size of an image without generating pixels, using mathematical formulas to calculate the color of lost pixels on the basis of the surrounding pixel color. Some cameras use interpolation to artificially increase the resolution system of an image.

Sensitivity (ISO): The popular point is to measure how much light a film needs to achieve accurate exposure. The sensitivity is generally expressed in ISO values. This increases the sensitivity of the film to light so that it can be photographed in different light levels. Digital camera manufacturers in order to facilitate the understanding of digital camera users, the digital camera is generally the speed of the CCD (or the sensitivity of the light) equivalent conversion to the speed value of traditional film.

White balance: The color is essentially the interpretation of the light, in the normal light looks white color in the dark light may not look like white, and fluorescent lights under the "white" is also "non-white." The white balance is a technique that defines "white" as "white" regardless of ambient light.

Digital zoom: Through the program of the body and the combination of optical system, we can be the subject of the local amplification, in order to interpolate the way to simulate the effect of optical zoom. It works similar to the way we zoom in on a certain part of the image in the computer, and the difference is that "digital zoom" is done directly on the CCD during the shooting process. To be precise, "digital zoom" is only a cropping tool, because it can cut off part of the image-this part is outside the field of view when using a long focal length lens, and only a selected local area is stored.

Optical zoom: For digital cameras, the "optical zoom" does not change the size or resolution of the image, the number of pixels used to describe the image remains the same, which is the fundamental difference between "optical zoom" and "digital zoom", reflected in the image, that the image quality will be different.

Exposure compensation: Just after the camera metering, can be adjusted for different series, in order to achieve the image and the actual light approximation, this is the exposure compensation.

Manual exposure: The combination of aperture and shutter is freely controlled, and the shutter speed display in the viewfinder provides an adjustable aperture or shutter for correct exposure. Special effects can be created by intentionally increasing or decreasing exposure if needed.

Lens focal length: refers to the distance between the lens and the focal point of a parallel light passing through the lens. Basically, if the subject's position is not changed, the focal length of the lens and the magnification of the object will be proportional to the relationship.

Aperture: The number of aperture at all levels is called the aperture coefficient, in f/, it is the inverse of the relative aperture such as 1:3,5, the aperture coefficient of f/3.5 or 3.5, the smaller aperture diameter, the less the amount of light, each difference one level, its number 2 square root, such as: 1, L.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11 , 22 ... People often say the aperture coefficient is the aperture.

Ttl:through the Lens (via Lens) is a single-lens reflective viewfinder.

AF Auto Focus AF: There are two ways of autofocus, which are divided into active and passive according to the principle of control. Active AF emits a ray (usually infra-red) through the camera, determines the distance of the subject according to the reflected Ray signal, and adjusts the lens automatically to achieve autofocus. Passive focus has a little bionic taste, is to analyze the object's imaging judgment has been focused, more accurate, but the technology is complex, high cost, and in low illumination conditions difficult to accurately focus, more for high-end professional cameras. Some high-smart cameras can also lock the motion of the subject or even the eye-controlled focus.

AE (auto Expose) Auto Exposure: Auto Exposure is the camera automatically determines the amount of exposure based on light conditions. The basic metering principle can be divided into two types: The incident type and the reflective type. The incident type is the measurement of the brightness of the light shining on the camera to determine the exposure combination. Reflection is an ideal way to measure the actual brightness of the subject, that is, the brightness of the image to determine the exposure combination. From metering metering mode, can be divided into spot automatic exposure, central automatic exposure, multi-point balance, such as automatic exposure, each has advantages and disadvantages, respectively, to adapt to different lighting conditions or shooting purposes. From the control process, can be divided into aperture priority, shutter priority, mixing priority, program control, the predetermined mode of several.

Aperture priority: is to determine the use of the aperture, and then the camera based on the calculated exposure to determine the appropriate shutter speed, this method is suitable for the need for a predetermined depth of field or with the flash to set the light ratio of the occasion;

Speed first: The first is to determine the shutter speed, so that the camera select the appropriate aperture size, suitable for the shooting body, mixing priority is to compensate for the single priority of the lack of first determine the aperture or shutter range, and then the camera to determine the exposure combination.

