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Write some personal understandings after reading the Project Management Knowledge System guide. I have no project development experience, but I am a senior student who has learned PHP programming for a year. But after reading this book, I also have some project management understanding (I just talk about it on paper for 650) this. width = 650; "src =" http://img.baidu.com/hi/jx2/j_0058.gif "alt =" j_0058.gif "/> ).
This book is mainly about how to set standards for project management.
In short, a standard is an official document describing established specifications, methods, processes, and practices. During the entire project management process, the standards have been developed and implemented step by step. So much, what is the project? What is Project Management? In fact, projects are temporary work to create products or services. Project management is to apply various knowledge, technologies and tools to the whole process of the project to meet the requirements of the project, so that the project can be completed smoothly.
During the entire project process, you can divide the process into five steps.
So why does the project start? It is written in the book as follows: "projects are often used as a means to implement organizational strategic plans, starting projects out of the following strategic considerations, such as market needs, strategic technical or business needs, and customer needs, technical progress and legal requirements." After reading this article, I understand that most of the reasons for project startup are due to requirements, whether it is market or business needs.
WhereStartIt consists of the following steps:Develop Project Charter ---> identify all stakeholders
Formulate project rules: This document mainly refers to the preparation of a document for formal approval of the project or stage, and records initial requirements and processes that reflect stakeholder needs and expectations. In fact, it is through the customer's requirements, contracts, market conditions and other factors, to develop the project charter, which should include recording business needs, understanding of customer needs, the purpose of the project, success criteria, project description, major risks, progress plans, overall budget, delegated project managers, and power distribution.
Identify stakeholders: the stakeholders are actually affected by the project. This process is to understand them and record their interests, participation and influence on project success.
NextPlanningThis step should include the following steps:Develop a project management plan ---> collect requirements ---> define scope ---> task breakdown ---> define activity ---> arrange activity sequence ---> estimate activity resources ---> estimate Activity Duration-> Develop schedule ---> estimate costs ---> Budget Making ---> planning Quality ---> Develop human resource management ---> planning Risk Management ---> identify risks ---> implement qualitative risk analysis ---> implement quantitative risks analysis ---> planning risk response ---> planning procurement
Develop a project management plan: According to the Project Charter established in the previous step, developing a project management plan is the main purpose of this process. The Project Management Plan mainly describes how to implement the project's lifecycle and stages, How to Implement the work to achieve the project goal, and how to respond to changes using a change management plan, A configuration management plan is used to determine how to carry out configuration management. Once a project management plan is determined, it will become a benchmark for the project and can be changed only after a change is proposed and approved.
Collection requirements: The requirements are divided into project requirements (including commercial requirements, project management requirements, delivery requirements) and commercial requirements (technical requirements, security requirements, performance requirements ). The process of collecting requirements mainly determines the characteristics and functions of final deliverables through communication with customers (including meetings, conversations, surveys, etc. I think before remanufacturing a product, it is best to make a practical model of the product. For example, in software development, we should first develop a prototype of a part of the user interface, and then use it to solicit customer feedback, the requirement information is updated in real time, that is, the original method is used to make the customer more intuitive and clear about the final result, and the customer's deeper needs can be better explored and the demand changes can be reduced.
Scope of definition: We should mainly define how a project can be called success, and analyze the constraints on project success. It is best to write the project scope statement in the customer's language. The project scope description includes a detailed description of the deliverables of the project, specifying which work is not within the scope of the project, and providing a benchmark for evaluating whether the change request or additional work exceeds the project boundary. The project scope manual enables the team to carry out more detailed planning and guide the work of the project team during implementation. The signing of the Project Scope statement indicates that both parties reach a consensus on the scope of the project.
Task breakdown: splits the deliverables and work of a project into smaller and easier-to-manage components. Of course, the 80-hour principle should not be followed, that is, it is impossible to divide the work into 80 hours.
Define activity: the bottom layer of Project decomposition is called activity, which is the work that must be carried out to complete the task. Define activity to define what tasks should be done by project team members.
Sort activity sequence: Determine the dependency first. For example, when a house on vacation is on vacation, construction on the foundation can only be performed after the foundation is completed. Therefore, in the project planning, we need to identify the dependencies that must be completed first, which can be waited for, and add the time prefix and lag.
Estimated activity resources: estimate the types and quantity of materials, personnel, equipment and supplies required for each activity. Develop activity resource requirements, which should include the Estimation Basis for each type of resource, estimated resource availability, and the required quantity.
Estimated Activity Duration: based on the estimated resource results, the time required to complete each individual activity, including the most likely time TM and the most optimistic time to, were estimated using methods such as reference of similar projects in the past, the most pessimistic time tp, and then calculate the relatively more accurate duration through weighted average TE = (to + t4tm + TP)/6.