Program control: is to let the camera according to pre-programmed controls exposure.

Scheduled mode: is the manufacturer according to several common light conditions, preset a more reasonable exposure parameters for shooting when selected.

AWB: (Automatic white Balance) automatic color adjustment, according to the location of the light source, automatically sensing to adjust the color temperature function.

Color temperature: Refers to the different types of light source caused by the color of the film difference.

Proprietary Technology Section:
Isaps Technology: (Chinese name: Intelligent scene analysis based on photographic space) is Canon's unique technology, the use of statistical analysis technology to improve the performance of af,ae and AWB. By analyzing the frequency and parameters of the user's photo shoot, Canon can get the relevant focal length, focus distance, scene brightness and other factors set. Relying on the statistical frequency of different combinations and advanced predictive algorithms in various situations, Canon digital cameras are able to optimize the af/ae/aeb aspect of any scene more accurately, quickly and efficiently. (Canon proprietary technology)

Broadband digital technology: Make full use of memory card space to maximize the recording of active images and sound. (Olympus Proprietary Technology)

Multi-point Smart autofocus: (multi-point aiaf) wide-area autofocus automatically selects one or more focus points in the viewfinder object. The linkage with Isaps technology enables faster, more accurate autofocus in a variety of shooting environments. (Canon proprietary technology)

Flexizone af/ae:flexizone af/ae function, the photographer can freely move the focus within the viewfinder range, and the subject does not need to re-compose when it is not in the center of the screen. When spot metering is selected, the user can select the focus in the viewfinder, thus adapting to the complex lighting environment to a greater degree. (Canon proprietary technology)

Digital ESP Metering system: Choose the right exposure mode in different environments (even under very harsh conditions). This ensures accurate exposure results in case of backlighting or high contrast. (Olympus Proprietary Technology)

Spot metering system: metering at up to 8 points on the same screen to read specific areas of the photo to achieve the desired precise effect and to use exposure locking.

Central weighted average metering: Based on the average metering, in the picture Center or near the screen according to different weighting coefficients to calculate, with the center of the maximum weight, the more the edge of the picture, the smaller the weighting. The final value is the metering value.

Storage Media section:
CF card: CF card was first launched by SanDisk Corporation in 1994. This storage medium uses Flash technology to permanently store information without the need for power. It is fast, lightweight, and has only the size of a match box.

XD Card: (eXtreme Digital, Speed card), is jointly developed and held by Olympus, Fuji and Toshiba company. Olympus and Fuji saw SM card has not been in keeping with the trend and technology, so teamed up with the more slender, technologically more advanced XD card.

MMC card: Is the Multimediacard―― multimedia card, which is a multi-function memory card developed by American SanDisk Company and German Siemens company, can be used for carrying telephone, digital camera, digital camera, MP3 and other digital products. It has a small light weight and is resistant to impact, and can be read and written repeatedly 300,000 times.

SD card: Is the Secure Digital card―― security card, is developed by the Japanese Panasonic company, Toshiba Company and the United States SanDisk Company, with large capacity, high performance, especially security and many other features of multi-function memory card. It is more than the MMC card a data copyright protection of the password Authentication function (SDMI specifications). is used for MP3, digital cameras, e-books, micro-computer, AV equipment, read and write faster than the MMC card to 4 times times faster, up to 2mb/seconds. It is also compatible with the MMC card, and the SD card sockets mostly support the MMC card.

Sony Memory Stick (Memory Stick): Sony Memory Stick is a digital storage medium that Sony developed in July 1997 with Casio, Fujitsu, Olympus, Sanyo and Sharp, an ultra-small volume (chewing gum size) integrated circuit.

Image Save Format:
EXIF format: (exchangeable image File― is an abbreviation for interchangeable graphics files), this format is specifically set for digital camera photos. This format allows you to record the attribute information of a digital photo.

Exif2.2: is a new and improved digital camera file format that contains the various shooting information necessary to achieve optimal printing.

DPOF (digital Print order format) format: is a standard printing order data format, when consumers want to the digital camera image, by the personal printing camera, printer printing or to the Professional printing output service center output photos, Automatically pass the ordered requirements of the record to the output device output.