Develop a schedule: analyze the activity sequence, duration, resource requirements and schedule constraints, and then prepare a project schedule to determine the plan start date and completion date of the project, after development and approval, the project performance should be follow as a benchmark, and the progress plan should be continuously revised throughout the project to determine that the progress is always feasible.
Estimate costs: estimate the funds required to complete the project activities based on known information, such as all resources charged by the project (including labor, materials, equipment, services, facilities, and other types ), to make cost predictions, you can also calculate the results by estimating the most likely cost, the most optimistic cost, and the most pessimistic cost. Of course, this is only one method, there are many other methods you can find in the book.
Budget preparation: Determine the available funds for the project based on estimated costs, that is, the project funding requirements.
Planning quality: first set standards, that is, project quality standards and product quality standards. A written description of how the project meets these requirements and standards, based on the Scope statement and the previously established benchmarks, such as cost benchmarks and progress benchmarks. The main requirement is to reduce rework, improve efficiency, and reduce costs.
Develop human resource plans: the project manager is responsible for this. It is necessary to identify and record the responsibilities and skills of each role in the project, and prepare the personnel management plan. What conditions should the project manager meet? ① Ability in specific application fields or skills and general management. ② Project management knowledge. ③ Practical ability. ④ Instruct the project team to achieve the project goal and balance the project's constraints. ⑤ Routine work should be completed, such as formulating the project charter and project management plan, guiding and managing project execution, monitoring project work, and implementing overall change control and closure. To return to the subject, the human resources plan should be completed in the process of human resources planning, including listing the roles, responsibilities, permissions, and skills and talents required by members of the project. Plan the components of the project team, team building and team management.
Planning risk management: a risk is an uncertain event. Once a risk occurs, at least one project goal will be affected. This is due to uncertainty in any project. The risk management plan needs to be completed at this stage. He should describe how to arrange and implement project risk management. Estimate the funds required for risk management, include them in cost estimates, and establish emergency filing. Determine the time probability and impact of risks during the project lifecycle.
Risk identification: it is a repetitive process to determine which risks will affect the project and recorder features, because new risks may occur at any time as the project develops. Through assumptions and analysis, a list of identified risks and potential countermeasures are developed.
Implementation of qualitative risk analysis: evaluates and comprehensively analyzes the probability and impact of risks. In short, the risk is prioritized to provide a foundation for subsequent analysis or action. Therefore, the risk priority standards should be defined first to avoid unnecessary ambiguity during the evaluation. In this process, a list of recent risks and a list of risks that need further analysis and response are developed.
Carry out quantitative risk analysis: conduct quantitative and regular analysis on the impact of identified risks on the overall project objectives. The analysis object is a method that is considered to have a competitive demand for the project in the qualitative risk analysis process. Through repeated analysis, we can understand the trend of Risk Development and reveal the necessity of risk management measures.
Plan risk response: develop plans and measures to improve opportunities and reduce threats for the project objectives. Measures should be formulated based on the priority of risks, and the resources and activities required for risk response should be added to the project budget and schedule in the project management plan. The proposed risk response measures should meet the following conditions: ① they must match the importance of risks. ② Meeting challenges economically and effectively. ③ It is feasible in the context of the current project. ④ Obtain the consent of all relevant parties, and a person in charge is responsible for this. ⑤ Timely.
Planning procurement: records the project procurement decisions and clarifies the procurement methods. In short, it is to identify which needs are best or must be achieved by external procurement of products or services, and which project requirements can be fulfilled by the project team. Formulate relevant documents or rules.
Next isRunThis step mainly includes the following steps:Instruct and manage project execution ---> Implement Quality Assurance --> component project team ---> build project team ---> Manage Project Team ---> Publish messages to stakeholders ---> Manage stakeholder expectations ---> implement procurement
NextMonitoringThis step mainly includes the following steps:Monitoring Project ---> Reviewing all change requests ---> controlling progress ---> controlling costs ---> Controlling Quality ---> reporting performance ---> Monitoring risks ---> managing procurement
A monitoring project is a performance report based on the project management plan and used to describe various activities, completed work, and identify problems, to make changes and defect remediation, and continuously update the project management plan, such as the Progress Management Plan and cost estimation, and update the problem log.
FinallyEndingThis step mainly includes the following steps:End Project---> End procurement
The project manager needs to review the closing information of previous phases to ensure that all project work has been completed, ensure that the project objectives have been fulfilled, accept deliverables, and then hand over the final products produced by the customer's project.
This article is from the "xxlixin" blog, please be sure to keep this source http://xxlixin1993.blog.51cto.com/9498220/1571870
Project management after reading
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