DCF format: is a unified recording format for digital cameras. For the purpose of facilitating the use of portrait files between related devices, the design Rule of the Camera file system in the Japan Electronics Industry Revitalization Association (JEIDA) specification is abbreviated.

RAW format: A direct reading of the original data on the sensor (CCD or CMOS), which means that the data has not been processed by exposure compensation, color balance, gamma calibration, etc. Plainly speaking is the image without any human factors, without compression. As a result, professional photographers can use specialized software such as Photoshop to perform exposure compensation, color balance, gamma adjustment, etc. in the post.

TIFF: is the abbreviation for tagged Image File Format. It is different from other bit map file files that can record preview images and bulk content information. Because its package can ignore the unreadable information, it can be said that its file format is not dependent on the platform.

10 Tips for Beginners in photography

First, keep the camera stable
Just learn to film friends often encounter the picture of the blurred problem, which is caused by the camera shaking, so in the shooting to avoid the camera shake. The general left hand holding machine, the elbow against the chest, or let the body against a stable object. Use a telephoto lens and be sure to add a tripod. Press the shutter to be stable and gentle, the whole person to relax, adjust the breathing, breath of condensate to shoot. Low-angle shooting can be used in sitting or single-knee kneeling posture to enhance the stability of the machine.

Second, make the sun behind you
Photography is the perfect combination of light and shadow, with enough light to illuminate the subject during shooting. The simplest way is to put the sun behind you and have a certain offset. Light can illuminate the subject, make its color and shadow brighter, and a slight offset can produce some shadows to show the texture and three-dimensional sense of the object. However, it should be noted that when framing the general do not let their shadow into the picture.

Iii. selection of shooting styles
The camera's different lifting methods (vertical or horizontal), the image is not the same effect. Vertical photographs highlight the height of the subject (such as the forest), while the horizontal shot emphasizes the width of the subject (such as a continuous mountain range). But when shooting a pocket camera, be careful not to let your fingers obscure the flash.

Iv. Changing the shooting style
Should be in the shooting constantly try new shooting method or mood, otherwise see more will give a person a static feeling. Personal shooting with a lot of randomness, you can go to where to shoot where, as long as the picture is full of fun or meaningful, you can play at will. For example, you can take some character close-ups, panoramic images, the same scene in different climates and so on.

V. Reduction of shooting distance
Sometimes, the whole person or thing is not to be photographed, to the scene of a characteristic place to emphasize, but will be more powerful visual impact. Just a little closer to the subject, you can get better results than long distance shots.

Vi. enhancing the visual effect of depth of field
The depth of field is very important for shooting, and each photographer doesn't want to take a picture of himself without three-dimensional image, which looks like a plane. Therefore, in the shooting, it is necessary to increase the number of objects used to display relativity to increase the depth of field. For example, to shoot a distant mountain range, you can add characters or a tree to the foreground of the picture. Using a wide-angle lens can exaggerate the normal space of the subject and the longitudinal deep perspective relationship.

Seven, the right composition
The simplest way to highlight the subject in photographic composition is to place the subject in the center of the picture. Because the subject is in the center of the picture, the entire photo has a special stability. But always putting a subject in the middle is boring. A good picture is usually well-composed, and the more common part of photography is the Golden section composition, where the picture is divided into three parts (horizontal and vertical), and then the subject is placed on an equal line or intersection. So you can use the Golden Section to composition, so that the diversity of photography.

Eight, capture the details
A wide-angle lens can be used to capture larger scenes, but such a shot will give you a lot of detail, especially in meaningful detail. So sometimes you should use a zoom lens to make the screen smaller and to capture interesting little pictures.

Nine, pre-focus shooting characters
When shooting a character, you can wait and adjust the exposure and focal length after determining the position and angle of the shot. Strive to shoot in a short period of time, reduce the tension of the subject, get the expression of natural photos. In the changeable weather, the light is also changing, so it is necessary to take more film, so that there are enough images for the final selection.

Ten, play the best effect of the lens
For general cameras, the best aperture on the shooting technique is 5.6-8, which dials the maximum aperture to 2-3 in the direction of the small ring. Keep the camera stable, grasp the correct way of holding the machine and body posture, choose a higher shutter speed, such as 135 camera 100 mm lens, preferably with 1/125 seconds speed. If you have to shoot at a slower shutter speed, you should use a tripod to keep the camera stable and ensure a clear picture. Lens filters of different colors can produce clear tonal differences between certain colors of a scene. UV filters protect the lens from rain and fog, while minimizing the effects of ultraviolet rays in coastal areas and mountains.

Teach you how to choose a digital video camera

Teach you how to choose a digital video camera
Author: Shangqing
Although there are many digital camera brands and models on the market, they all have a lot in common. Most models have a color viewfinder, the color LCD display for previewing or playing an image has image stability control, special effects processing (fading, sliding, fading, etc.), automatic white balance function and 10 times or higher optical zoom, and similar to the static image shooting function of digital camera, etc. However, because of the digital camera grade and manufacturers of different, when you choose to pay attention to the following aspects: Single CCD or 3CCD high-end video recorder, whether it is a simulator or digital machines are 3-piece CCD (Image decoder). 3CCD machine species resolution is high, color reproduction lifelike, but the optical structure is complex, the circuit structure is simple, maintenance convenience, the failure rate is low, but the price is relatively expensive. The single CCD focal length filter is just the opposite, the actual clarity is relatively poor. But now the home camera single-chip CCD can reach about 400 lines of clarity, home is enough, can be said to be cheap.    LCD screen framing and electronic framing    LCD screen viewfinder area is large, can be rotated in a wide range of angles, some can rotate 360 degrees, easy to view. In addition, the display can be used as an AV display, additional TV tuner can become a small LCD color TV, travel is quite useful. The disadvantage is that it is too weak to display in strong light and consumes a lot of power and is expensive. More practical or electronic viewfinder, the price is cheaper, power-saving, and can be used in any environment. Although the picture angle and color effect in the viewfinder are not exactly the same as the final result, it will soon be adapted after a period of time.    Focus and white balance    autofocus is a common function of the camera, but this kind of focus generally focus on the central position, the camera is not in the center of the main body, there is nothing to do. In addition, the autofocus function is limited when tracking and shooting, so you can use manual focus instead.    white balance is the camera in different situations on the scene color real ability to restore a target, the current digital cameras are equipped with automatic white balance function. But without the manual white balance function, your camera is just like a camera and can only be called a "fool's machine", so you can't get the best color reproduction and special effects. For example: you want to take the night sky into a gloomy atmosphere, if your camera only the automatic white balance function, the picture you shot will become nondescript.    Optical zoom and digital zoom    Optical zoom is based on the optical lens structure to achieve the zoom, in order to maximize the use of CCD pixels, so that the image taken as clear and natural. Good camera manufacturers use high-quality optical lenses, such as Sony in the latest digital cameras and digital cameras are equipped withIn the world is now known as the optical best Zeiss lens. In addition, the maximum aperture of the lens can not be ignored when purchasing, because in the current home digital camera, the large aperture means to be able to shoot in the case of low illumination.    digital zoom is actually a picture amplification, the original CCD part of the image to enlarge to the entire picture, to copy the adjacent pixel points of the method to fill in an intermediate value, visually gives a picture has been brought closer to the illusion. In fact, the use of digital zoom to shoot the picture quality rough, blurred image, and there is little practical value.    still image storage and video output    current digital cameras have a still image shooting function, it is best to choose a digital video camera that can use the memory card when choosing.    digital cameras using I. The link digital input/output (IEEE1394 standard) allows the image to be entered directly into the computer. In order to make it easy for users to play the image directly in the home TV, the digital video cameras sold on the market now basically have an analog output interface, so you can enjoy the image you have taken by simply connecting the analog video and audio output terminals to the corresponding input interface of the TV. It should be noted, however, that some digital cameras do not have an analog AV output terminal themselves, and a conversion adapter is required to convert the digital signal from the camera into an analog signal input into the TV.    volume and battery lithium battery and Ni-MH battery This compact, rechargeable, non-rechargeable memory of the new battery has been widely used, in the purchase should choose to use the two batteries of the camera.

Professional terminology for digital cameras

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